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March 22-April 8, 1996

by Thomas Fiore, Eric & Lorna Salzman, Peter Shen

Friday, March 22, 1996

Flight from Newark to Mexico City; arrived 10:30 pm. The "24-hour" National Car Rental Office at the airport shut tight. Overnight in Hotel Riazar, a 15-20' taxi ride from the airport.

Saturday, March 23

After some delays and problems with the car rental, we leave for Oaxaca via toll roads (convenient but expensive: $25 for 450 km). On a very deserted desert/mountain stretch of highway on Route 190 south to Oaxaca, the car overheats; there is no water in the radiator. We add water and antifreeze and try not to push too hard up the many inclines, but the car continues to overheat and lose water. Fortunately, there are call boxes nearby and the highway patrol comes to the rescue with water and a wrench to fix a loose clamp on a radiator hose pipe which has apparently been leaking water for some time. Curiously enough, in the midafternoon heat in this dry, searing, multi-cactus, desert-like environment, there are many birds. While waiting for the engine to cool off or the road patrol to arrive, we find Russet-crowned Motmot, Grey-breasted Woodpeckers, Rock Wren and other specialists of this semi-desert habitat.

Due to these problems, we arrive in Oaxaca too late to do any further birding. We stay in the Motel Columbia, one of the "love motels" on Route 175 just north of town, on the way to Garbage Gulch and La Cumbre (Cerro S Filipe) and not far from the junction with Rt 190 (which leads to other local birding sites such as Teotitlan and Yagul).

Sunday, March 24

Good morning birding at the so-called "Garbage Gulch" which is north on Route 175 between km markers 206 and 207 (both endemic sparrows, Pileated Flycatcher, etc.). Afterwards we drive up to La Cumbre at km 192 and take the western (left-hand) dirt road onto the Cerro San Filipe ridge. The local guardians are now extracting 50 pesos per visit and make everyone sign in (hopefully helping to control the woodcutting that is endemic in this area). We follow this dirt road c. 9 or 10 kilometers before turning back. Birding here remained quite good well into the afternoon and included a flock of the Dwarf Jays with Gray-barred Wrens at c. 3 pm. An evening stop at "Garbage Gulch" on the way down was less productive.

Comet Hyakutake is visible from the courtyard of the motel as a fuzzball in the northwestern sky; it should be at or close to its peak of nearness and brightness.

Monday, March 25

This morning we venture south to Rt 190 and turn left, heading eastward to Teotitlan del Valle where we again turn left, go through the village, check out a reservoir beyond and then continue up the mountain, birding the desert-like scrub lower down and the pine forest edge higher up. This was very productive in its lower reaches, notably for Dwarf Vireo but also for Lesser Roadrunner, Boucard's Wren, Blue Mockingbird, Blue-hooded Euphonia and desert-type hummers (plus a few waterbirds at the reservoir).

Late morning and midday in the desert scrub at Yagul (Gray-breasted Woodpecker, Boucard's Wren, hummers; also nesting Ravens and an unexpected and out of range Pyrrhuloxia). Late afternoon, back up to La Cumbre and a less productive visit to the eastern (right-hand) dirt road. No one was present to collect 50 pesos but, on the other hand, we didn't see very many birds.

Tuesday, March 26

A frustrating morning at Monte Alban trying to raise up the Slaty Vireo which responds to the tape but refuses to come in. A singing thrasher proves to be Curve-billed not Ocellated (this will happen to us again). Other birds include the Blue Mockingbird, a Pileated Flycatcher with its crest down and several hummers.

Most of the rest of the day is spent driving to Puerto Angel with birding stops in pine-oak and cloud forest in the Sierra de Miahuatlan. The Blue-capped Hummer is at La Soledad exactly where Steve Howell said it should be (this is the area of the type specimen of this Red Data Book bird)! The spot -- a trail on the eastern side of the road just before the village of La Soledad -- was surprisingly birdy in the mid-afternoon. Arrival at Puerto Angel after dark. Stayed in the Huespedes Capy.

Wednesday, March 27

Good morning birding in a stream bed track which penetrates quite deeply into the thorn forest near Puerto Angel. This track begins as an obvious dirt road exactly at the end of the village of Zipolite, a kilometer or two beyond Puerto Angel (there is a sign facing the other way that says Zipolite (not Playa Zipolite) and a bridge also marks the spot which is opposite a nursery school that looks like a coconut plantation). The lower reaches of this stream bed/trail are populated with homesteads and there are several side paths leading in and around areas of the stream bed that are presumably wet some part of the year; but eventually all the side paths seem to come back to the stream bed itself which is periodically covered with big jumbles of boulders and rocks and contained a few remaining pools of water.

Torrents must come rushing down this ravine from time to time and I would be wary during rainy season or if there were a cloud burst. Although unpromising looking, this proved to be one of the birdiest areas we found and it was birdy almost all the way, from early morning to midday, with active leks of Citreoline Trogons, Golden-cheeked Woodpecker, Orange-breasted Bunting and many other birds. On our return, in the heat of the day, a wait by the rocks and pools proved very productive as birds came in to drink and bathe.

We spent the extremely hot afternoon in one of the many beach palapas in the next village after Zipolite, imbibing cold drinks, eating octopus ceviche and watching leaping, cavorting Humpback Whales with a few, mostly distant, sea birds for variety.

A return to the ravine at dusk produced one delayed bit of excitement: an improbable tinamou call that was later diagnosed (via tape) as a Pheasant Cuckoo, the closest we were to come to this fabled creature.

Thursday, March 28

Morning back up in the Sierra de Miahuatlan at the Pluma Hidalgo Road (km marker 196; very active: Gray-crowned Woodpecker, Emerald Toucanets, flocks of migrant warblers, buntings and grosbeaks) and, afterwards, at La Soledad. Afternoon drive south on Route 200 to Tehuantepec with roadside stops at a coastal pond and lagoon where we find birds and birders (2 American women who, with a Brit at Palenque, were the only other birders encountered on the trip). Stayed in Tehuantepec at the Hotel Oasis.

Friday, March 29

Early morning we backtrack 8 kilometers on Route 190 toward Oaxaca in thorn scrub for Sumichrast's Sparrow and a few other birds of this semi-desert habitat (West Mexican Chachalacas, desert-type hummers including the endemic Doubleday's, a Howell & Webb split). In addition to the birds, we also see two Tayras, a large Mexican weasel active in the daytime.

Midday drive east to La Ventosa on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec where we find the road is blocked or blockaded, apparently by a political action. We backtrack to Juchitan and head north toward Ixtepec just short of which we find an interesting bypass, a dirt road that follows a canal and offers some good birding (including Crane Hawk and easier Sumichrast's Sparrows than the Route 190 site). Eventually both road and canal intersect with Route 185 which cuts across the Isthmus. We take this north some 24 kilometers past Matias Romero and then proceed northeast for 40 kilometers on a dirt road to an area of limestone cliffs, reputed to be the only drive-up site for Nava's Wren.

There is a bridge crossing a beautiful river lined with limestone cliffs and, before the bridge, some patches of good Atlantic-slope rainforest; one accessible patch is less than 1 kilometer before the bridge on the northwest side of the road. Unfortunately, a local truck driver crossing the bridge stops to warn us that the area is very dangerous and, as can be imagined, this takes the edge off of our explorations of this very birdy forest. As it is now well into the afternoon and we are all concerned about the warning we have received, we reluctantly abandon the area without finding the wren and it takes us the rest of the remaining daylight to regain the highway where we find a decent roadside motel. (The Brit we met at Palenque told us that he climbed higher and further on the same limestone/forest trail and found the wren.)

Two footnotes to the Nava's Wren run. (1) We hear later that the danger here is not political but drug-running. (2) The detour was not entirely a loss since, in addition to rain forest birds at the Nava's Wren site, we also saw a Yellow-headed Parrot on the way in; this well-known species is also a Red Data Book bird because of excessive trapping for the pet trade!

Saturday, March 30

Coming back down the Isthmus at dawn on Route 185, we turn left at the eastern continuation of the aforementioned canal road for some good early birding (Crane Hawk again) and, 9 km further, join up with Rt 200 (the coastal road) via a sharp right turn at the closest approach to the highway (easily visible on the right). We bird the foothills of Tapanatepec in Chiapas at midday for Rosita's Bunting (which we find) and then drive to Arriaga and Puerto Arista where we bird the lagoon and mudflats at Boca del Cielo (with an astonishing Buff-breasted Sandpiper!) and the mangrove lagoon and adjacent fields on a dirt road just to the northwest of Puerto Arista. The fields here are full of large numbers of (preumably migrating) Scissor-tailed Flycatchers and Dickcissels. We have trouble finding decent, inexpensive rooms at Puerto Arista -- it is a popular spot for Mexican families on Holy Week holiday -- so we backtrack to Arriaga for the night.

Sunday, March 31

We return at first light to the junction of the Boca del Cielo road just north of Puerto Arista where we find duetting Giant Wrens almost immediately. We also bird the dirt road that skirts the mangrove lagoon to the west finding, among other things, Citreoline Trogon, Russet-crowned Motmot and Gray-crowned Yellowthroat. Afternoon to Mapastepec. After finding rooms in town at the Bosque Hotel, we try the road to Guadalupe Victoria (the usual starting point for camping trips on the El Triunfo volcano). The road is passable in our rental vehicle for only part of the way but, in spite of the heat, we find good birding along the stream that parallels the road (Pigmy Kingfisher, Turquoise-browed Motmot, hummers). Heading further south, we turn off to the town of Escuintla and thence to the village of El Triunfo from where we are able to walk up a distance into coffee plantation/cloud forest habitat.

Monday, April 1

Morning in the Mapastepec Microwave Valley. The road to the towers is completely denuded and holds nothing but the road in the ravine below is productive (White-bellied Chachalaca, Prevost's Ground-Sparrow). Drive to Arriaga in the late morning, birding the foothills on the way up to Tuxtla Gutierrez (again finding Rosita's Bunting). Sumidero Canyon in the afternoon is quiet except for a few interesting hummers. Arrival in San Cristobal after dark and overnight in the Hotel San Martin.

Tuesday, April 2

Good early morning birding in a ravine on the eastern edge of town (Yellowish Flycatcher, Black-capped Swallows, Rufous-collared Thrushes). Afterwards to the Ocosingo Road where, after a frustrating couple of hours combing the higher reaches of a pine forest, we find Pink-headed Warblers almost by the road (and at eye level in scrub openings, not in the pines at all). This locality can be reached as follows: 2 kilometers from the beginning of the Ocosingo Road there is an obvious track on the right going back (almost parallel to the road) into the pine forest; instead of taking this track, look for an open grassy area on the left and another track, not immediately visible from the road, heading up onto the same forested slope; this second track is marked by a succession of openings in the forest (where wood has been cut) grown up to scrub; it is in one of these openings, in the scrub (try the third patch or so) that the warbler is to be found.

We now head towards Palenque but after 30 kilometers or so, we find the road blocked, apparently by Zapatistas, and we are forced to turn around and return to San Cristobal. Since it is still relatively early, we bird the Pronatura Reserve just northwest of town. This is a remnant piece of cloud forest with a few birds on top but the best birding is by a little stream just back of the entrance (Blue-and-White Mockingbird, White-naped Brushfinch). Overnight in the Hotel Fra Bartolomeo de las Casas (the Hotel San Martin being full).

Wednesday, April 3

We decide to take the longer, more westerly route to Palenque, doing a bit of roadside birding on our way out. After missing the turn to Villahermosa and almost going back into Tuxtla, we find the right road, passing through an attractive forested mountain area before descending to the Caribbean lowlands and south to Palenque; the trip takes us a good 8 hours. Evening birding at the base of the ruins (Rufous-tailed Jacamar) and on a nearby stream (Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, probable Ridgway's Rough-winged Swallows). On our way back to Palenque village -- we are staying in La CaSEada just outside of the village -- we observe the eclipse of the moon.

Thursday, April 4

Although Palenque is not open to the public before 8 am, we manage to talk our way into the ruins area at first light (we have a letter in Spanish from Julio de la Torre, president of the Linnaean Society and that helps a lot) and we bird our way through the main area of ruins and up the forest trail that climbs the ravine by a stream behind the ruins. This steep path was very birdy (Mexican Antthrush, Scaly-throated Leaftosser, Green Shrike-Vireo; heard Greater and Slaty-breasted Tinamous). Evening on lower trail just below the ruins.

Friday, April 5

ES hears an owl before dawn just back of our cabin and manages to put a light on it, getting a somewhat shaky look (shaky because he is holding the light in one hand and the binoculars in the other). Without checking, he misidentifies this bird as a screech owl but it is, in fact, the Mottled Owl which is smaller than he remembers it.

Early morning on lower trail; less productive but Montezuma Oropendola, Bright-rumped Attila, Long-tailed Hermit, etc. Late morning on upper trail.

Afternoon drive to Tuxtepec through the humid Atlantic lowlands (Black-collared Hawk seen from car) takes us 6 hours. Night in Tuxtepec.

Saturday, April 6

Early morning on the forest slopes above the village of Valle Nacional. After a strong start (Rusty Sparrow, a pair of hunting Common Black Hawks), most of the rest of our time in this gorgeous, rich and flowery forest is socked in and relatively few birds are actually seen. Eventually we cross over to the dry side, out of the mist and drizzle. After a few modestly successful birding stops (we finally find Collared Towhees), we climb up again and cross our path at La Cumbre, descending to Garbage Gulch where, at the last possible moment, we pull in the heretofore elusive Slaty Vireo. Overnight in another of the Rt 175 love motels.

Sunday, April 7

A last return to the east road at La Cumbre/Cerro S Filipe and a much disputed woodcreeper. We drive almost 20 kilometers looking for a mythical logging camp, seeing the Dwarf Jays again and also several Collared Towhees which we missed on our earlier visits. This is the locality where Sibley found the Collared and Spotted Towhees in sympatry without any evidence of interbreeding -- i.e. behaving like good species -- and he had specifically asked us to look for them here (it would have been embarrassing not to have found them!). It was also interesting to note that the Collared Towhees were in the brush under pines while the Spotted were in an oak/deciduous or cloud forest type of habitat.

Afterwards, we return to the highway for the long 7-hour drive north and west toward Mexico City, spending the night in the Auto Motel Villa Tlalmanalco, another "love motel" in Tlalmanalco/Amecameca on the slopes of the twin volcanoes that guard the valley just outside the Mexican capital.

Monday, April 8

Our plan is to bird the Amecameca Road just below Popacatapetl but the fates are against us. In the morning, the car battery is completely dead. We get a jump start and get as far as a forest patch that is teeming with birds. This relatively brief stop produces perhaps 1/8 of the total number of species of the entire trip. An interesting feature of the bird life here are the Olive-backed Towhees, part of a long hybrid cline between the Collared and Spotted Towhees. So we have seen two extremes of the interaction between these two forms. Other birds of interest include Buff-breasted Flycatcher (an identifiable empid!) and the Cinnamon Flower-piecer. Along with the recently split Black-backed Oriole (seen at the motel while waiting for the battery charge), this makes three life birds for this abbreviated morning.

We are quite ready to push on up the hill for more birding but, alas, the battery is again dead and Pete (who has had the foresight to park facing downhill) has to roll down to the nearest town to get another jump start. At this point, early as it is, we have no real choice but to end our birding and head back to the airport. Our departure is at 6:40 in the evening with arrival at Newark at midnight.

The totals for the trip were high: we drove c. 3000 miles with a total group birdlist of 400+.

NOTE 1: Our experience with National Car Rental out of Mexico City was extremely bad. We were repeatedly told that their rental office was open 24 hours but, on our arrival, it was completely closed with a sign saying it would reopen at 7 am. We thus had to take a taxi to a hotel in the vicinity and return the following morning at 7 am. By 7:45 am, with the airport office still shut tight, we took a shuttle bus to the National lot where we were told that no cars were available of the type and in price range of our reservation. We were then offered something completely inadequate (no trunk, not big enough for four people and luggage).

Finally, in a classic bait and switch manoeuvre, we were offered a four-door with a trunk at a higher price level. After rejecting one with bald tires, we took a second one with slightly better tires. The car had only a quarter tank of gas and had many dents and scratches. What we didn't know was that it also had cooling system and battery problems that would turn up later. Our protests to National in the USA did, however, result in a partial reimbursement.

NOTE 2: Popo, which was already smoking during our visit, is now predicted to have a major eruption some time in the near future.

SPECIES LIST based on Howell & Webb: Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America (1995) with notations on AOU status * = heard only # = endemic or near-endemic

1) *Great Tinamou (Tinamus major). Heard at Palenque, 4/5/96

2) *Slaty-breasted Tinamou (Crypturellus boucardi). Heard at Palenque 4/5/96

3) Least Grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus). Oaxaca reservoir, coastal ponds & lagoons, 3/25,28-30

4) Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster). Playa Zipolite, Puerto Arista 3/27,31/96;

5) American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos). On roadside pond n of Tehuantepec, 3/28/96

6) Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). Puerto Angel, Puerto Arista 3/27-31/96.

7) Neotropic or Olivaceous Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). Widespread and common in ponds and lagoons mostly on Oaxaca and Chiapas coasts, 3/28-31, 4/5/96

8) Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificans). Puerto Angel & Puerto Arista, 3/27-31/96

9) Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias). Teotitlan reservoir, nr Puerto Arista, Atlantic lowlands 3/25,30, 4/5/96

10) Great Egret (Ardea alba). Widespread, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Veracruz lowlands, 3/25-4/5/96

11) Snowy Egret (Egretta thula). Widespread, Gulf & Pacific coastal areas, 3/28-31, 4/1,2,5/96

12) Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea). Puerto Angel, Puerto Arista, Atlantic lowlands 3/30-31, 4/5/96

13) Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor). Puerto Angel & Puerto Arista, 3/28-31/96

14) Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens). Coastal lagoons, Oaxaca & Chiapas, 3/28,30/96

15) Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis). Everywhere, 3/23-4/8/96

16) Green Heron (Butorides virescens). Widespread, Oaxaca, Chiapas and Veracrux lowlands, 3,4/96

17) White Ibis (Eudocimus albus). Puerto Arista, Gulf lowlands, 3/30, 4/5/96

18) Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja). Pacific coastal pond 3/31/96

19) Wood Stork (Mycteria americana). Isthmus area, Chiapas coast 3/29,30/96

20) Black-bellied Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis). Ponds, Oaxaca coast, road to Palenque, 3/28,30, 4/4,5/96.

21) Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca carolinensis). Roadside pond n of Tehuantepec, 3/28/96

22) Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors). coastal lagoons, 3/28,30/96

23) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata). Roadside pond n of Tehuantepec, 3/28/96

24) Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Roadside pond n of Tehantepec, 3/28/96

25) Black Vulture (Corayps atratus). Widespread, 3,4/96

26) Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura). Common and widespread, 3,4/96

27) Lesser Yellow-headed (Savannah) Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus). Palenque, 4/3,4/96

28) Osprey (Pandion haliaetus). Pacific coast 3/27-29/96; Gulf lowlands, 4/3-5/96

29) White-tailed [Black-shouldered] Kite (Elanus leucurus majusculus). Pacific & Atlantic lowlands, 3/31, 4/3,5/96.

30) Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus). Oaxaca Valley, Pacific lowlands, 3/23-25,28-30, 4/1/96 White-breasted Hawk (Accipiter chionogaster or A. s. striatus). Puerto Angel area 3/26/96 (not an AOU species)

31) Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens). Isthmus canal (nr La Ventosa), 3/29,30/96

32) Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus nigrocollis). Pacific & Veracruz lowlands, 3/30/,4/5/96

33) White Hawk (Leucopternis albicollis). Isthmus, 3/29/96

34) Common Black Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus). 2 birds hovering above Valle Nacional 4/6/96

35) Great Black Hawk (Buteograllus urubitinga ridgwayi). Palenque 4/5/96

36) Harris' Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus). Road to Oaxaca, 3/23/96

37) Grey Hawk (Buteo nitidus). Oaxaca coast, Isthmus, Chiapas coast 3/26-30/96

38) Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris). Oaxaca & Chiapas coasts, Veracruz lowlands, 3/28-31, 4/3,5/96

39) Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus). Sumidero, migrating flock over Palenque, 4/1,5/96

40) Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyrurus fuliginosus). Oaxaca, Chiapas, Gulf lowlands incl dark phase bird @ Puerto Angel, 3/27,28

41) Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni). Pluma Hidalgo Rd; large nos in migration with Turkey Vultures over Chiapas coast, Veracruz coast 3/28-31, 4/5/96

42) White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus). Oaxaca (Yagul), 3/25/96

43) Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus). Road to Pluma Hidalgo 3/28/96

44) Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). Oaxaca Valley, La Cumbre, Pacific & Atlantic coasts 3/23-26, 4/1,8/96

45) Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus). Pacific and Gulf lowlands, Isthmus 3/28-4/1,5/96

46) Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans). Chiapas coast (perched by roadside), 4/1/96

47) American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). widespread 3,4/96

48) Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis). Distant view of one perched on a treetop in ravine above village of El Triunfo, 3/31/96

49) #West Mexican Chachalaca (Ortalis poliocephala). Isthmus area of Oaxaca, 3/28-30/96; most easily seen in scrub area (Sumichrast's Sparrow site) n of Tehuantepec 3/29)

50) #White-bellied Chachalaca (Ortalis leucogastra). Near Mapastapec, 3/31 (heard), 4/1/96 (seen)

51) #Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrotyx macroura). La Cumbre, 4/7/96 (PS)

52) *Spotted Wood-Quail (Odontophorus guttatus). Heard, Valle Nacional area, 4/6/96

53)#*Singing Quail (Dactylortyx thoracicus). Heard along Teotilan Rd 3/25/96

54) Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus coyolcos). Canal near La Ventosa, Isthmus, 3/30/96. [N.B.: These should have been the ssp coyolcos but they had more white than shown in Howell & Webb]

55) American Coot (Fulica americana). Most bodies of water in Oaxaca 3/25,28,29/96

56) Semipalmated Plover (Charadrus semipalmatus). Puerto Arista, 3/30,31/96

57) Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). Coastal lagoons, Oaxaca & Chiapas, 3/28-31/96.

58) American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana). Near Puerto Arista 3/30/96

59) Northern Jacana (Jacana spinosa). Roadside pond n of Tehuantepec, Boca del Cielo 3/28,30/96

60) Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca) Coastal ponds, Oaxaca & Chiapas, 3/28-31/96

61) Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) Near Puerto Arista) 3/30/96

62) Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) Near Puerto Arista 3/30,31/96

63) Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) Oaxaca reservoir 3/25, coastal ponds of Oaxaca & Chiapas, 3/28-31, Gueletao bridge, Rt 175, 4/6/96

64) Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus). Near Puerto Arista (Boca del Cielo) 3/30/96

65) Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa). Near Puerto Arista (Boca del Cielo) 3/30/96

66) Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla). Near Puerto Arista area 3/30,31/96

67) Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis). Near Puerto Arista (Boca del Cielo) 3/30/96

68) Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla). Oaxaca & Chiapas coast, 3/28-31/96

69) Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia). Puerto Arista area 3/29,31, 4/5/96

70) Royal Tern (Sterna maxima). Puerto Arista (Boca del Cielo) 3/27,30,31/96

71) Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis). Near Puerto Arista (Boca del Cielo) 3/30/96

72) Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger). Near Puerto Arista (Boca del Cielo) 3/30/96

73) Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) (Columba livia). All inhabited locations.

74) Pale-vented Pigeon (Columba cayennensis). Palenque, 4/3,4/96.

75) Red-billed Pigeon (Columba flavirostris). Pacific lowlands of Oaxaca & Chiapas, 3/28,31,4/1/96

76) Band-tailed Pigeon (Columba fasciata). Cerro S Filipe 3/25, 4/7/96

77) White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica). Very common in Oaxaca Valley and Pacific slope 3/23- 4/2,7/96

78) Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura). Oaxaca 3/23-26; Popo 4/8/96

79) Inca Dove (Columbina inca). Oaxaca Valley, Pacific slope 3/23-4/1, 4/6,8/96

80) Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina). Oaxaca Valley, Pacific slope, Tlalmanalca/Amecameca Motel area 3/26-31, 4/8/96

81) Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti). Chiapas coast 3/29,31, 4/1,3/96

82) White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi). Widespread, esp Oaxaca and Pacific lowlands,3/25-31/96

83) *Grey-chested Dove (Leptotila cassinii cerviniventris). Heard at Palenque 4/5/96

84) Aztec (Olive-throated) Parakeet (Aratinga astec [nana]). Palenque 4/3-5/96

85) Orange-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga canicularis). Oaxaca, Zipolite track, Chiapas coastal slope 3/27,30,31/96

86) Orange-chinned Parakeet (Brotogeris jugularis). Pacific coast 3/29-4/1/96

87) Brown-hooded Parrot (Pionopsitta haematotis). Palenque 4/5/96

88) White-crowned Parrot (Pionus senilis). Above Valle Nacional 4/6/96

89) White-fronted Parrot (Amazona albifrons). Above village of El Triunfo, 3/31/96

90) Red-lored Parrot (Amazona autumnalis). Palenque 4/3,4/96

91) #Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix). Isthmus (road to Nava's Wren site), 3/29/96 (A Red Data book species)

92) #Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata [oratrix]). Chiapas coast, 4/1/96

93) Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Puerto Arista (fly-by; rufous in primaries, all-white underparts, thus not Mangrove--T.F.)

94) Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana). widespread, 3/27-31, 4/1,4,5/96

95) *Striped Cuckoo (Tapera naevia excellens). Several including duetting pair, heard late afternoon along dirt road above El Triunfo village; 3/31/96

96) *Pheasant Cuckoo (Dromococcyx phasianellus). Heard at evening in thorn forest area near Puerto Angel 3/27/96

97) #Lesser Roadrunner (Geococcyx velox). Teotitlan Rd 3/25, Isthmus canal 3/25,29,30/96

98) Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Common, Oaxaca and Chiapas coasts, Chiapas highlands, Atlantic lowlands 3/26-4/5/96

99) *Central American (Least) Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium griseiceps). Palenque; several calling before and after dawn; one mobbed by large mixed flock 4/4,5/96 (not an AOU species; see above)

100) Ferruginous Pigmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). Thorn forest nr Puerto Angel; thorn forest nr Tehuantepec 3/27,29/96

101) Mottled Owl (Strix virgata). Behind our cabin at the Hotel CaSEada in Palenque; calling (short call), medium-small darkish owl with whitish facial disk effect, slight effect of ears creating a squarish rather than a rounded facial effect; in spite of miscall (ES) as a Screech Owl, this was certainly a Mottled Owl because (1) no real ear tufts, (2) size (3) call; also facial jizz fits Mottled Owl far better than any Screech-Owl. Early morning, 4/4,5/96

102) Lesser Nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennis). Oaxaca 3/26, Pacific coast 3/29-31 Palenque 4/3,4/96

103) Pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis). Puerto Angel 3/27, Palenque, Oaxaca 4/4-7/96

104)#*Mexican Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus arizonae [vociferus]). Heard during daylight at Cerro S Filipe; also Chiapas 3/24, 4/2/96 (not an AOU species)

105) Chestnut-collared Swift (Cypseloides rutilus). Monte Alban 3/26/96

106) White-collared Swift (Streptoprocne zonaris). Rd to Oaxaca, 50+ seen above village of El Triunfo, San Cristobal 3/23,31, 4/2-6/96

107) Vaux's Swift (Chaetura vauxi). Monte Alban 3/26/96

108) White-throated Swift (Aeronautes saxatalis). One eye-level fly-by along ridge above Pink-headed Warbler site 4/2/96

109) Long-tailed Hermit (Phaethornis superciliosus). Palenque 4/4,5/96 #Mexican Hermit (Phaethornis mexicanus [superciliosus]). La Soledad, Sierra de Miahuatlan 3/28/96 (not an AOU species)

110) Little Hermit (Pygmornis longuemareus). Seen with Long-tailed Hermit @ Palenque 4/5/96 111) Violet Sabrewing (Campylopterus hemileucurus). Palenque 4/4/96

112)#Canivet's [Fork-tailed] Emerald (Chlorostilbon canivetti). Sumidero 4/1/96

113) Golden-crowned [Fork-tailed] Emerald (Chlorostilbon auriceps). Nr La Soledad 3/26/96 - no other Fork-tail in range [not an AOU species)

114)#Dusky Hummingbird (Cynanthus sordidus). Oaxaca valley 3/24-26/96. This appears to be the bird, seen several times, with a glittering yellow crown in full sun.

115)#Doubleday's Hummingbird (Cynanthus doubledayi [latirostris]). NW of Tehuantepec on Rt 190 in thorn scrub 3/29/96 (part of AOU's Broad-billed species)

116)#White-eared Hummingbird (Basilinna leucotis). Cerro S Filipe, slopes of Popo 3/24,26, 4/2,7,8/96

117) White-bellied Emerald (Amazilia candida). Isthmus @ Nava's Wren site 3/29, Palenque 4/4,5/96

118)#Azure-crowned Hummingbird (Amazilia cyanocephala). Sumidero 4/1/96

119)#Berylline Hummingbird (Amazilia beryllina). Sierra de Miahuatlan 3/26,28/96

120)#Blue-tailed Hummingbird (Amazilia cyanura). 3/31/96 above the village of El Triunfo.

121) Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (Amazilia tzacatl). Palenque 4/3-5/96

122) Cinnamon Hummingbird (Amazilia rutila). Puerto Angel & Arista. Mapastepec area 3/27,30,31, 4/1/96

123)#Blue-capped Hummingbird (Eupherusa cyanophrys [poliocerca]). La Soledad, Sierra de Miahatlan (this is the type locality for this Red Data Book species); also Pluma Hidalgo Rd 3/26,28/96

124)#Garnet-throated Hummingbird (Lamprolaima rhami). Pink-headed Warbler site off Ocosingo Rd; seen feeding juvenile! 4/2,3/96

125) Long-billed Starthroat (Heliomaster longirostris). Rd to Guadalupe Victoria 3/31/96 126)#Slender Sheartail (Calothorax enicura). Sumidero, 4/1/96

127) Black-headed Trogon (Trogon melanocephalus). Palenque 4/3-5/96

128)#Citreoline Trogon (Trogon citreolus). Puerto Angel, Puerto Arista 3/27-30/96; the birds in the Puerto Angel thorn forest were actively lekking

129) Violaceous Trogon (Trogon violaceus). Mapastepec, Palenque 4/1,4-6/96

130)#Mountain Trogon (Trogon mexicanus). Cerro S Filipe, S Cristobal 3/24-26, 4/2,3,7/96

131) Collared Trogon (Trogon collaris). Palenque 4/4,5/96

132) Slaty-tailed Trogon (Trogon massena). Isthmus (Nava's Wren site), Palenque 3/29, 4/4,5/96

133) Tody Motmot (Hylomanes momotula). Nava's Wren site, upper trail Palenque 3/29, 4/4/96

134) Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota). Palenque 4/4,5/96

135)#Russet-crowned Motmot (Momotus mexicanus). Rd to Oaxaca, Puerto Angel thorn forest, Puerto Arista 3/23,27,28,30/96. Note that the observation of the bird in the desert-like area well to the n of Oaxaca is out of range according to Howell's map; however the bird could hardly have been anything else.

136) Turquoise-browed Motmot (Eumomota superciliosa). Rd to Guadalupe Victoria, Mapastepec Microwave Valley Rd 3/31, 4/1/96

137) Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata). Isthmus, Palenque 3/29, 4/3-5/96

138) Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon). Pacific coast, S Cristobal, Palenque 3/28,31, 4/2,3/96

139) Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona). Nava's Wren site, Mapastapec 3/29, 4/1/96

140) Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana). Rd to Guadalupe Victoria, Mapastepec Valley Rd, Palenque 3/31, 4/1,5/96

141) Pygmy Kingfisher (Chloroceryle aenea). Rd to Guadalupe Victoria, Mapastepec Valley Rd, Palenque 3/31, 4/1,4/96

142) Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda). Palenque (base of hill) 4/3/96

143) Emerald Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus). Rd to Pluma Hidalgo, Valle Nacional, 3/28, 4/6/96.

144) Collared Aracari (Pteroglossus torquatus). Above El Triunfo village, Palenque 3/31, 4/4/96

145) Keel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus). Isthmus (rd to Nava's Wren site), Palenque, Rt 175 s of Valle Nacional 3/29, 4/3-6/96

146) Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). Entrance to La Cumbre 3/24/96

147) Black-cheeked Woodpecker (Centaurus pucherani). Isthmus at Nava's Wren site 3/29; Palenque 4/4,5/96

148)#Golden-cheeked Woodpecker (Centurus chrysogenys). Puerto Angel, nr Tehuantepec, rd to Guadalupe Victoria 3/27,29,31/96

149)#Grey-breasted Woodpecker (Centurus hypopolius). Oaxaca Valley 3/23,25/96

150) Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Centurus aurifrons). Isthmus, Mapastepec, Palenque 3/29-4/5/96

151)#Strickland's Woodpecker (Picoides stricklandi). Popo 4/8/96 [AOU regards this as part of Arizona Woodpecker]

152) Ladder-backed Woodpecker (Picoides scalaris). Oaxaca area, Pacific coast 3/23,24,26,28/96

153) Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus). La Cumbre 3/24; Ocosingo Rd, Chiapas 4/2, Rt 175 s of Valle Nacional; Popo 4/8/96

154) Golden-Olive Woodpecker (Piculus rubiginosus). Palenque 4/4/96

155)#Grey-crowned Woodpecker (Piculus auricularis [rubininosus]). Rd to Pluma Hidalgo 3/28/96

156) Northern (Red-shafted) Flicker (Colaptes auratus). Cerro S Fillipe, S Cristobal, Popo 3/25-29, 4/2- 4,7,8/96

157)#Chestnut-colored Woodpecker (Celeus castaneus). Palenque 4/4,5/96

158) Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus). Rd to Pluma Hidalgo, rd above El Triunfo village, Palenque 3/28,31, 4/3-5/96

159) Pale-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus guatemalensis). Puerto Angel, 3/27; Isthmus 3/29/96

160)#Rufous-breasted Spinetail (Synallaxis erythrothorax). Valle Nacional Rd 4/6/96

161) Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus ochrolaemus). Isthmus (Nava's Wren site) 3/29; also Palenque 4/5/96

162) Scaly-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus guatemalensis). Palenque 4/4/96

163) Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus). Palenque 4/4/96

164) Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Glyphorynchus spirurus). Palenque 4/4/96

165) Ivory-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus flavigaster). Widespread from Pacific slope of Oaxaca to Chiapas, 3/26,28,31, 4/1,4,5/96

166) Streak-headed Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii). Mapastepec Valley Rd, Palenque 4/1,4,5/96

167) Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus). Above El Triunfo village, Mapastepec area 3/31, 4/1/96

168) Plain Antvireo (Dysithamnus mentalis eptentrionalis). pair at Palenque 4/4/96

169) Dusky Antbird (Cercomacra tyrannina crepera). Pair on trail on s side of Palenque nr entrance road answering to tape 4/5/96

170)#Mexican (Black-faced) Antthrush (Formicarius [analis] monileger). Palenque 4/4,5/96 [a Howell & Webb split not yet recognized by the AOU]

171) Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet (Ornithion semiflavum). Several heard and one seen at Palenque 4/5/96

172) Northern Beardless Tyrannulet (Camptostoma imberbe). Tepanatepec foothills (Rosita's Bunting site) 3/30, rd to Guadalupe Victoria) 3/31; also heard and seen in the Chiapas foothills 3/27,30/96

173)*Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster subpagana). heard on Rt 175 s of Valle Nacional 4/6/96

174) Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus mexicanus). 4/4,5/96

175) Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher (Myiobius sulphureipygius). Isthmus (Nava's Wren site), Palenque 3/29, 4/5/96

176)#Belted Flycatcher (Xenotriccus callizonus). Sumidero 4/1/96

177)#Pileated Flycatcher (Xenotriccus mexicanus). "Garbage Gulch", Monte Alban 3/24,26/96 (spiky crest seen both erected and held flat)

178) Tufted Flycatcher (Mitrephanes phaeocercus). Cerro S Filipe, Sierra de Miahuatlan, S Cristobal, La Cumbre Rd 3/24,26,28,4/2,7,8/96

179) Greater Pewee (Contopus pertinax). Widespread: Cerro S Filipe, Sierra de Miahuatlan, Chiapas highlands, Popo slopes 3/24-26, 4/2,3,6,8

180) Tropical Pewee (Contopus cinereus). Palenque (seen and heard) 4/4/96

181) Western Pewee (Wood-Pewee) (Contopus sordidulus). Cerro S Filipe 3/24/96 (This small Contopus Pewee was not an Eastern (by call); it probably breeds on Cerro S Filipe)

182) Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris). Oaxaca valley, Nava's Wren site, Palenque 3/26,27,29, 4/4,5/96 N.B.: Oaxaca valley sightings are west of the mapped migration range in Howell & Webb but these were close-up observations.

183) Hammond's Flycatcher (Empidonax hammondi). Calling Hammond's (sharp peek call) at Cerro S Filipe, 3/25/96; seen well at Monte Alban 3/26/96

184) Pine Flycatcher (Empidonax affinis). Somewhat yellowish calling birds with teardrop eyes at the Sierra de Miahuatlan and Popo, 3/26/96 and 4/8/96 thought to be this species on the strength of a fairly mellow two-note call "pr-reeep" (quite different from the Cordilleran call).

185) Cordilleran Flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis). Western Flycatcher types -- strongly yellowish birds with teardrop eyes and a thin, high call @ Pluma Hidalgo Rd (Sierra de Miahuatlan), Cerro S Filipe and Popo 3/26,28, 4/7,8/96 -- were likely this species which probably breeds at all the above localities

186) Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens). Distinctive empid @ San Cristobal 4/2/96

187) Buff-breasted Flycatcher (Empidonax fulvifrons). Distinctive empid @ Popo 4/8/96

188) Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans). Widespread on water 3/25, 4/1-3/96

189) Say's Phoebe (Sayornis saya). Along toll rd to Oaxaca 3/23/96

190) Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus). Widespread in open locations, 3/23-26,29, 4/3/96

191) Bright-rumped Attila (Attila spadiceus). Palenque, lower trail 4/5/96

192) Rufous Mourner (Rhytipterna holerythra). Heard and seen at Palenque 4/4/96

193) Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer). Oaxaca, Zipolite thorn forest (calling), Pluma Hidalgo Rd, Mapastepec foothills 3/25,27,28, 4/1/96

194) Nutting's Flycatcher (Myiarchus nuttingi). Yagul, Monte Alban 3/25,26/96 [NOTE: Ash-throated Flycatcher nowhere identified]

195) Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus). This species securely identified on 2 or 3 occasions by look (very yellow below) and familiar call. Puerto Arista, Palenque 3/30, 4/4/96

196) Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus). Zipolite thorn forest, Rt 190 north of Tehuantepec, Puerto Arista area, 3/27,29-4/1/96 [pale with large crest; typical Myiarchus of dry and scrub habitats on Pacific coast]

197) Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus). Widespread and very common in all settled areas 3/23- 25,27-4/1, 4/3-5/96

198) Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitanga). Pacific lowlands 3/28-3l/96; probably on Caribbean coast as well (4/4,5/96)

199) Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similes). Pacific slope (La Soledad), Mapastepec or Arriaga area 3/26, 3/31-4/1 4/3-5/96 [N.B.: La Soledad location is slightly higher than shown on Howell & Webb map but probably does not exceed the stated 1800 meter elevation limit]

200) Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus). Palenque 4/4,5/96 [large bill, little yellow underneath, lack of malar; active in treetops feeding on fruit; seen and heard]

201) Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher (Myiodynastes luteiventris). Widespread on Pacific slope, Palenque 3/28,30-4/1 4/3-5/96

202) Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus). Oaxaca and Chiapas lowlands 3/29-4/1, 4/5/96

203) Couch's Kingbird (Tyrannus couchii). Calling bird at dawn on the Valle Nacional Road, 4/6/96

204) Cassin's Kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans). Common Kingbird of the Oaxaca Valley and Amecameca 3/23-26,30 4/6-8

205) Thick-billed Kingbird (Tyrannus crassirostris). Puerto Angel area 3/27,28/96

206) Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis). Several seen on dirt road nr Puerto Arista 3/30,31/96

207) Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus). Large nos. on Pacific coast (Isthmus canal, dirt road nr Puerto Arista, etc) 3/29-4/1, 4/3/96

208) Rose-throated Becard (Pachyramphus aglaiae hypophaeus). Pluma Hidalgo Rd, Nava's Wren site, Mapastepec Microwave Valley Rd 3/28,29, 4/1/96 [birds seen were of the darker forms sumichrasti and/or aglaiae]

209) Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata). Common on Pacific slope, Palenque 3/26,28,31, 4/1,4-6/96

210) Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor). Palenque 4/4/96

211) Rufous Piha (Lipaugus unirufus) Calling bird, Nava's Wren site 3/29/96

212) Grey-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea). Monte Alban 3/26, Palenque 4/3/96

213) Mangrove Swallow (Tachycineta albilinea). Isthmus, Puerto Arista area 3/29-31/96

214) Violet-Green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina). Widespread, Oaxaca Valley, Sierra de Miahuatlan, Isthmus, Popo 3/24-27, 4/6-8/96

215)#Black-capped Swallow (Notiochelidon pileata). S Cristobal area 4/2,3/96

216) Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis). Oaxaca Valley, Pacific slope 3/24-26,29, 4/1,2,6/96

217) Cave Swallow (Hirundo fulva). Rt 195 nr Chiapas/Tabasco border 4/3/96

218) Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica). widespread in migration 3/23,28-4/1, 4/3,7,8/96

219) Steller's Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri). Common jay in mountains, Cerro S Filipe, Sierra de Miahuatlan, Chiapas (coronata) 3/24-28, 4/2,3,6,7/96

220) White-throated Magpie-Jay (Calocitta formosa). Pacific slope and lowlands of Oaxaca and Chiapas 3/26-4/3/96

221) Green Jay (Cyanocorax yncas). Pacific slope, Sumidero 3/26,28, 4/1/96

222) Brown Jay (Cyanocorax morio). Isthmus, Caribbean slope 3/29,30, 4/3-6/96

223)#Dwarf Jay (Cyanolyca nana). Cerro S Filipe in mixed species flocks (with Grey-barred Wrens and other species) 3/24, 4/7/96 A Red Data Book species

224) Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). Oaxaca Valley 3/25,26/96 225) Northern Raven (Corax corax). Oaxaca Valley, Tepanatepec foothills 3/23-26,30, 4/1/96

226) Mexican Chickadee (Parus sclateri). Popo 4/8/96

227) Bridled Titmouse (Parus wollweberi). Cerro S Filipe 3/24/96

228) Bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus). Oaxaca (Cerro S Filipe, etc) , S Cristobal, Popo 3/24,25, 4/2,6-8/96 (mostly the personatus or black-eared form)

229) White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis). Popo 4/8/96

230) Pygmy Nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea). Popo 4/8/96

231) Brown Creeper (Certhia americana). Ocosingo Rd, Cerro San Felipe, Popo 4/2,7,8/96

232) Band-backed Wren (Campylorhynchus zonatus). S Cristobal, Palenque 4/2-5/96

233)#Grey-barred Wren (Campylorhynchus megalopterus). Cerro S Filipe 3/24,25, 4/7/96

234)#Giant Wren (Campylorhynchus chiapensis). Puerto Arista/Mapastepec area 3/31, 4/1/96

235) Rufous-naped Wren (Campylorhynchus rufinucha). Pacific coast 3/27,30/96

236)#Boucard's Wren (Campylorhynchus jocusus). Oaxaca Valley (Yagul, Monte Alban) 3/25,26/96

237) Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus). Rd to Oaxaca (breakdown point) 3/23/96

238) Canyon Wren (Catherpes mexicanus). Garbage Gulch, Cerro S Filipe 3/24-26,4/6,7/96

239) Spot-breasted Wren (Thryothorus maculipectus). Isthmus (Nava's Wren site), Palenque, Valle Nacional 3/29, 4/4,5/96

240)#Happy Wren (Thryothorus felix). Pluma Hidalgo Rd 3/28

241) Banded Wren (Thryothorus pleurostictus). Zipolite thorn forest, Mapastepec area 3/27,31, 4/1/96

242) Plain Wren (Thryothorus modestus). Mapastepec area; above El Triunfo village 3/31, 4/1/96

243) Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii). Teotitlan; Popo 3/25, 4/8/96

244) Northern House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). Oaxaca Valley 3/25/96 Brown-throated [House] Wren (Troglodytes brunneicollis). Cerro S Filipe, Popo 3/25, 4/8/96 [not an AOU species] Southern House Wren (Troglodytes musculus). Pacific slope, Cerro S Filipe 4/2,3,6,7/96 [not an AOU species]

245) Rufous-browed Wren (Troglodytes rufociliatus). S Cristobal 4/2,3/96

246) White-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucosticta). Isthmus, Palenque, Valle Nacional elsewhere 3/29, 4/4-6/96

247) Grey-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys). Cerro S Filipe 3/25,26,28, 4/7/96

248) Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa). Popo 4/8/96

249) Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Cerro S Filipe, Sierra de Miahuatlan, San Cristobal, Popo 3/24-26, 4/2,6-8/96

250) Long-Billed Gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus). Palenque 4/4-6/96

251) Blue-grey Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea). Oaxaca Valley 3/23-25, 4/6/96

252) White-lored Gnatcatcher (Polioptila albiloris). Pacific coast near Tehuantepec 3/27-30/96

253) Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea brodkorbi). Palenque 4/6/96

254) Western Bluebird (Sialia mexicana). Popo 4/8/96

255)#Brown-backed Solitaire (Myadestes occidentalis). Cerro S Filipe (Rt 175), S Cristobal, Popo 3/24- 28, 4/2,6-8/96

256)#Slate-colored Solitaire (Myadestes unicolor). Heard in cloud forest, Valle Nacional 4/6/96

257) Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus aurantiirostris). Rt 190 w of S Cristobal 4/3/96; also heard Valle Nacional 4/6/96

258)#Russet Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus occidentalis). Cerro S Filipe, Popo 3/24, 4/6,8/96

259) Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii). La Cumbre 3/25, Valle Nacional, Cerro S Filipe 4/3,6,7/96. Both of these Catharus thrushes well seen with bill differences and contrast between breast coloration noted; also both heard many times and song differences noted

260) Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Pacific slope of Oaxaca and Chiapas, Palenque 3/26,28,31, 4/1,4-6/96

261) Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus). Oaxaca Valley, Rt 190 w of S Cristobal 3/25-27, 4/3/96 Note: many of the Hermits seen were of the grayer, western ssp (Auduboni, possibly guttatus)

262) Wood Thrush (Catharus mustelinus). Isthmus, 3/29/96; Palenque 4/4,5/96

263)#Black Thrush (Turdus infuscatus). Valle Nacional, Cerro S Filipe 4/6,7/96

264) Clay-colored Thrush (Turdus grayi). widespread (Chiapas, Atlantic slope, Popo) 3/30-4/8/96

265) White-throated Thrush (Turdus assimilis). Roadside at high point of Sierra de Miahuatlan (dark backed 'robin' with yellow bill, contrasting underparts, whitish throat) 3/26/96; also probably flitting across road in Chiapas highlands 4/3/96

266)#Rufous-backed Thrush (Turdus rufopalliatus). Zipolite thorn forest 3/27/96

267)#Rufous-collared Thrush (Turdus rufitorques). S Cristobal 4/2,3/96

268) American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Cerro S Filipe, Rt 190 w of S Cristobal, Popo 3/24-26, 4/3,6-8/96

269) Grey Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis). Palenque 4/5/96

270)#Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens). Teotitlan Road, Monte Alban, Popo 3/25,26, 4/8/96

272)#Blue-and-white Mockingbird (Melanotis hypoleucus). S Cristobal 4/2,3/96

273) Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos). Oaxaca Valley 3/23,25,26/96

273) Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus gilvus). Isthmus, Puerto Arista 3/29,30, 4/3/96

274) Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre). Oaxaca Valley, Popo 3/23,25,26, 4/8/96

275) American Pipit (Anthus rubsescens). Teotitlan reservoir 3/25/96

276)#Grey Silky-Flycatcher (Ptilogonys cinereus). Cerro S Filipe, Chiapas Highlands, Popo 3/24,26, 4/2 or 3,6-8/96

277) Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus). Oaxaca Valley 3/23-26,28,29/96

278)#Slaty Vireo (Vireo brevipennis). Monte Alban (heard), Garbarge Gulch 3/26, 4/6/96

279)#Dwarf Vireo (Vireo nelsoni). Teotitlan Rd 3/25/96

280) Blue-headed [Solitary] Vireo (Vireo solitarius). Sierra de Mianhuatlan, rd above El Triunfo village, Chiapas highlands 3/26,27,31, 4/1-3/96 Plumbeous [Solitary] Vireo (Vireo plumbeus). Garbage Gulch, Teotitlan Rd, La Cumbre Rd (uniformly gray) 3/24,25, 4/7/96 [not an AOU species]

281) Hutton's Vireo (Vireo huttoni). Cerro S Filipe, S Cristobal 3/24,25, 4/2,3,7/96 (these are breeding birds, not migrants)

282)#Golden Vireo (Vireo hypochryseus). Oaxaca Valley, Sierra de Miahuatlan (La Soledad) 3/24,25,28/96

283) Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus). La Soledad, Pacific coast of Oaxaca & Chiapas, S Cristobal 3/26,27,31,4/2-5,7/96

284) Yellow-Green Vireo (Vireo flavoviridis). Out of a number of observations of Red-eyed Vireo types, only these and the following seemed reasonably certain. Yellowish birds @ Zipolite thorn forest & Pluma Hidalgo Rd 3/26-28/96

285) Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus). Clear Red-eye types @ Palenque 4/4,5/96

286) Lesser Greenlet (Hylophilus decurtatus). Palenque 4/4,5/96

287) Green Shrike-Vireo (Vireolanius pulchellus). Palenque, Rt 175 above Valle Nacional 4/4-6/96

288)*Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis). 4/3/96 Rt 190 w of S Cristobal

289) Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). Palenque 4/3,4/96

290) Tennessee Warbler (Vermivora peregrina). Palenque 4/3/96

291) Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata). Oaxaca area, S Cristobal, Popo 3/24-27, 4/2,7,8

292) Nashville Warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla). Monte Alban, S Cristobal, Cerro S Filipe 3/26,27, 4/2,3,7

293)#Crescent-chested Warbler (Vermivora [Parula] superciliosa). Cerro S Filipe, S Cristobal 3/24,25,27, 4/2,3,7/96

294) Northern Parula (Parula americana). One at Cerro S Filipe 3/24/96

295) Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi). La Cumbre 3/24/96; Isthmus 3/29/96

296) Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia). Coast of Oaxaca and Chiapas (all birds seen, even those in mangroves nr Puerto Arista, looked like aestiva not bryanti) 3/27-31

297) Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia). Isthmus, Chiapas coast, above El Triunfo village, Palenque, Valle Nacional 3/29-31, 4/1-8/96

298) Yellow-rumped [Audubon's] Warbler (Dendroica coronata auduboni). Oaxaca Valley, Popo 3/23,25,26, 4/6-8/96; Yellow-rumped [Myrtle] Warbler (Dendroica coronata coronata). S Cristobal 4/2/96

299) Black-throated Grey Warbler (Dendroica nigrescens). Garbage Gulch 3/25/96

300) Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi). Oaxaca valley, Cerro S Filipe, S Cristobal 3/24- 26, 4/2,3,7/96

301) Hermit Warbler (Dendroica occidentalis). Cerro S Filipe, S Cristobal 3/24, 4/2,3,7/96

302) Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens). S Cristobal, Palenque, Valle Nacional 4/2- 27/96

303) Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea). Seen below eye-level @ Palenque 4/4/96

304) Black-and-White Warbler (Mniotilta varia). Cerro S Filipe, Pacific slope of Chiapas, Palenque 3/24-27,29,31, 4/2-5/96

305) American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). S Cristobal, Palenque 4/3-5/96

306) Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus). Palenque 4/4,5/96

307) Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus). Palenque 4/4/96

308) Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis). Nr Puerto Arista 3/31 Palenque 4/4,5/96

309) Kentucky Warbler (Oporornis formosus). Isthmus 3/29 Palenque 4/4,5/96

310) MacGillivray's Warbler (Oporornis tolmiei). Oaxaca area, Pluma Hidalgo Rd 3/24-26,28/96

311) Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). nr Puerto Arista, Palenque 3/31, 4/4/96

312) Grey-crowned Yellowthroat (Chamaethlypis poliocephala). Near Puerto Arista 3/30,31/96

313) Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina). Palenque 4/3/96

314) Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). widespread, Oaxaca area, S Cristobal, Palenque, Valle Nacional 3/24-31, 4/2-8/96

315) Red-faced Warbler (Cardellina rubrifrons). many highland locations, mostly in pine: Puebla highway, Cerro S Filipe, Chiapas, etc. 3/23,24 4/2/96, etc

316)#Red Warbler (Ergaticus ruber). Cerro S Filipe, Sierra de Miahuatlan, Valle Nacional 3/24-26 4/2,6,7/96

317)#Pink-headed Warbler (Ergaticus versicolor). Ocosingo Rd (S Cristobal) 4/2/96

318) Painted Redstart (Myioborus pictus). Cerro S Filipe, Sierra de Miahuatlan, Ocosingo Rd (Pink- headed Warbler site) 3/24-26 4/2/96

319) Slate-throated Redstart (Myioborus miniatus). S Cristobal, Cerro S Filipe, Popo 4/2,3,7,8/96

320) Golden-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus). Cerro S Filipe, Sierra de Miahuatlan, Isthmus (Nava's Wren site), Palenque 3/24,26,29 4/5/96

321)#Rufous-capped Warbler (Basileuterus rufifrons). Oaxaca (Cerro S Filipe), Sierra de Miahuatlan, rd above El Triunfo village, S Cristobal, Valle Nacional, 3/23-26,31 4/2,6,7/96

322)#Golden-browed Warbler (Basileuterus belli). Cerro S Felipe, S Cristobal, Popo 3/24 4/2,7,8/96

323) Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens). Pluma Hidalgo Rd, Pacific coast, Palenque 3/28-31, 4/5/96

324) Olive Warbler (Peucedramus taeniatus). Cerro S Filipe 3/24; S Cristobal 4/2,3/96; Popo 4/8/96 (these are breeding birds, not migrants)

325) Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola). Palenque 4/5/96

326) Golden-hooded [Masked] Tanager (Tangara larvata). Nava's Wren site. Palenque 3/29, 4/4/96

327) Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza). Valle Nacional Rd 4/6/96

328) Red-legged Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes cyaneus). Sierra de Miahuatlan, rd above El Triunfo village, Palenque, Valle Nacional Rd 3/26,31 4/4,6/96

329) Scrub Euphonia (Euphonia affinis). Above village of El Triunfo 3/31/96

330) Yellow-throated Euphonia (Euphonia hirundinacea). Above village of El Triunfo, Palenque 3/31, 4/3-5/96

331) Blue-hooded Euphonia (Euphonia elegantissima). Teotitlan Rd 3/25/96

332) Olive-back Euphonia (Euphonia gouldi). 3/29/96 (Nava's Wren site)

333) Blue-grey Tanager (Thraupis episcopus). Rd to Palenque 4/3/96

334) Yellow-winged Tanager (Thraupis abbas). Palenque, Valle Nacional 4/4,6/96

335) Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Habia rubra). Above village of El Triunfo 3/31/96

336) Red-throated Ant-Tanager (Habia fuscicauda). Palenque, Valle Nacional 4/3-6/96

337) Hepatic Tanager (Piranga flava). Cerro S Felipe. Popo 3/24-26 4/8/96

338) Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra). La Soledad, Palenque 3/26, 4/4/96

339) Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea). Feeding on figs, early morning, Palenque 4/4/96

340) Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). Cerro S Felipe, Sierra de Miahuatlan, above village of El Triunfo, Popo etc 3/24,26-28,31 4/1,6,8/96

341) Crimson-collared Tanager (Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta). Road to Nava's Wren site, Palenque 3/29 4/4,6/96

342) Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus). Valle Nacional 4/6/96

343) Buff-throated Saltator (Saltator maximus). Palenque 4/4,5/96

344) Black-headed Saltator (Saltator atriceps). Sierra de Miahuatlan, Mapastepec area, Palenque 3/26,28,31 4/1,4,6/96

345) Black-faced Grosbeak (Caryothraustes poliogaster). Nava's Wren site 3/29/96

346) Pyrrhuloxia (Cardinalis sinuatus). Yagul 3/25/96 [Out of range according to the map in Howell & Webb but unmistakable and in perfect cactus desert habitat; possibly an escaped cage bird]

347) Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus). Common migrant along both slopes 3/26,28,31 4/1,3-7/96

348) Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocepahlus). Oaxaca Valley & Cerro S Filipe; Popo 3/24-26 4/7,8/96 Also on road near Puebla on 1st day 3/23/96

349) Blue-black Grosbeak (Cyanocompsa cyanoides). Nava's Wren site, Palenque 3/29, 4/4/96

350)#Blue Bunting (Cyanocompsa parellina). Puerto Angel 3/27,28/96; Palenque 4/5/96

351) Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea). Oaxaca 3/24,26/96

352)#Rose-bellied (Rosita's) Bunting (Passerina rositae). Foothills of Tepanatepec & Arriaga 3/30, 4/1/96

353) Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). Oaxaca & Chipas slope, Isthmus, Palenque 3/28-31, 4/4-6/96

354) Varied Bunting (Passerina versicolor). Sumidero 4/1/96

355)#Orange-breasted Bunting (Passerina leclancherii). Zipolite thorn forest s to Isthmus 3/27-30/96

356) Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Pluma Hidalgo Rd s to Puerto Arista area 3/28-31/96

357) Dickcissel (Spiza americana). Large nos on dirt rd nr Puerto Arista, eve of 3/30/96

358)#White-naped Brushfinch (Atlapetes albinucha). Pronatura Reserve, Rt 190 w of S Cristobal 4/2,3/96;

359)#Rufous-capped Brushfinch (Atlapetes pileatus). Cerro S Felipe, Popo 3/24, 4/6-8/96

360) Chestnut-capped Brushfinch (Atlapetes brunneinucha). Cerro S Felipe, S Cristobal 3/24,4/2,3/96

361)#Green-striped Brushfinch (Atlapetes virenticeps). Popo 4/8/96

362) Orange-billed Sparrow (Arremon aurantiirostris). Palenque, Valle Nacional 4/4,6/96

363) Olive Sparrow (Arremonops rufivirgatus). Sumidero 4/1/96

364)#Prevost's (White-faced) Ground-Sparrow (Melozone biarcuatum). Mapastepec Microwave Valley 4/1/96

365)#Collared Towhee (Pipilo ocai). Guelatao valley, Cerro S Felipe 4/6,7/96

366) Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus). Cerro S Filipe, Popo (macronyx form) 3/25, 4/2,3,8

367) Canyon Towhee (Pipilo fuscus). Popo 4/8/96

368)#White-throated Towhee (Pipilo albicollis). Oaxaca area 3/23-26, 4/6/96

369) Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina). Chiapas highlands 4/2/96

370) Slate-colored Seedeater (Sporophila schistacea). Valle Nacional 4/6/96

371) White-collared Seedeater (Sporophila torqueola). widespread 3/29-4/6/96

372) Ruddy-breasted Seedeater (Sporophila minuta). Puerto Arista area 3/31/96

373) Thick-billed (Lesser) Seedfinch (Oryzoborus funereus). Valle Nacional Rd 4/6/96

374) Yellow-faced Grassquit (Tiaris olivacea). Valle Nacional Rd 4/6/96

375) Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer (Diglossa baritula). Popo 4/8/96

376)#Bridled Sparrow (Aimophila mystacalis). Oaxaca area 3/23-26/96

377) Stripe-headed Sparrow (Aimophila ruficauda). Isthmus canal, Arriaga foothills 3/30-4/1/96

378)#Sumichrast's (Cinnamon-tailed) Sparrow (Aimophila suchichrasti). Rt 190 nr Tehuantepec, Isthmus canal 3/29,30/96

379) Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps). Monte Alban, La Cumbre 3/26, 4/7/96

380)#Oaxaca Sparrow (Aimophila notosticta). Oaxaca valley 3/24 4/6/96

381) Rusty Sparrow (Aimophila rufescens). Valle Nacional 4/6/96

382) Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina). Rt 175, Popo 4/6,8/96

383) Lark Sparrow (Chodestes graccacus). Along toll rd to Oaxaca 3/23/96

384) Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii). Oaxaca valley (Garbage Gulch, Teotitlan Rd), Popo 3/24,25 4/3,6,8/96

385) Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis). San Cristobal 4/2,3/96

386) Yellow-eyed Junco (Junco phaeonotus). Cerro S Filipe, S Cristobal, Popo 3/24-26 4/2,3,6,7,8

387) Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Rd to Oaxaca 3/23; Isthmus canal 3/30/96; rd back to Mexico City 4/7/96

388) Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna). Isthmus canal, Puerto Arista 3/30,31; also deforested Caribbean lowlands 4/5/96

389) Melodious Blackbird (Dives dives). Isthmus (displaying by canal), Mapastepec area (Microwave Valley), Palenque 3/30, 4/1,3/96

390) Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus). every inhabited place, every day

391) Bronzed (Red-eyed) Cowbird (Molothrus aeneus). Oaxaca valley, Puerto Angel, S Cristobal etc 3/24,25,27, 4/2,5-8/96

392) Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). Garbage gulch, Oaxaca 3/24/96

393) Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius). Puerto Arista area 3/31/96

394) Hooded Oriole (Icterus cucullatus). Zipolite thorn forest 3/27/96

395)#Black-vented Oriole (Icterus wagleri). Oaxaca valley 3/25,26 4/6/96

396) Yellow-backed Oriole (Icterus chrysater). Sumidero 4/1/96

397) Audubon's (Black-headed) Oriole (Icterus graduacauda). Garbage Gulch, Sierra de Miahuatlan (Pluma Hidalgo Rd), La Cumbre/Cerro S Felipe 3/24,28/96, 4/7/96

398) Streak-backed Oriole (Icterus pustulatus). Isthmus, Chiapas coast 3/29,31/96

399) Altamira Oriole (Icterus gularis). Zipolite thorn forest, Chiapas coast 3/27,30-4/1/96

400) Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula). Oaxaca valley, Palenque 3/25,26, 4/3/96

401) Bullock's Oriole (Icterus bullockii). Sierra de Miahuatlan (Pluma Hidalgo Rd) 3/28/96

402)#Black-backed Oriole (Icterus abeillei). Seen from motel in Amecameca area 4/8/96

403) Yellow-billed Cacique (Amblycercus holosericeus). Isthmus, rd to Guadalupe Victoria 3/29,31/96

404)#Yellow-winged Cacique (Cacicus melanicterus). Oaxaca coast, Isthmus, Chiapas coast 3/26- 28,30-4/1/96

405) Chestnut-headed Oropendola (Psarocolius wagleri). Palenque 4/3,4/96

406) Montezuma Oropendola (Psarocolius montezuma). Palenque (lower trail) 4/4,5/96

407) House Finch (Carpocacus mexicanus). Oaxaca valley, Pacific coast, Popo 3/23-27, 4/8/96

408) Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus). Popo 4/8/96

409)#Black-headed Siskin (Carduelis notata). La Soledad 3/26, S Cristobal (Ocosingo Rd) 4/2,3; also Rt 175 (Valle Nacional cloud forest) 4/6/96

410) Lesser Goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria). Oaxaca valley 3/23-25, 4/7/96

411) House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). Widespread in all inhabited areas.

SUMMARY 411 AOU species 3 additional Howell & Webb forms 11 heard only 64 AOU endemics 6 additional Howell & Webb endemic forms ____________________________________________________________________


Mangrove Black Hawk (Buteogallus subtilis).

Puerto Arista, 3/27/96 (not regarded as a species by Howell & Webb but still an AOU species)

* Highland Guan (Penelopina nigra).

3/29/96 Believed heard at Nava's Wren site. This is supposed to be a bird of cloud forest but its call was familiar to TF who saw it and heard it regularly at Cockscomb Basin in Belize near sea-level!

Herring Gull (Larus argentatus).

3/31/96 large flying gull nr Puerto Arista was probably this species

*#White-faced Quail-Dove (Geotrygon albifacies) or Ruddy Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana).

Heard one or the other of these species several times at Palenque 4/5/96

Lilac-crowned Parrot (Amazona finschi).

Near Puerto Angel 3/28/96 (flying away)

Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygus).

Flew across highway along Chiapas coast 4/1/96

*#Colima (Least) Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium palmarum).

Pluma Hidalgo Rd 3/28/96 (this species is listed by AOU as part of minutissimum)

Black Swift (Cypseloides niger).

Monte Alban 3/26/96

Magnificent Hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens).

Cerro S Filipe 3/24/96

# Wine-throated Hummingbird (Selasphorus ellioti).

Rt 190, w of San Cristobal 4/3/96

Smoky-brown Woodpecker (Veniliornis fumigatus).

Cloud forest on Rt 175 above Valle Nacional 4/6/96

Strong-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus).

Cerro S Fillipe 4/7/96. A very controversial bird. Seen from the driver's seat on an adjacent tree trunk, then flying, landing and perched in two other places with the following traits, all well observed: large size, rather large and notably decurved bill; strikingly contrasted and unmarked white throat; head streaks virtually restricted to head itself and coming down no further than neck; back, wings and tail of a uniform ruddy coloration.

Size of bird (flicker size) and curvature of bill rules out rather smallish Spot- crowned; Black-banded and Barred are well out of range and habitat and, in any case, have dark straightish bills; Spotted is smaller, heavily spotted on the back and does not have a white throat. The bill did not look as massive as it does in most depictions of this species but, as I (ES) recall my one previous experience with this species, in northeastern Venezuela, the bill also seemed less huge than expected from the field guide depiction; however see Guy Tudor's version. This is known to be a highly variable species with, in S.A. at least, the highland forms described as smaller and smaller-billed with a uniform rufous-chestnut rump, wings and tail (an outstanding feature of the bird in question).

One diagnostic feature, a black malar stripe was not directly noted; however the striking effect of the white throat appeared to be well set off, an effect that can be attributed to something like a malar stripe. Note that two of the four observers disagree with this call believing that the size of the bird and the shape of its bill were not "so markedly different from other woodcreeper spp seen on this trip". On any birding trip with 400+ spp there has to be at least one such controversy!

Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius [Tyranniscus] vilissimus).

Yellowish bird with white eye stripe, originally miscalled as Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet; in roadside foliage on road up to ruins at Palenque in the early morning of 4/5. This species is not exclusively a forest or canopy bird like the other Tyrannulet; Howell says "no other species in region similar"

Greenish Elaenia (Myiopagis viridicata).

La Soledad 3/26/96. Flycatcher with a rounded head sitting quietly high on a dead stub was almost certainly this species.

Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus).

From a large and often hopeless collection of empids, this and the following 3 IDs are the most likely to be correct. This quite gray bird at Puerto Angel had a Least-like chip, horizontal posture as well as wing/tail flick; quite common in thorn forest at Puerto Angel 3/27/96

Dusky Flycatcher (Empidonax oberholsi).

Sierra de Miahuatlan 3/26/96

Pacific-slope Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis).

La Soledad (Pluma Hidalgo Rd?) 3/26, 4/3/96

Cinnamon Becard (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus fulvidior).

Distant perched bird at Palenque 4/4/96

# Ridgway's Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ridgwayi).

Seen flying and perched at Palenque 4/2,3/96. Noticeably darker on the back and duskier on the front but listed only as probable because not all field marks seen [not an AOU species]

Aztec Thrush (Zoothera pinicola).

Flew across road between Valle Nacional and Cerro S Felipe; also possible 2 flying across road between Puebla & Mexico City 4/6,7/96

Cassin's [Solitary] Vireo (Vireo cassini).

Zipolite thorn forest (gray head, olive back) 3/26,27/96 [probable ID only; in any case, not an AOU species]

Botteri's Sparrow (Aimophila botterii).

Sparrows in roadway at Popo were well seen in comparison with the Chipping Sparrows, adult and juvenile, also feeding in the roadway: similar in size (perhaps a hair larger), longish tail but rounded not notched, plain-breasted like the Chipping, large bill, flatheaded look, brownish stripe behind the eye, back streaking seemingly cross-hatched rather than length-wise as on the Chipping (and most sparrows). Hard to prove the case but most likely this species which is widespread in Mexico; the nominate subspecies is said to breed in the highlands to 2700 meters; a negative is that the species is generally described as very shy and secretive and these birds were feeding out on the open roadway.

19 possible or probable AOU species 3 additional possible or probable Howell & Webb species 3 heard only 2 AOU endemics 2 Howell & Webb endemics