5 - 20 September 2000
by Roger Wolfe
My wife Laura and I endowed with frequent flier miles decided to make the most of them and journey to Brazil in search of birds and hopefully some large fauna. What really piqued our interest was the presence of a very accessible nest of Harpy Eagles at Serra das Araras in SE Brazil. We found a local guide, Braulio Carlos, via the Pantanal Bird Club's website. In addition to Serra das Araras we also booked a tour to of the Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimares. We would then fly back to Sao Paulo for a visit to Itatiaia National Park in the mountains and Ubatuba on the coast in search of Atlantic Rainforest endemcis.
Our miles got us all the way to Cuiaba, the capital of Mato Gosso state via AA and TAM Airlines by way of Sao Paulo and Brasilia. Upon arrival we were met by a driver from the Hotel Diplomata located close to the airport which is simple but nice. Rooms for the night are about $52. Just down the street is Churrascaria Gaucho, a carnivore's dream come true. For $8 you can have all the grilled beef, pork and chicken you can eat and it is good! Be sure and try the grilled chicken hearts known locally as corazon. There is also a beer and pizza place next door and across the street.
Braulio met us in the lobby at six a.m. and drove us in his car the 150km from Cuiaba to where the we hoped to see the Harpy. En route we spotted a pair of Blue and Gold Macaws nesting in a cavity on a palm snag right next to the road. In the near distance we saw our first of many Toco Toucans. When we turned off the main road heading to our pousada (inn) we stopped to check the roadsides for birds-Magpie Tanager, Black-tailed Trogon, Chestnut-browed Peppershrike and Greenish Elaenia for starters. We passed many trucks and a limestone mining operation before arriving at our destination. Pousada Currupira d'Araras is in a lovely setting, has a large stone pool fed by a stream, a pond and small but comfortable rooms. It is very much a spa type of retreat. The food here is almost as good as the birding which is saying a lot. As we pulled up to the pousada we were greeted by numerous Southern Lapwings and Guira Cuckoos browsing through the pasture, White-throated Kingbird, Purplish Jay, Red-shouldered Macaw, Green-barred Woodpecker and the ubiquitous Rufous Hornero and Thrush like Wren..
We dropped off our bags and headed straight for the Harpy nest. We parked nearby and walked up to the nest located in one of the tallest trees. Nothing there but three other birders and their guide- Andrew Whittaker. We proceeded to beat about the high grasses surrounding the area. Braulio played a tape recording of the mother Harpy but got no response. It was getting quite warm now around 97 degrees F and about the same percentage of humidity. Bear in mind that due to insects we are wearing long sleeve shirts and pants so it is bloody hot! We head back to the pousada for lunch and siesta to escape the heat of the day. This would be the basic pattern we would follow for most of the trip.
At 3:30 we were back in the field birding our way to the Harpy nest. Sightings were of Plumbeous and Scaled Pigeons, Dusky-headed Parakeet, Epaulet Oriole, Masked Tityra and our first hummingbird-a Long-billed Starthroat. At the nest all was quiet, no sign of the Harpy. Braulio is unconcerned, he feels that the juvenile can't have wandered very far. It was last seen three days prior to our arrival at the nest with its mother so we remain hopeful. In the ebbing light we lured a Little Tinamou into sight with a shotgun mike and playback. Braulio pointed it out in the dense foliage using a laser pointer. He didn't put it on the bird but just to side. "Look to the left of the laser." There it was. Quite clever. Using tapes he also succeeded in calling in as darkness fell an Ocellated Poorwill and both Spectactled and Black-banded Owls which we enjoyed viewing through his scope with the help of a spotlight. On the way back to the pousada the road was awash in Pauraques.
We are out in the field early fueled solely by tasty Brazilian coffee. We will have breakfast later. We follow a simple road cleared through the jungle as we listen to the dawn chorus. Using playback, we manage good looks at Buff-throated Woodcreeper, White-dotted Fireeye, White-eyed Attila and a White-tailed Trogon. A rustling of leaves high in the trees reveals our first primate- a Bare-eared Marmoset. Further down the trail we come upon Warbling Antbirds then Little and Red-stained Woodpeckers offer us a good comparison of their similarities. The miniscule Short-tailed Pygmy Tyrant is nearly as small as a bumblebee. Braulio records the call of what he believes is a Yellow-margined Flycatcher. According to the maps in Ridgley this bird is well out of range but later we find the recording matches the call on the CD Rom of Birds of Bolivia that Braulio has loaded on his laptop. If you haven't noticed by now Braulio is into gadgets and they make him a very effective birding guide.
Once again we follow the trail from the road to the Harpy nest. Hopeful we are but all is quiet. No sign of the big raptor but there are plenty of others around this morning. I point out a bird soaring above the canopy that turns out to be the second recorded Black-Hawk Eagle in this area. But there's more- Gray-headed Hawk, Plumbeous Kite, White and Bicolored Hawks and King Vultures help make up for the lack of a Harpy-almost.
In the afternoon we approach the nest from a different angle still hopeful that the Harpy juvenile hasn't left for good. On our approach we see White-eared Puffbirds, Dusky-headed Parakeets and Blue-headed Parrot. Cinnamon-Throated Hermits attack the tape player when Braulio plays a recording of these birds on the lek. Back at the Harpy nest tree we watch a Chestnut-eared Aracari plundering the pendulous nests of the Yelllow-rumped Caciques eliciting no reaction at all from the parents. We spend yet more time searching the area for the Harpy but no luck.
First thing this morning we arrive at the Harpy nest. Now we've tried different approaches and different times of the day and still no sign of the juvenile or the adults. Braulio has told us that this was one of the first Harpy nests discovered in recent times in Brazil and it made the TV news. This broadcast resulted in reports of three subsequent nests in the country as the locals realized what they had and how rare it is. The Harpy at Serra das Araras is unusual in that the forest cover isn't very dense.This area is but a small rivulet of Amazonia that reaches into SE Brazil and is bordered by deciduous forest. There is also a good deal of human activity here. The nest itself is in a tall tree just above a fence line located on a working ranch. The limestone mine isn't far as the eagle flies. Once a day there is a dynamite blast and twice a day we hear the air raid signal for starting and quitting time. For the last year and a half many birders have come here for their life Harpy as we have. We are disappointed but what can you do. Unless you go to a zoo there are no guarantees.
We head into the forest which is quite still this morning and very humid as well. Curiously the birding is slow unlike the past two days. We do see a Collared Trogon arguably the most lovely of the trogons. Also Striolated Puffbird, Cream-colored Woodpecker, Bare-necked Fruitcrow and Cocoa Thrush but not much more. In the late afternoon we try a new locale, a narrow limestone canyon but the birding remains quiet. Perhaps it is the humidity which increases higher as it start to thunder and rain.
We are ready to call it a day but Braulio trudges on trying another trail. Nothing. Finally we head back stopping at the nest one last time as darkness falls and our hopes for for the Harpy are now as dim as the light. We've given it our best shot. On the road back to the pousada we spotlight a Scissor-tailed and Little Nightjar amongst the throng of Paraque. It has been a long day and now we must drive the 150km back to Cuiaba. We soon learn that the roads of Brazil by night are the realm of the truckers who prefer to travel after dark. Harrowingly we pass many of these diesel spewing behemoths that are the main method of transportation of goods here.
Back in downtown Cuiaba at 8:30 p.m. we check into the Hotel Veneza which is so, so. We have pizza and beer across street and collapse into bed soon after.
This morning at breakfast provided by the hotel we meet Steve and Willy Campos who will accompany us on the next segment of our trip. A short time later Braulio arrives in a nine passenger VW bus(sans A/C) with a driver -Eugeno. Down the road we go in the direction of the Pantanal. The size of Georgia, this is the largest wetland in the world. We turn off the highway from Cuiaba onto a smaller road that leads to Pocone. We stop along the way to bird the roadsides. Our first Southern Screamers, Limpkins, Green Ibis and a Pearl Kite. Then I see a bird I had marveled at when studying the field guides prior to our arrival in Brazil-a Streamer-tailed Tyrant is every bit as striking as I had hoped. A White-tailed Goldenthroat hummingbird, White-headed Marsh-Tyrant, Red-crested Finch and Buff-necked Ibis are added to the morning's tally.
We stop at a fish restaurant in Pocone and afterwards gas up the van and a reserve supply tank and soon arrive at the toll gate for the Transpantaneira. This road was originally built to become a highway but later abandoned when maintenance of such a road would prove daunting. The dirt road is just wide enough for two vehicles to pass. Notable are the single track wooden bridges that are passable for the most part but are in varying degrees of disrepair. The elevated roadbed was built by scooping soil from the sides resulting in pockets that remain filled with water even at this time of year which is the dry season here. In these roadside pools are birds and other fauna, right from the start we are seeing great birds-Jabiru, Wood and Maguari Storks and a distant Greater Rhea are the big ones. Plumbeous, Bare-faced and Buff-necked Ibis are also present. Herons include Whistling, Capped, White-necked and Little Blue. Then there are the landbirds Rufous-rumped Seedeater, Crested Oropendola, Troupial, Chalk-browed Mockingbird, Rufous Cacholote and Greater Thornbird. On this day we also see all five species of Kingfisher. Capybara and caimans are plentiful.
Arriving at the only roadside stand on this stretch of road we pause for cool refreshments which are a welcome relief on this very hot and humid day. Then we walk the planks leading to an elevated tower where we watch the sun set into the vast, flat alluvial plain which comprises the Pantanal. From the tower we hear and see our first pair of Hyacinth Macaws! After dark we tiredly make our way down the road, the day has been a long one and quite hot but this doesn't deter Braulio from breaking out his spotlight. We see a Common Potoo hunting from the top of a termite mound We also spot a Brocket Deer. We pass through a blue haze of smoke and see someone setting fires. At last the lights of the Fazenda Santa Theresa are a welcome sight. A quick shower in the deliciously air conditioned room helps restore our spirits as does dinner and a cold one. Afterwards we review our checklist for the day and I discover that on this day I've seen more new life birds than on any other occasion-47! This isn't my first trip to South America and I am finding Brazil extremely birdy.
We are out in the field by 6 a.m. to get some birding in before it gets too hot. From the fazenda we walk to the forest at the edge of the Pixaim River which runs beside our accomodations. The tape playback proves critical this morning in enticing out of the cover Helmeted Manakin, Mato Grosso and Band-tailed Antbirds, Chotoy, White-lored and Rusty-backed Spinetails. Stripe-necked, Pearly-vented and Spotted Tody-Flycatchers and Flavescent and White-bellied Warblers. Back at the fazenda we head for the small pool for relief from the midday heat. There's a fence around it, we are told, to keep out the caiman and capybara.
Later after lunch and siesta we board a small boat to bird the river. On the bank we spot a Pale legged Hornero and a displaying Sunbittern. A La Plata River Otter leaps into the water and we watch his bubble trail as he inspects the hull of our boat. Our boatman points out a large bird hiding under the cover along the riverbank. We manage good looks at an Agami Heron, in my opinion the most beautiful of all herons. We cross the river and come upon a family group of four Giant River Otters! Our boatman seems to be aquainted with them. He calls them in with series of gentle grunts and when they respond he rewards them with some small fish. They come right up to the boat and at one point I'm concerned that one of these quite large, squealing and grunting animals is going to leap into my lap. Being in the midst of these maginficent and playful animals is the highlight of our trip thus far.
As darkness falls Band-tailed Nighthawks skim the surface of the water seeking out insects. We see many sets of caiman eyes glowing in the beam of a flashlight all around us in the river. Later after dinner Braulio and I head into the night armed with headlamp and spotlight. This I think is one of his favorite things to do, shine the headlamp for eyeshine and sneak up and grab nightjars. The first one we catch is a good sized Nacunda Nighthawk who we discover is actually sitting on eggs. No nest of any kind. With the headlamp on we can see many sets of tiny eyes glowing, close inspection reveals them to be spiders. In addition to the Nacunda we easily grab Spot-tailed and Rufous Nightjars.
Early this morning we depart the fazenda in the van but we don't get far as we spot a Red-billed Scythebill probing the holes in a fencepost with its long curved bill. A herd of Greater Rheas grazes nearby undisturbed by our presence. Flycatchers are busy this morning. Braulio uses a tape so we can hear the call and see the display of the Campos Flycatcher, later we will compare this with the new species of Suriri Flycatcher in the Chapada. A Xenopsaris, Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Yellow-chinned and Cinererous-breasted Spinetails and Blue-crowned and Black-hooded Parakeets and Scaly-headed Parrot round out the morning. We spend some time observing the antics of two pairs of noisy Hyacinth Macaws feeding in some palms. Back at the pousada we feed the pet Toco toucans out of our hand and are amazed at how gentle they are. At the feeder are Bay-winged and Giant Cowbirds, Saffron Finches and Yellow-billed Cardinals.
In the late afternoon we load up the bus and drive 50km further down the Transpantaneira birding enroute and picking up Striped Cuckoo and Lesser Seed-Finch. Just after sunset we arrive at Pousada O Pantainero. Rustic accomodations run by a family of Pantaneiros-the cowboys of Brazil. Electricity here is via generator(no A/C) which runs until about 10pm. The ranch dogs have been sleeping in our room which we share with a good sized Hyla Frog. A word of advice to the wise-Don't bring your non-birder spouse here on her vacation.
After dinner we head out into the night in the bus. Our hopes for this evening are in seeing a Jaguar. Not an easy mammal to see. We spend a couple of hours driving a side road off the Transpantaneira in the Jaguar Ecological Reserve looking for the eyeshine of a large mammal. We do see something sizable cross the road at one point but fail to relocate it. We play a tape of the eery sounds of a Jaguar but no luck. We do manage to get great looks through the scope at a Great Potoo perched in its cryptic pose high in a snag.
Back at the pousada we settle into our beds as the meager fan swings back and forth. Then the generator winds down. The night is very warm.
Up early to bird the same road we traveled the previous night. We observe a pair of Laughing Falcons being harassed by a pair of Bat Falcons. We spend some time watching a large group of Black-and-Gold Howler Monkeys feeding in the canopy. They watch us in return. Braulio plays a tape and gets an immediate response from a Great Rufous Woodcreeper and we are surprised at how large it is. We return to the fazenda for breakfast and afterwards we bird the forested area across the way. Blue-crowned Trogon, Silver-beaked Tanager, Forest Elaenia and Flavescent Warbler are about all we come across.
In the afternoon we drive further down the Transpantaneira. Shortly after getting under way we meet another car and are informed that there is a bus stuck on one of the bridges ahead of us. When we arrive at this bridge, which is longer than any of the others, it looks to me as if it has collapsed. The bus is parked to the side of the road on the side we are coming from. So it looks as if it has all been cleared up.The bridge is broken but still usable we find as our driver heads across it undeterred. We come upon a large snake stretched across the road. It turns out to be a young Yellow Anaconda about 2 meters long. It moves away very quickly when we approach it on foot.
Birds are sparse. Conditions are quite dry here in the Pantanal during our visit and as a result we have seen almost no waterfowl. The Muscovy Ducks we come across here and a pair of Brazilian Ducks seen earlier will be the only ducks we see. Shorebirds are also largely absent, only Solitary Sandpiper and both Yellowlegs. We do see our first White-browed Blackbird before we turn around. We get back to the collapsed bridge and the bus is now stuck in the middle! I have visions of all six of us spending the night in the VW van. The men aboard the bus are frantically trying to free it with jacks and assorted planks. From a nearby shack comes a man whistling aboard a tractor who I suppose makes a profit rescuing vehicles off this bridge. Forty-five minutes later they manage to get the bus across the bridge and we are back on the road with a cheer.
In the night when the generator has wound down we sleep very little. The heat is one thing, the baying of the hound dogs outside our door is another, then the ranch cat proceeds to yowl. Not to be upstaged the Hyla frog in our bathroom is really loud, more of a scream than a croak. But the loudest of all are the Plumbeous Ibis who are nesting in the trees above us. They make a sound like the squealing skid of car tires. . We have to laugh.
Today is to be a transport day. We depart the Pantanal of Pocone and make the drive back to Cuiaba. In some of the roadside ponds we spot as many as eight different species feeding together. Jabirus, Great and Snowy Egrets, Wood Stork, White-necked, Whistling and Striated Herons, Roseate Spoonbill. A raptor flying parallel to the road lands in a snag and turns out to be our only Crane Hawk of the trip. A red flowering shrub brings us Buff-bellied Hermit. We arrive in Cuiaba and have lunch in an all you can eat place that charges by the pound. You are given a card and your food is weighed and recorded and you pay when you leave. We tank up on water, gas up the van and head towards Chapada dos Guimaraes National Park, a couple hours drive from Cuiaba.
On the approach we see the mesa upon which the cerrado bioregion is located. Fortunately with the increase in altitude comes the decrease in temperature and humidity. We arrive at our accomodations for the next two nights. The Hotel Laura Vicuna is nice. We immediately head for the pool which feels great after the drive up. At 3:30 pm we head back into the field. The avifauna is largely different here than our previous locales. We hear a Red-legged Seriema but fail to locate it. We do see White-banded Tanager, Horned Sungem, Chalk-browed Mockingbird, Red-and-Green Macaws, and I'm excited to see Collared Crescentchest which brings my trip total up to four new families. We dine at a restaurant in town which is quite good. There are three main food groups in Brazil and they are meat, meat and meat. There is always plenty of food, one dish typically feeds two and the assorted side dishes of rice, beans, manioc and potatoes cover the entire table. We never had a bad meal.
The morning is clear and sunny as we bird the Chapada along the road to Aguas Frias. The soil is here is very fine and rusty red and our clothing soon takes on this hue. Here we see the new species of Suriri Flycatrcher. The call is quite different from that of the Campos Flycatcher we saw earlier in the Pantanal as is its display which consisits of raising the wings as opposed to fluttering them. We also see Gray Monjita, Crested Black Tyrant, Black-faced, White-banded and White-rumped Tanagers, Curl Crested Jay, Coal-crested Finch and Green-winged Saltator. The big event are two Red-legged Seriema which respond to the tape playback by galloping assertively right up to us and demand to know who has invaded their territory. These birds are the only members of their family and a bit bizarre. The male hops up on to a shrub about 20 feet away and vocalizes quite loudly. Braulio is impressed, he has never seen a Seriema in full display this close before. I am excited about logging a fifth family.
For lunch we park the bus and hike a short distance to a restaurant located inside the park in an incredible setting. Outside tables look out to a lovely waterfall and pool in which you can swim. From our tables with beer in hand we bird. A Great Dusky Swift on the nest beside the falls. Pale-breasted Thrush, Thick-billed Euphonia. Braulio takes us down to the river behind the restaurant where he has spotted a Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper.
Later, after siesta, we go to the incredible Veu de Nova waterfall that plummets from the mesa into a deep valley. The sheer rock faces here are filled with roosting and nesting birds. White-eyed Parakeets are everywhere. A Yellow-ridged Toucan tries to raid their nests to noisy protests. We see our first Swallow Flycatcher and Blue-winged Macaw. As the sun sets the swifts come in like screaming jet fighters to roost behind the falls-White-collared, Biscutate and Gray-rumped. This is one of the most scenic settings I've ever had the opportunity to bird. Unforgettable vista.
In the night we are awakened by thunder and the sound of a downpour. At first light the rain has abated but a damp mist enshrouds all around us. We drive a short distance from our hotel to a jungled ravine. Rain dripping from the canopy makes for difficult birding. The lighting is unfavorable. Despite this we do manage to see a few birds. Pectoral Sparrow comes in response to playback. We also see a Sirystes and Euler's Flycatcher. Then it begins to rain and we opt to head back to the hotel for breakfast and hope for a break in the weather. Breakfasts seem to be the same wherever we go. Mango, bananas. A soft white cheese, slices of ham and a breadroll to make a sandwich. A variety of juices-watermelon, orange and cashew fruit to name a few. And of course there is always good coffee and tea.
The rain breaks up so we head back to the ravine for a couple of hours. We see Amethyst Woodstar, Blue Dacnis, Red-legged Honeycreeper. We hear a Fiery-capped manakin, play a tape but only get to see the female who is drab. We do get good looks at a couple of brilliant male Band-tailed Manakins doing a little dance on the lek. Braulio works with the tape player for a half hour trying to get a Tataupa Tinamou into view but the bird stubbornly refuses.
We have another huge lunch in town and afterword Braulio takes us to a spot which is the geodetic center of South America. From here we can see Cuiaba in the distance below us. In this grassy area we look for Blue Finch but find none. We stop at another spot, walk a short distance into the cover, play a tape and out pops a very cooperative Southern Antpipit. This will be our last day on the tour with Braulio. We stop at the hotel for a siesta and pack our things into the van for the drive back to Cuiaba. We stop enroute for more birds. Braulio is a keen birder at heart and he is determined ot get the most out of each day. He hears a crake in a boggy area and we work at it until we finally succeed in glimpsing a Russet-crowned Crake. During this pursuit we also see a Crowned Slaty Flycatcher and a Mouse-colored Tyrannulet.
Back in Cuiaba we drop Braulio, Steve and Willy off at the bus station. They will be riding an all night luxury bus to Alta Floresta. We will spend the night at the Hotel Diplomata again. We dine at the pizza and beer place next door. A word here about Brazilian pizza. They are different. None of the pizza had tomato sauce on them and were served with catsup and mustard on the side. Sounds strange but they were good with catsup.
The alarm jolts us from sleep at 3:45am so we can get to the airport an hour before our departure at 5:15. At least the hotel is only five minutes away. At the gate we watch the opening ceremonies for the olympics on tv. Our flight on TAM is punctual and on the whole we are impressed with this airline. With the time change we arrive in Sao Paulo at 8:15. We are met at the gate by our translator/driver/guide-Malu. I had tried to contract Paulo Boute, a well respected brazilian guide, for this segment of the trip. He was unavailable for the dates we needed him but offered to subcontract another guide he knew. That is how we ended up with Malu.
From the airport we travel by car via the newly completed toll highway. This very modern freeway system we found quite impressive. Due to the tolls, traffic is very light. It takes us a few hours to reach Itatiaia National Park. Inside the park we arrive at the renowned Hotel Ype under sunny skies. It feels wonderful to be out of the heat and humidity, its more temperate here. We can wear shorts because there are very few bugs! The hotel is a is reminiscent of a Swiss chalet. There are separate chalets available and suites. It isn't real fancy but nice. An indoor and outdoor pool, patio terrace, game rooms. The food and the service here were terrific and the birding too. $125per night for a couple including wonderful meals in the dining room with feeders outside the windows and a fantastic vista.
Upon arrival we find the feeders rich with tanagers-Green-headed, Black-goggled, Ruby-crowned and the endemic Olive-green and Golden-chevroned. Also here were Red-rumped Cacique and Chestnut-bellied Euphonia. After lunch we caught up on some missed sleep, then headed into the Atlantic Rainforest, a hotspot for endemicism in Brazil. Unfortunately only about 5-8% of this ecosystem is intact, the rest having been cleared for various reasons. Our first foray here is along a trail from our hotel to the infamous Hotel Simon. We come upon a grove of Giant Bamboo and marvel at its size, we're talking bamboo stalks a foot wide! Along the trail we find Surucua Trogon, Long-tailed Tyrant and Yellow Tyraunnulet. At the Hotel Simon we wander around the back of the hotel and spot another endemic-Black-legged Dacnis. Then we find the world famous feeders at the home of the hotel administrator who is very friendly, english speaking and knowledgable about the birds at his feeders. He invites us to sit in front of his house and watch the hummingbird feeders. We see Planalto Hermit, Long-tailed and Violet Capped Woodnymphs and Versicolored Emerald in a matter of minutes. On the way back we scare up several Dusky-legged Guans. Noisy Ashy-tailed Swifts ply the skies overhead.
I step out of our hotel room and immediately see a very striking Red-breasted Toucan. It has rained in the night and everything is wet, damp and surprisingly cool. From the valley below the fog creeps and soon we are enshrouded in a thick mist. Malu and I head for the trail that leads to the Hotel Simon again. The jungle here is quite dense and verdant. We hear birds and Malu knows many of the calls. She's carrying a very long shotgun mike and when I suggest she use it out comes a very small tape recorder. The bird's call is recorded but upon playback I realize there isn't enough volume to it for the birds to hear. The antbird we are trying to entice goes unseen. This is bad. The tape player Braulio used was responsible for us successfully seeing about 30 % of our species total. I've become spoiled maybe but I've also come all this way and now we're going to miss out on a lot of birds. Malu is very good at birding by ear but she only knows the latin names for the birds. This turns out to be her first experience as a bird guide. "You hear that?" She'll ask and then tell me the latin name. An endemic antbird goes unseen. In a word- maddening.
We do manage some endemics this morning White-collared Foliage Gleaner and Ferruginous Antbird and in a mixed flock of tanagers I see the stunning Gilt-edged Tanager. Back at the feeders at the administrator's house we see Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, Saffron Toucanet and and Fawn-breasted Tanager . Hummingbirds whir around us, many of them are Black Jacobin and the aforementioned species but the prize is the endemic Brazilian Ruby.
Later in the afternoon we walk up the road from the Hotel Ype to a trailhead. As we start up the trail we are stopped by rangers. Apparently we need special permission to enter here. After much discussion Malu persuades them to let us bird the trail but we must return inside of an hour. It is very quiet, the only birds we see are a pair of Spot-billed Toucanets.
The staff at the Hotel Ype are kind enough to open the dining room early for us this morning. They have also put together a picinic lunch for us as we won't return for lunch. Our destination today is Aghulas Negras-the Black Needles. To get there we must drive an half an hour south then head east and back into the Itatiaia National Park via a different entrance. The road that leads us to this high alpine area is in bad shape. Lots of potholes, rocks etc. The going is slow which is fortunate because we are able to hear the distinctive call of the Black and Gold Cotinga we stop, look up and there it is. Another Brazilian endemic. The road continues upward and we enjoy some spectacular vistas. This kind of mountain scenery isn't what we expected to find in Brazil! We pass some campgrounds, and when I see a bright blue bird we stop and it turns out to be a Diademed Tanager, also we find a Sooty Tyrannulet.
Higher up the road we stop to check out another pair of Diademeds but wait here is something else low in a shrub. Long tail dull brown. Itatiaia Spinetail! Another endemic. We arrive at the entry kiosk and park the car and continue on foot. At 8700ft this is truly an alpine setting. A hummer sits on a flowering shrub - a lovely White-vented Violetear. A pair of noisy Rufous-capped Antshrikes. A large finch appears and turns out to be a Great Pampa Finch and another endemic the Velvety Black Tyrant. We seem to have the place all to ourselves then we hear voices and see climbers on the bare rocks above us cheering at the summit. On the hike back we see a raptor and ID it as a White-rumped Hawk. Back in the car we spot a Red Warbling Finch. On the drive back we descend into a fog as thick as I've ever seen. It is raining back at the hotel as it what this morning when we left but we've been lucky and have stayed out of it all day.
A light rain makes for difficult birding this morning and a thick mist makes it more so. The only new bird we see on our early morning walk is a Black-cheeked Gnateater. After breakfast we pack and load up the car. Today we will travel from these mountains to the coast at Ubatuba. On our way out of the park we stop at a small curio shop. Outside hangs a hummingbird feeder. A tiny little hummer whirs in-its a Frilled Coquette! And then another bird - a Sombre Hummingbird both endemics. We leave the park for the three hour drive to the coast. Once we're away from the mountains the weather clears but as we climb the coastal hills we enter the clouds. Our intentions are to bird a state reserve here in the hills above the coast but the mist is so incredibly thick it would be pointless.
Somewhere below us is the coastline but we can't see it until we're right next to the Atlantic. Ubatuba is a resort area that stretches from south to north for about 40km. The jungled, steep hills meet the ocean in a dramatic way. We find a nice hotel walking along a stretch of beach wearing our binoculars. By chance we meet a gentleman who tells us he has a feeder at his house and invites us to come and see the birds in his yard. On the way to his house he points to the Hotel Canoeira. It's his hotel. On the beach. Very nice. A bargain in the off season here at $32 a night including breakfast.
The birding at the hotel owner's house is quite good. We see our first Brazilian Tanager, White-chinned Sapphire and Rufous-headed Tanagers. Both tanagers being endemic. For dinner Paulo Boute suggested the Hotel Solar. The seafood here is delicious (prawns Sao Paulo)and the landscaped grounds around the pool are lovely. When we find that the price is the same low season rate as the place we're in we decide to spend the next evening, our last night, here.
The hotel staff has left us a thermos of hot coffee and some pastry as we're up quite early. Along the road we pass a sign marking the Tropic of Capricorn. Our intended destination is Fazenda Capricornus. We drive up one road, ask directions, follow them, ask directions again. Everyone is very friendly and helpful but they keep giving us the wrong directions. I'm getting angrier by the minute. I expect my guide to know her way around here but she doesn't. We're wasting prime birding time lost. A brief stop helps placate me a little when she hears a White-bearded Manakin. There are several males on a lek popping around madly, making sounds like the snapping of a twig. Finally one pauses long enough for me to get a look. Back in the car we ask directions once again. We never did find the fazenda!
Finally we drive into an agronomy reserve and get permission to bird there. I'm fit to be tied and birding helps calm me as it usually does. We see a lot of thrushes-Creamy-bellied, Yellow-legged and Eastern Slaty. In a mixed flock of tanagers we find Brassy-breasted and Red-necked Tanagers, both brilliantly colorful. Lemon -chested Greenlet is the only other new addition to our trip list here.
Malu suggests trying another locale so we get back in the car. We lose another 45 minutes driving south. By now its 11:30 and the birds have quieted down. We park at on old sugar cane mill and walk up into the jungle. Its lovely in here but the heat of the day is upon us. We see a White-eyed Foliage Gleaner and not much else. For lunch we drive to a small beach where there is small thatched place that serves seafood. We order lunch, wade into the water and enjoy the spectacular view of these jungled slopes reaching down to the water's edge. Offshore we see Kelp Gulls and South American Terns following a fishing boat. The seafood is incredible-Prawns in a Heart of Palm sauce and a seafood stew. We nap on the beach before heading back to Ubatuba. We check out of one hotel and check into the Hotel Solar. A sunset walk on the beach takes us to where a creek enters the ocean and here we spot a Masked Water Tyrant which wraps up the day.
Our last day in Brazil I decide to have a vacation. We bird around the neighborhood. I'm not interested in getting in the car and driving anywhere because we have a three and a half hour drive back to Sao Paulo this afternoon and don't want a repeat of yesterday's fiasco. Besides the Hotel Solar is so charming, Laura loves it here. We have the whole place to ourselves so we lounge around the pool reading. For lunch we head into town for one more go at a churrascaria. A siesta and then its back to Sao Paulo. As we cross the mountains we enter the clouds again but somehow the mist is even thicker. We can barely make out the car 10 feet in front of us. Large trucks coming from the other direction appear out of nowhere.With a huge sigh of relief we descend to the other side of the coastal hills where it is sunny and clear. We spend a few hours at the airport then catch the redeye back to the U.S.A.
Field Guide: The only comprehensive field guide for Brazil that I was able to locate is Todas as Aves do Brasil by Deodata Souza. The text is in portuguese but english and scientific names are included. The artwork in this book is only passable but all the birds of Brazil can be found here. It is available for purchase from the Boute Expeditions and Pantanal Bird Club websites. The bookcover is comical and my understanding is that it is this way because the author wanted it to appeal to children. Birds of Southern South America and Antarctica by Martin de la Pena only covers southern Brazil.
Local Guides: Despite the incredible wealth of avifauna local professional guides are few. I prefer to employ local guides and leave more of my tourist dollar in the country I am visiting. I feel that ecotourism should benefit local economies as much as possible. This worked out quite well for the Serra das Araras, Pantanal and Chapada segments of our trip under the guidance of the Pantanal Bird Club but there is room for improvement on the Itatatia and Ubatuba segments. A shotgun mike and tape recorder playback are a must.
TRIP SPECIES LIST:
In the course of our 16 day journey we logged 394 species total. 16 of these were endemics. Species sighted are found below.
p = Pantanal of Pocone
c = Chapada dos Guimares
s = Serra das Araras
i = Itatiaia National Park
u = Ubatuba
* = endemic
|COMMON NAME||SCIENTIFIC NAME||SITE|
|Greater Rhea||Rhea americana||p|
|Little Tinamou||Crypturellus soui||s|
|Small-billed Tinamou||Crypturellus parvirostris||s|
|Tataupa Tinamou||Crypturellus tataupa||c|
|Red-winged Tinamou||Rhynchotus rufescens||c|
|Chaco Chachalaca||Ortalis canicollis||p|
|Spix's Guan||Penelope jacquacu||s|
|Dusky-legged Guan||Penelope obscura||i|
|Chestnut-bellied Guan||Penelope ochrogaster||p*|
|Blue-throated Piping-Guan||Pipile cumanensis||p|
|Red-throated Piping-Guan||Pipile cujubi||p|
|Bare-faced Curassow||Crax fasciolata||p|
|Southern Screamer||Chauna torquata||p|
|Muscovy Duck||Cairina moschata||p|
|Brazilian Teal||Amazonetta brasiliensis||s,p|
|White-wedged Piculet||Picumnus albosquamatus||s,p|
|White Woodpecker||Melanerpes candidus||p|
|Yellow-tufted Woodpecker||Melanerpes cruentatus||s,p|
|Yellow-fronted Woodpecker||Melanerpes flavifrons||i|
|Little Woodpecker||Veniliornis passerinus||s|
|Golden-green Woodpecker||Piculus chrysochloros||s|
|Campo Flicker||Colaptes campestris||p,c|
|Pale-crested Woodpecker||Celeus lugubris||p|
|Cream-colored Woodpecker||Celeus flavus||s|
|Lineated Woodpecker||Dryocopus lineatus||p|
|Crimson-crested Woodpecker||Campephilus melanoleucos||p|
|Lettered Aracari||Pteroglossus inscriptus||s|
|Chestnut-eared Aracari||Pteroglossus castanotis||s,p,c|
|Saffron Toucanet||Baillonius bailloni||i|
|Spot-billed Toucanet||Selenidera maculirostris||i|
|Yellow-ridged Toucan||Ramphastos culminatus||c|
|Red-breasted Toucan||Ramphastos dicolorus||i|
|Toco Toucan||Ramphastos toco||s,p|
|Rufous-tailed Jacamar||Galbula ruficauda||s,c|
|White-eared Puffbird||Nystalus chacuru||s,c|
|Striolated Puffbird||Nystalus striolatus||s|
|Black-fronted Nunbird||Monasa nigrifrons||s,p,c|
|Black-tailed Trogon||Trogon melanurus||s|
|White-tailed Trogon||Trogon viridis||s|
|Collared Trogon||Trogon collaris||s|
|Surucua Trogon||Trogon surrucura||i|
|Blue-crowned Trogon||Trogon curucui||s,c|
|Blue-crowned Motmot||Momotus momota||s,c,i|
|Ringed Kingfisher||Megaceryle torquata||p|
|Amazon Kingfisher||Chloroceryle amazona||s,p|
|Green Kingfisher||Chloroceryle americana||p|
|Green-and-rufous Kingfisher||Chloroceryle inda||p|
|American Pygmy Kingfisher||Chloroceryle aenea||p|
|Squirrel Cuckoo||Piaya cayana||s,p,c|
|Smooth-billed Ani||Crotophaga ani||s,p,c|
|Guira Cuckoo||Guira guira||s,p,c|
|Striped Cuckoo||Tapera naevia||p|
|Hyacinth Macaw||Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus||p|
|Red-and-green Macaw||Ara chloroptera||c|
|Blue-and-yellow Macaw||Ara ararauna||p|
|Blue-winged Macaw||Ara maracana||p,c|
|Yellow-collared Macaw||Ara auricollis||p,c|
|Red-shouldered Macaw||Ara nobilis||s|
|Blue-crowned Parakeet||Aratinga acuticaudata||p|
|White-eyed Parakeet||Aratinga leucophthalmus||c|
|Dusky-headed Parakeet||Aratinga weddellii||s|
|Peach-fronted Parakeet||Aratinga aurea||p|
|Monk Parakeet||Myiopsitta monachus||p|
|Yellow-chevroned Parakeet||Brotogeris chiriri||s,p,c|
|Blue-headed Parrot||Pionus menstruus||s,c|
|Scaly-headed Parrot||Pionus maximiliani||p|
|Blue-fronted Parrot||Amazona aestiva||s,p|
|Great Dusky Swift||Cypseloides senex||c|
|White-collared Swift||Streptoprocne zonaris||c|
|Biscutate Swift||Streptoprocne biscutata||c|
|Grey-rumped Swift||Chaetura cinereiventris||c|
|Ashy-tailed Swift||Chaetura andrei||i|
|Fork-tailed Palm-Swift||Tachornis squamata||s|
|Planalto Hermit||Phaethornis pretrei||i|
|Buff-bellied Hermit||Phaethornis subochraceus||c|
|Cinnamon-throated Hermit||Phaethornis nattereri||s|
|Swallow-tailed Hummingbird||Eupetomena macroura||s,u|
|Black Jacobin||Melanotrochilus fuscus||i|
|White-vented Violet-ear||Colibri serrirostris||c,i|
|Frilled Coquette||Lophornis magnificus||i*|
|Black-bellied Thorntail||Popelairia langsdorffi||s|
|Fork-tailed Woodnymph||Thalurania furcata||s|
|Long-tailed Woodnymph||Thalurania watertonii||i|
|Violet-capped Woodnymph||Thalurania glaucopis||i|
|Rufous-throated Sapphire||Hylocharis sapphirina||s|
|White-chinned Sapphire||Hylocharis cyanus||u|
|White-throated Hummingbird||Leucochloris albicollis||i|
|White-tailed Goldenthroat||Polytmus guainumbi||p|
|Versicolored Emerald||Amazilia versicolor||i|
|Glittering-throated Emerald||Amazilia fimbriata||s,p|
|Sombre Hummingbird||Aphantochroa cirrochloris||i,u*|
|Brazilian Ruby||Clytolaema rubricauda||i*|
|Horned Sungem||Heliactin bilophum||c|
|Long-billed Starthroat||Heliomaster longirostris||s|
|Amethyst Woodstar||Calliphlox amethystina||c|
|Black-banded Owl||Strix huhula||s|
|Spectacled Owl||Pulsatrix perspicillata||s|
|Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl||Glaucidium brasilianum||i|
|Burrowing Owl||Speotyto cunicularia||s,c|
|Great Potoo||Nyctibius grandis||p|
|Common Potoo||Nyctibius griseus||p|
|Band-tailed Nighthawk||Nyctiprogne leucopyga||p|
|Nacunda Nighthawk||Podager nacunda||p|
|Ocellated Poorwill||Nyctiphrynus ocellatus||s|
|Spot-tailed Nightjar||Caprimulgus maculicaudus||p|
|Little Nightjar||Caprimulgus parvulus||s|
|Scissor-tailed Nightjar||Hydropsalis brasiliana||s|
|Scaled Pigeon||Columba speciosa||s|
|Picazuro Pigeon||Columba picazuro||p,c|
|Pale-vented Pigeon||Columba cayennensis||p,c|
|Plumbeous Pigeon||Columba plumbea||s,c|
|Ruddy Ground-Dove||Columbina talpacoti||s,pc|
|Picui Ground-Dove||Columbina picui||p|
|Blue Ground-Dove||Claravis pretiosa||s,p,c|
|Long-tailed Ground-Dove||Uropelia campestris||p|
|White-tipped Dove||Leptotila verreauxi||p|
|Grey-fronted Dove||Leptotila rufaxilla||p,c|
|Red-legged Seriema||Cariama cristata||c|
|Russet-crowned Crake||Anurolimnas viridis||c|
|Grey-necked Wood-Rail||Aramides cajanea||p|
|Greater Yellowlegs||Tringa melanoleuca||s|
|Lesser Yellowlegs||Tringa flavipes||s,p|
|Solitary Sandpiper||Tringa solitaria||p|
|Wattled Jacana||Jacana jacana||s,p|
|Southern Lapwing||Vanellus chilensis||s,p,c|
|Kelp Gull||Larus dominicanus||u|
|South American Tern||Sterna hirundinacea||u|
|Large-billed Tern||Phaetusa simplex||p|
|Grey-headed Kite||Leptodon cayanensis||s|
|Pearl Kite||Gampsonyx swainsonii||p|
|Snail Kite||Rostrhamus sociabilis||p|
|Plumbeous Kite||Ictinia plumbea||s,p|
|Bicolored Hawk||Accipiter bicolor||s|
|Crane Hawk||Geranospiza caerulescens||p|
|White Hawk||Leucopternis albicollis||s|
|Great Black-Hawk||Buteogallus urubitinga||s,p|
|Savanna Hawk||Buteogallus meridionalis||p|
|Black-collared Hawk||Busarellus nigricollis||p|
|Grey Hawk||Buteo plagiatus||s|
|Roadside Hawk||Buteo magnirostris||s,p|
|White-rumped Hawk||Buteo leucorrhous||i|
|White-tailed Hawk||Buteo albicaudatus||i|
|Black Hawk-Eagle||Spizaetus tyrannus||s|
|Laughing Falcon||Herpetotheres cachinnans||p|
|Southern Caracara||Caracara plancus||s,p,c|
|Yellow-headed Caracara||Milvago chimachima||s,p,c|
|American Kestrel||Falco sparverius||s,p,c|
|Aplomado Falcon||Falco femoralis||p,c|
|Bat Falcon||Falco rufigularis||p|
|Least Grebe||Tachybaptus dominicus||s|
|Brown Booby||Sula leucogaster||u|
|Neotropic Cormorant||Phalacrocorax brasilianus||p|
|Rufescent Tiger-Heron||Tigrisoma lineatum||p|
|Boat-billed Heron||Cochlearius cochlearia||p|
|Agami Heron||Agamia agami||p|
|Black-crowned Night-Heron||Nycticorax nycticorax||p|
|Whistling Heron||Syrigma sibilatrix||p|
|Little Blue Heron||Egretta caerulea||p|
|Snowy Egret||Egretta thula||p|
|Cocoi Heron||Ardea cocoi||p|
|Great Egret||Ardea alba||p|
|Cattle Egret||Bubulcus ibis||s,p,c|
|Striated Heron||Butorides striatus||p|
|Bare-faced Ibis||Phimosus infuscatus||p|
|Plumbeous Ibis||Theristicus caerulescens||s,p|
|Buff-necked Ibis||Theristicus caudatus||s,p|
|Green Ibis||Mesembrinibis cayennensis||s,p|
|Roseate Spoonbill||Ajaia ajaja||p|
|Black Vulture||Coragyps atratus||s,p,c|
|Turkey Vulture||Cathartes aura||p|
|Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture||Cathartes burrovianus||p|
|King Vulture||Sarcoramphus papa||s|
|Wood Stork||Mycteria americana||p,c|
|Maguari Stork||Ciconia maguari||p|
|Magnificent Frigatebird||Fregata magnificens||u|
|Sepia-capped Flycatcher||Leptopogon amaurocephalus||s,c|
|Slaty-capped Flycatcher||Leptopogon superciliaris||c|
|Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant||Hemitriccus striaticollis||p|
|Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant||Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer||p|
|Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher||Todirostrum latirostre||p|
|Southern Antpipit||Corythopis delalandi||c|
|Mouse-colored Tyrannulet||Phaeomyias murina||c|
|Yellow Tyrannulet||Capsiempis flaveola||i|
|Campo Suiriri||Suiriri affinis||p|
|New species Suiriri||?||c|
|Forest Elaenia||Myiopagis gaimardii||p,c|
|Greenish Elaenia||Myiopagis viridicata||c|
|Yellow-bellied Elaenia||Elaenia flavogaster||c|
|White-crested Elaenia||Elaenia albiceps||c|
|Plain-crested Elaenia||Elaenia cristata||s,p|
|Sooty Tyrannulet||Serpophaga nigricans||i,u|
|White-crested Tyrannulet||Serpophaga subcristata||c|
|Plain Tyrannulet||Inezia inornata||p|
|Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant||Myiornis ecaudatus||s|
|Yellow-olive Flycatcher||Tolmomyias sulphurescens||p,c|
|Yellow-margined Flycatcher||Tolmomyias assimilis||s|
|Bran-colored Flycatcher||Myiophobus fasciatus||i|
|Swallow Flycatcher||Hirundinea bellicosa||c,i|
|Fuscous Flycatcher||Cnemotriccus fuscatus||p|
|Euler's Flycatcher||Lathrotriccus euleri||p,i|
|Vermilion Flycatcher||Pyrocephalus rubinus||p|
|Grey Monjita||Xolmis cinerea||c|
|White-rumped Monjita||Xolmis velata||p|
|Velvety Black-Tyrant||Knipolegus nigerrimus||i|
|Crested Black-Tyrant||Knipolegus lophotes||c|
|Masked Water-Tyrant||Fluvicola nengeta||u|
|White-headed Marsh-Tyrant||Arundinicola leucocephala||p|
|Streamer-tailed Tyrant||Gubernetes yetapa||p|
|Long-tailed Tyrant||Colonia colonus||i,u|
|Cattle Tyrant||Machetornis rixosus||p|
|Rufous-tailed Attila||Attila phoenicurus||u|
|Dull-capped Attila||Attila bolivianus||s,p|
|Rufous Casiornis||Casiornis rufa||p|
|Brown-crested Flycatcher||Myiarchus tyrannulus||p|
|White-throated Kingbird||Tyrannus albogularis||s|
|Tropical Kingbird||Tyrannus melancholicus||p,c,u|
|Fork-tailed Flycatcher||Tyrannus savana||s,p,c|
|Boat-billed Flycatcher||Megarynchus pitangua||s,p,c|
|Streaked Flycatcher||Myiodynastes maculatus||s,c|
|Rusty-margined Flycatcher||Myiozetetes cayanensis||s,p,c|
|Lesser Kiskadee||Philohydor lictor||s,p,c|
|Great Kiskadee||Pitangus sulphuratus||s,p,c|
|White-naped Xenopsaris||Xenopsaris albinucha||p|
|Crested Becard||Pachyramphus validus||s,p,c|
|Black-tailed Tityra||Tityra cayana||s,p,c|
|Masked Tityra||Tityra semifasciata||s,p,c|
|Black-crowned Tityra||Tityra inquisitor||s|
|Black-and-gold Cotinga||Tijuca atra||i*|
|Bare-necked Fruitcrow||Gymnoderus foetidus||s|
|Band-tailed Manakin||Pipra fasciicauda||p,c|
|Helmeted Manakin||Antilophia galeata||p,c|
|White-bearded Manakin||Manacus manacus||u|
|Flame-crested Manakin||Heterocercus linteatus||c|
|Great Antshrike||Taraba major||p,c|
|Barred Antshrike||Thamnophilus doliatus||p|
|Rufous-winged Antshrike||Thamnophilus torquatus||c|
|Rufous-capped Antshrike||Thamnophilus ruficapillus||i|
|Planalto Slaty Antshrike||Thamnophilus pelzelni||p|
|Plain Antvireo||Dysithamnus mentalis||p|
|Large-billed Antwren||Herpsilochmus longirostris||p,c|
|Rusty-backed Antwren||Formicivora rufa||c|
|Ferruginous Antbird||Drymophila ferruginea||i*|
|White-backed Fire-eye||Pyriglena leuconota||s,c|
|Mato Grosso Antbird||Cercomacra melanaria||p|
|Warbling Antbird||Hypocnemis cantator||s|
|Band-tailed Antbird||Hypocnemoides maculicauda||p|
|Black-throated Antbird||Myrmeciza atrothorax||s|
|Pale-legged Hornero||Furnarius leucopus||p|
|Rufous Hornero||Furnarius rufus||s,p,c|
|Itatiaia Thistletail||Schizoeaca moreirae||i*|
|Chotoy Spinetail||Schoeniophylax phryganophila||p|
|Sooty-fronted Spinetail||Synallaxis frontalis||c|
|Pale-breasted Spinetail||Synallaxis albescens||c|
|Cinereous-breasted Spinetail||Synallaxis hypospodia||p|
|White-lored Spinetail||Synallaxis albilora||p|
|Rusty-backed Spinetail||Cranioleuca vulpina||p|
|Yellow-chinned Spinetail||Certhiaxis cinnamomea||p|
|Rufous-fronted Thornbird||Phacellodomus rufifrons||p|
|Greater Thornbird||Phacellodomus ruber||p|
|Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper||Lochmias nematura||c|
|Rufous Cacholote||Pseudoseisura cristata||p|
|White-collared Foliage-gleaner||Anabazenops fuscus||i*|
|White-eyed Foliage-gleaner||Automolus leucophthalmus||u|
|Streaked Xenops||Xenops rutilans||p,c|
|Olivaceous Woodcreeper||Sittasomus griseicapillus||p,c|
|White-throated Woodcreeper||Xiphocolaptes albicollis||i|
|Great Rufous Woodcreeper||Xiphocolaptes major||p|
|Planalto Woodcreeper||Dendrocolaptes platyrostris||c|
|Straight-billed Woodcreeper||Xiphorhynchus picus||p|
|Buff-throated Woodcreeper||Xiphorhynchus guttatus||p|
|Narrow-billed Woodcreeper||Lepidocolaptes angustirostris||p|
|Lesser Woodcreeper||Lepidocolaptes fuscus||i|
|Lineated Woodcreeper||Lepidocolaptes albolineatus||p|
|Red-billed Scythebill||Campylorhamphus trochilirostris||p|
|Black-cheeked Gnateater||Conopophaga melanops||i*|
|Collared Crescent-chest||Melanopareia torquata||c|
|Rufous-browed Peppershrike||Cyclarhis gujanensis||s,c|
|Lemon-chested Greenlet||Hylophilus griseiventris||u|
|Purplish Jay||Cyanocorax cyanomelas||s,p,c|
|Curl-crested Jay||Cyanocorax cristatellus||c|
|Yellow-legged Thrush||Platycichla flavipes||u|
|Eastern Slaty-Thrush||Turdus subalaris||u|
|Rufous-bellied Thrush||Turdus rufiventris||s,p,c,u|
|Pale-breasted Thrush||Turdus leucomelas||c|
|Creamy-bellied Thrush||Turdus amaurochalinus||u|
|Cocoa Thrush||Turdus fumigatus||s|
|Chalk-browed Mockingbird||Mimus saturninus||s,p,c|
|Black-capped Donacobius||Donacobius atricapillus||p|
|Thrush-like Wren||Campylorhynchus turdinus||s,p,c|
|Moustached Wren||Thryothorus genibarbis||p,c|
|Buff-breasted Wren||Thryothorus leucotis||p,c|
|Fawn-breasted Wren||Thryothorus guarayanus||p|
|Masked Gnatcatcher||Polioptila dumicola||p|
|White-winged Swallow||Tachycineta albiventer||p|
|Grey-breasted Martin||Progne chalybea||p,c|
|Brown-chested Martin||Progne tapera||u|
|Blue-and-white Swallow||Notiochelidon cyanoleuca||c|
|Southern Rough-winged Swallow||Stelgidopteryx ruficollis||s,p,c|
|Yellowish Pipit||Anthus lutescens||p|
|Common Waxbill||Estrilda astrild||u|
|Rufous-collared Sparrow||Zonotrichia capensis||p,c,s|
|Grassland Sparrow||Ammodramus humeralis||p,c|
|Pectoral Sparrow||Arremon taciturnus||c|
|Saffron-billed Sparrow||Arremon flavirostris||i|
|Red-capped Cardinal||Paroaria gularis||p|
|Yellow-billed Cardinal||Paroaria capitata||p|
|Tropical Parula||Parula pitiayumi||p|
|Masked Yellowthroat||Geothlypis aequinoctialis||s,c|
|White-bellied Warbler||Basileuterus hypoleucus||p,c|
|Flavescent Warbler||Basileuterus flaveolus||p,c|
|Chestnut-vented Conebill||Conirostrum speciosum||c|
|Black-faced Tanager||Schistochlamys melanopis||c|
|White-banded Tanager||Neothraupis fasciata||c|
|White-rumped Tanager||Cypsnagra hirundinacea||c|
|Magpie Tanager||Cissopis leveriana||s,c,i,u|
|Guira Tanager||Hemithraupis guira||s|
|Rufous-headed Tanager||Hemithraupis ruficapilla||u*|
|Olive-green Tanager||Orthogonys chloricterus||i*|
|Grey-headed Tanager||Eucometis penicillata||p,c|
|White-shouldered Tanager||Tachyphonus luctuosus||s|
|Ruby-crowned Tanager||Tachyphonus coronatus||i|
|White-lined Tanager||Tachyphonus rufus||s|
|Black-goggled Tanager||Trichothraupis melanops||i|
|Silver-beaked Tanager||Ramphocelus carbo||p,c|
|Brazilian Tanager||Ramphocelus bresilius||u*|
|Sayaca Tanager||Thraupis sayaca||s,p,c,u|
|Golden-chevroned Tanager||Thraupis ornata||i*|
|Palm Tanager||Thraupis palmarum||s,p,c|
|Diademed Tanager||Stephanophorus diadematus||i|
|Fawn-breasted Tanager||Pipraeidea melanonota||i|
|Thick-billed Euphonia||Euphonia laniirostris||c|
|Rufous-bellied Euphonia||Euphonia rufiventris||i|
|Turquoise Tanager||Tangara mexicana||i|
|Green-headed Tanager||Tangara seledon||i,u|
|Red-necked Tanager||Tangara cyanocephala||u|
|Brassy-breasted Tanager||Tangara desmaresti||u*|
|Gilt-edged Tanager||Tangara cyanoventris||i*|
|Burnished-buff Tanager||Tangara cayana||i|
|Blue-necked Tanager||Tangara cyanicollis||s|
|Black-legged Dacnis||Dacnis nigripes||i|
|Red-legged Honeycreeper||Cyanerpes cyaneus||c,i,u|
|Coal-crested Finch||Charitospiza eucosma||c|
|Red-crested Finch||Coryphospingus cucullatus||p|
|Red-rumped Warbling-Finch||Poospiza lateralis||i|
|Saffron Finch||Sicalis flaveola||p|
|Great Pampa-Finch||Embernagra platensis||i|
|Blue-black Grassquit||Volatinia jacarina||s,p,c|
|Plumbeous Seedeater||Sporophila plumbea||c|
|Rusty-collared Seedeater||Sporophila collaris||p|
|Lined Seedeater||Sporophila lineola||u|
|Double-collared Seedeater||Sporophila caerulescens||c|
|Grey-and-chestnut Seedeater||Sporophila hypochroma||p|
|Buff-throated Saltator||Saltator maximus||s|
|Greyish Saltator||Saltator coerulescens||p,c|
|Green-winged Saltator||Saltator similis||c|
|Crested Oropendola||Psarocolius decumanus||p|
|Yellow-rumped Cacique||Cacicus cela||s,p,c|
|Red-rumped Cacique||Cacicus haemorrhous||i|
|Solitary Cacique||Cacicus solitarius||p|
|Epaulet Oriole||Icterus cayanensis||s|
|Unicolored Blackbird||Agelaius cyanopus||s,p|
|White-browed Blackbird||Leistes superciliaris||p|
|Scarlet-headed Blackbird||Amblyramphus holosericeus||p|
|Chopi Blackbird||Gnorimopsar chopi||s,p,c|
|Bay-winged Cowbird||Molothrus badius||p|
|Shiny Cowbird||Molothrus bonariensis||s,p,c,i,u|
|Giant Cowbird||Molothrus oryzivora||p|