20 October - 03 November 2001
by Larry Gardella
It's somewhat unsettling having two southeast Brazil trip reports come out in the ten days between our return from Brazil and getting a trip report out for Birdchat. Especially when one of the trips is a private tour organized by the same guide whom we used: Edson Endrigo. I hope that the behavior perspective to this report and the good birds seen in this shorter-than-usual trip make this report entertaining and useful to Birdchatters.
Ever since we began going abroad to bird almost 20 years ago, Andrea and I had spoken of going one day to Itatiaia. This fall, we decided to put together a trip to southeast Brazil with a three-day extension to Iguacu Falls. Work schedules and the fall meeting of the Alabama Ornithological Society (my last meeting as president) limited when we could go, so we didn't have the option of going on a big-company bird tour. We decided to try and find a guide available for the time we could go.
Through Birdchat, we got several recommendations for guides, inlcuding Jeremy Minns and Ricardo Parrini. Neither was available when we could go, but Jeremy and several other people suggested Edson Endrigo. I looked at his website and figured anyone who photographed birds as well as he did knew how to get close enough for good looks. It turned out that I was right. We saw almost all the birds that we heard and got fantastic looks of almost all the birds we saw. And we saw lots of birds!
To work out an itinerary, I read in Nigel Wheatley's South America book and reviewed several trip reports. Gail Mackiernan e-mailed one that was particularly helpful. Looking through her account of a 25-day trip to many great sites, I found approximately 180 birds that would be lifers. (A VENT trip to Alta Floresta, the Pantanal and Chapada with Ted Parker and Kevin Zimmer had already given me more than 500 species for Brazil.) Optimistically, I hoped to get close to 180 lifers in eleven days. I came amazingly close to that goal with 175 lifers seen (plus 3 heard well) out of 335 species seen. More than 40 of the species were Brazilian endemics. Just over 100 species in Iguazu added several species to the trip list, as well as four seen lifers and another one heard only.
Our original itinerary called for four nights at Serra da Canastra National Park, two at Ubatuba, three at Itatiaia and one at Serra do Orgaos. At Edson's suggestions, we wound up cutting Canastra short one night, adding two nights in Intervales and adding one night at Campos do Jordao. We wound up spending only one night at Ubatuba and never going to Orgaos. The shortened stays at Canastra and Ubatuba cost us some good birds, but both Intervales and Campos were so wonderful that we never had any reason to second-guess our decisions.
The austral spring is breeding time for many of the birds of the area, so I will include many comments on breeding, as well as other interesting behavior. Alabama Ornithological Society is just embarking on a breeding bird atlas, and southeast Brazil provided some good practice in documenting breeding.
Having a guide make all travel, food and lodging arrangements in the country allowed us to concentrate on the birds. Biting invertebrates were occasional diversions: gnats (biting and non-biting) along the river at Canastra; small ticks, mainly in the lower portion of Canastra; ants (a few bad fire ant bites). In Iguazu, biting flies and mosquitoes were a problem on Sendero Macuco and on the Piping-Guan trail. The only poisonous snake we saw was a Coral Snake on a trail in Intervales. Beautiful.
To make sure I stay within Birdchat limits, I break this trip report down into the introduction, Canastra & Intervales (Part 2); Campos do Jordao, Ubatuba & Itatiaia (Part 3), Iguazu (Part 4) and a bird list (Parts 5 and 6)
Even though we did not stop too many times to look at birds, it took more than eight hours to make the long drive from the airport to Serra da Canastra. Three species of Aratinga parakeet, including the beautiful Golden-capped, greeted us at Piumhi, the last fairly good-sized town before the park. We stopped again to watch a Red-legged Seriema walk like a Secretarybird, then once more at a marsh that yielded Blackish Rail, South American Snipe and a flock of Chestnut-capped Blackbirds. After checking into our hotel, we paid a late afternoon/early evening visit to the upper section of Canastra. Gray and White-rumped Monjitas and Crested Black-Tyrants were still fly-catching, and a Yellow-headed Caracara had some sort of mouse. A Sooty Tyrannulet stayed close to the small stream at the source of the Sao Francisco River.
The small town outside the upper section of the park now has a second hotel, but there appears to be only one real restaurant. All are modest, but serviceable.
After the sun set, a Short-eared Owl coursed the fields. As we were driving back to the park entrance, we spotted a Maned Wolf, which we watched climb the side of a hill. It likely had found some food near the ranger's house.
Before Andrea, Edson or the sun was up, I ventured out in search of early-morning birds. A Pale-breasted Spinetail was giving its phoebe-like call as it worked a yucca-like plant. Swallow-tailed Hummingbirds and Glittering-bellied shared a feeder near both the hotel pool and a Yellow-browed Tyrant's nest. After breakfast, Edson pointed out a White-rumped Tanager and a Black-throated Saltator feeding low in plants across the street from the hotel. We then returned to the upper portion of the park.
A pair of Rufous-fronted Thornbirds were at their nest, and a Firewood-Gatherer brought a twig for its nest. Male Cock-tailed Tyrants flew with their tails twisted to the side as they tried to gain the interest of the less strikingly plumaged females. Two different tinamous showed up on the side of the road, a Red-winged and the even stranger-looking Spotted Nothura.
Edson located some Ochre-breasted Pipits by their flight songs. We found one bird on the ground and watched it walk, then watched some fly in their high display flight circles and descend rapidly at a 45-degree angle.
A short while later, we arrived at the river where we made our first of several unsuccessful efforts to see a Brazilian Merganser. Even at Canastra, the bird is never a guarantee, but we had two factors working against us. At least several of the females were on the nest away from spots where they could be seen, and the weekend crowds were making noise where rocks met the river. I recommend going to Canastra on a weekday. Great looks at the usually shy Brasilia Tapaculo at close range made the short gnat-filled walk up the river worthwhile. In trees up the other path from where we parked, we found Velvet Black-Tyrants.
On the way to the second merganser site, we saw half a dozen Cock-tails displaying. A Gray-backed Tachuri perched in a small tree near the river. When we went into town for a quick lunch, we watched a Social Flycatcher feeding young.
After lunch and a few short stops for birds, we checked the last good merganser site in the upper section. Good birds there included White-crested Tyrannulet, a male Helmeted Manakin, Little Woodpecker, Swallow-Tanagers we watched mate, Hooded Siskin and a Fork-tailed Woodnymph. As the sun began to go down, we started back to the hotel but soon had to stop when we spotted a Maned Wolf far from any potential handouts. While we were watching it, a pair of Aplamado Falcons flew in. They landed in a tree near the Maned Wolf and swooped down near it - apparently taking insects disturbed by the Maned Wolf.
We went down to the lower portion of Serra Canastra in the morning. Some of the birds that kept the drive interesting were Laughing Falcon, Gray-necked Wood-Rail, White-bellied, Plumbeous, Double-collared and Yellow-bellied Seedeaters and Yellow-chevroned Parakeets. By going early, we were able to have the recreation area and trail to the falls to ourselves, even on a Sunday. During a short hike to the falls, we saw Barred Piculet, Gray Elaenia (male along with the differently-plumaged female), White-bellied Warbler, White-rimmed Warbler, White-eyed Foliage-Gleaner and Black-goggled Tanager. On the way back, we heard a Southern Bristle-Tyrant and tried to tape it in. We spotted a flycatcher, but it turned out to be the larger Sepia-capped Flycatcher, which is often found near the bristle-tyrant.
Next stop was a fazenda with a narrow path into good forest. In rapid succession, we came upon Pin-tailed Manakin at a lek, Southern Antpipit, a pair of Rufous-capped Motmots, some Red-ruffed Fruitcrows and a White-shouldered Fireeye. A Sirystes led a canopy flock that included Rufous-headed Tanager, Chestnut-vented Conebill, Plain Antvireo, Red-eyed ("Chivi") Vireo (which both looks and sound different from "our" Red-eye) and White-winged Becard. A flowering tree just outside the forest had Swallow-tailed Hummingbirds, Fork-tailed Woodnymphs, Glittering-bellied Emeralds and a female Frilled Coquette.
After lunch, we returned to the upper portion of Canastra to be greeted by a pair of Crowned Eagles perched atop adjacent high-tension wire towers. We had the rare opportunity to study these stunning birds well, both perched and as one flew a short distance, opening its extremely broad wings. Not much farther down the road, we spotted a Greater Rhea.
When we reached the river, it started raining. We saw a few birds and looked for others, then headed back slowly. The rain picked up a bit, but another Maned Wolf appeared unfazed. Edson said that when the rain stopped the birds would be active. He was right. Edson spotted a singing male Black-masked Finch, and a tape brought it right to the roadside. A bit later, we watched a Sharp-tailed Tyrant. Then came our only Giant Anteater. Edson insisted it was not full-grown, but it seemed quite the giant to us. Finally, as we reached the park exit, we found young Maned Wolves.
Although Edson had taken his car to a mechanic to make sure it was in perfect shape for the trip, we had some problems with the windows and the locks. By the second day at Canastra, Edson had to get in and out of the passenger door. He made the suggestion of a trip to Intervales and easily convinced us, then made the arrangements to swap his car for a rental to give the mechanic time to fix the car properly. A predawn start got us to the car rental agency in Sao Paulo on time, from which I found a Plain Parakeet on a rooftop. Within a few minutes, we were back on the road in a rental.
By the time we reached Intervales, it was getting to be late afternoon. Birds were waiting for us, including Shear-tailed Grey-Tyrant, Bare-throated Bellbird, Surucua Trogon, Dusky-tailed Antbird, Dusky-throated Hermit and Fawn-breasted Tanager. We also heard many of the birds we would find the next day.
The park lodge consists of several buildings, each with four or five rooms with baths and a living room area. We chose one near the lake and dining room, but others are almost in the forest. Three filing meals are included with lodging. Meals and others services are provided by a cooperative composed of local residents.
Before quitting for dinner, we did some owling. A Chestnut-bellied Nighthawk responded, and a Pavonine Cuckoo twice flew right in front of us, allowing us looks quite good considering the fading light. As we were driving back to the lodge, a Long-trained Nightjar took to flight off the road and showed off its incredibly long tail. After dinner, Edson and I returned to the spot from which it had flown. The bird was still around, so he spot-lighted it, which allowed us to approach closely enough to put down our binoculars and study feather structure.
Intervales is a state park that protects some beautiful Atlantic rain forest, including large patches of bamboo. The park requires visitors to hire a guide, which generates a little income. Edson arranged for us to get Luis, by far the best birder among the guides. He does not speak English, but he has very good ears and eyes for birds.
We headed out early intending to arrive at a site with extensive bamboo in time for the dawn chorus. Luis had arrived earlier, but not having recognized the rental car as Edson's (and not having seen us down at the car), had left to find us elsewhere. Within ten minutes, we had caught up with each other, and we reached our destination in time to hear birds before we had enough light to see them. Aside from a Barred Forest -Falcon glimpsed from the road, the Long-trained Nightjar again (Andrea getting a very good look this time) and an unidentified small nightjar, about the first bird we could see well was a White-necked Foliage-Gleaner. We watched a pair displaying with their tails fanned. Other birds seen at that spot included Ferruginous Antbird, Ochre-rumped Antbird, Spotted Bamboowren (seen briefly), White-bibbed Antbird, Ruby-crowned Tanager, Black-throated Grosbeak, Tufted Antshrike, the rare White-bearded Antshrike, White-spotted Woodpecker, Chestnut-bellied Elaenia, White-throated Spadebill and Eared Pygmy-Tyrant.
After pulling ourselves away from the first stop, we drove to another from which we could hike. We saw our first Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail, a group of Temminck's Seedeaters (which confused us until I checked to see that young males sing in female-like immature plumage) and Violet-capped Woodnymph. Luis also pointed out a Coral Snake on the path. Before turning back, we encountered a low-moving mixed flock that included Red-crowned Ant-Tanager, Buff-fronted Foliage-Gleaner, Plain Antvireo, Tropical Parula and Scaled Woodcreeper. Not far from where we had parked the car, there were Rufous-tailed Attila, Gray-hooded Flycatcher, Rufous-crowned Greenlet, Crested Becard, Chestnut-crowned Becard and Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher.
Back near the lodge, we saw Hooded Berryeater, Diademed Tanager, Green-headed Tanager and the nest where a female and then a male Swallow-tailed Cotinga came to feed their two chicks. One of the chicks had already climbed out of the nest, so we got good clear looks at the male sticking its head down into the young's throat to feed it. In the background, a Planalto Tyrannulet moved along a brach in search of food.
Two other stops near the lodge brought us a pair of Pileated Parrots, Variable Antshrike, Olivaceous Elaenia, Yellow-fronted Woodpcker (nesting in a pole near a feeder), Golden-winged Cacique and White-eared Puffbird. Swallow-tailed Kites flew over the lake.
We got to lunch just before the hordes of school children visiting the park to learn about nature and ecology - and spelunking. They were noisy, but we only encountered them once in the field. The park appeared to have a good educational program.
After lunch, we drove to gated-off and locked area where we saw Star-throated Antwrens and White-throated Spadebeill before heading out onto a trail. Near the start of the trail, we flushed a Variegated Antpitta that was sitting on a nest containing two blue eggs. When we returned, we got great views of the plump bird that seeemed to pour over the nest. Down the trail, we flushed another bird from its nest, a Rufous-breasted Leaftosser. On our return, we saw the head and bill sticking out of its nest hole in the ground. Although the trail is not for general use, people walk by often enough without seriously interfering with the birds' business. The trail took us past many big trees and gave us the delightful feel of old forest.
Because it was the height of nesting season, there were not as many birds in the feeding flocks. One flock had a Rufous-capped Spinetail and a White-eared Foliage-Gleaner and a few other birds.
We ended the day in the open area near the lodge, where we saw Scale-throated Hermit, Dusky-legged Guan, Azure-shouldered Tanager, Cliff ("Swallow") Flycatcher, Rufous-capped Antshrike and Hangnest Tody-Tyrant.
Our final morning in Intervales began with a stop in an open area where Edson had in the past been able to get good views of a White-breasted Tapaculo. That bird did not cooperate, but we saw a White-throated Woodcreeper. Other stops yielded Golden-rumped Euphonia, Striped Cuckoo, a Solitary Tinamou, Brassy-breasted Tanager, Bertoni's Antbird, Short-tailed Antthrush, Brown-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant, Euler's Flycatcher, Wied's Tyrant-Manakin, Grey-hooded Attila, Golden-chevroned Tanager, Azure-shouldered Tanager and an immature Hawk-Eagle.
Following lunch, we sped back to make it to the car rental agency at the appointed time to swap cars back. Unfortunately, a delay by the mechanic cost us 40 minutes that we would later come to regret. Then, we were off for Ubatuba. Less than an hour out of Sao Paolo, Edson started talking about the charms - and the birds - of Campos do Jordao. We decided to add it to our itinterary - and to try and arrive in time to get views of some Vinaceous-breasted Parrots.
As we approached Campos do Jordao, Andrea and I thought we would easily make it to the state park in time to see the parrots, but then we saw how long it was taking to get through downtown. This alpine-style mountain resort town is a bit overdeveloped and touristy, but the surrounding forests are wonderful. We reached the park just as it was about to close, but Edson talked our way in. We stood in an open area looking and listening for the parrots, which Edson then said had almost certainly already flown by. Then, we heard a group. Unfortunately, we could not pick up their colors as they flew overhead in the fading light. We moved outside the park and had a group fly over in the open, the bright colors of their underparts glistening. Then, we headed up a road offering a good vista of the city - and a small group of Uniform Finches. At dark, we taped in a beautiful Rusty-barred Owl, then drove by a Long-trained Nightjar and went down to check into our hotel and enjoy a trout dinner at a nice restaurant in town.
This morning we headed off to a mountain ridge outside the other side of Campos. Soon after passing a Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail on the side of the road, we stopped to admire a group of Dusky-legged Guans. Out of the corner of my eye, I spotted a Robust Woodpecker. Edson backed up the car so we could all get a good look before getting out - just in case the bird flew. We heard the distinct double-tap of other Robust Woodpeckers, but this proved to be our only sighting.
When we stopped not far down the road, we found Red-rumped Warbling-Finch, Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, a glimpsed Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Buff-browed and Buff-fronted Foliage-Gleaners and then a feeding flock that included Magpie and Brassy-breasted Tanagers and a Black-capped Piprites, an aberrant manakin that is sometimes classified as a cotinga. When we used a tape to get a better view of two Aracauria Tit-Spintetails, they came out into the open atop an Aracauria, and they mated! Another site a short distance away yielded a Red-breasted Toucan on the top of a bare tree, Curl-crested Jay, a female Blue Manakin, a Greenish Schiffornis (another aberrant manakin) and a White-throated Hummingbird singing from a branch of a high, bare tree. We also observed a female Black-breasted Plovercrest feeding a dependent young, a rare treat for any hummingbird species. Later, we saw a male Plovercrest at a feeder.
We returned to the area where we had the Uniform Finches the day before, and Edson found another pipit by flight song and confirmed the identification by observing the distinctive flight display. We walked up the burnt-over hillside and got good views of the bird walking, singing from the top of a bush and performing its low-flying display. We had difficulty spotting the Black-and-gold Cotingas we heard, but finally I spotted a male in the subcanopy down a hillside. While we were watching, it flew up and then dropped in the distinctive display flight sketched by Helmut Sick. Edson then found a female right near the side of the road.
Back down at the park, we saw the dramatically different male and female Blue-billed Black-Tyrants, a Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet, Brazilian Ruby, Plush-crested Jay and Pallid Spinetail. We had lunch on an outdoor table at the park (trout, assorted vegetables and French fries) that allowed us to look at birds while we ate. Then, off on twisting mountain roads down to Ubatuba.
After checking into our hotel down a street from a beach, our first stop was Fazenda Capricornia. In the scattered trees near where we parked, we found Brazilian Tanager, Rufous-headed Tanager, Green-headed Tanager, Chestnut-vented Conebill and the diminutive Buff-throated Purpletuft near the top of a flowering tree. At a feeder, we saw Black Jacobins and the wonderful male Festive Coquette. It floated almost like a butterfly to a perch in a small tree, allowing us great views of its gorget and the projecting throat feathers. In another tree near the house, we had a male Red-necked Tanager and a Gray-capped Tyrannulet. A quick trip to Fazenda Angelim brought Ferruginous Antbird, Squamate Antbird, Lineated Woodpecker and Bran-colored Flycatcher.
We still had many targets for Ubatuba, and Edson planned for us to spend that night and the following night there before heading out early for either Iatitiaia or his Black-hooded Anyshrike site. Andrea and I were eager to get to Itatiaia (and I was willing to give up one bird in scrub habitat for more time at the park), so Edson agreed to try and see as much as we could the next morning and then leave, if we decided to.
We returned to Fazenda Angelim and found a feeding flock with Rufous-winged Antwren, Ochre-collared Piculet (first spotted by Andrea, who had a good eye for woodpeckers both big and small) and Streak-capped Antwren. A male Squirrel Cuckoo fed a caterpillar to a female. A Crested Becard flew with nesting material. A Long-billed Gnatwren flitted around a series of vines. We got a less-than-adequate look at what appeared by behavior, size and suggested appearance a Dark-billed Cuckoo, but it flew befroe we could improve our bird-sun-observer orientation. On a trail into the forest, we found Scaled Antbird, male and female Spot-backed Antshrike, Saw-billed Hermit and a pair of Slaty Bristlefront. At the bottom of the trail on the way back, Andrea spotted a Blond-crested Woodpecker. It stayed out in the open long enough for us to get good views of this wonderful member of my favorite woodpecker genus (Celeus). Nearby, we had a Plain-winged Woodcreeper.
Back at Fazenda Capricornia, we saw a Striped Cuckoo, a female Braazilian Tanager taking food to a nest, a female White-bearded Manakin, a Versicolored Emerald and the Festive Coquette. We had not found the Black-cheeked Gnateater, a few antbirds and flycatchers and the Long-billed Wren, but Andrea and I decided we were ready to move on. One last birding stop was out of town at Triula (sp?) Seca, where a short walk brought us to a stream where we found a Long-billed Wren and both an adult male and a young male Blue Manakin.
Lunch at a seaside restaurant was followed by a stop for ice cream. While Andrea and Edson indulged, I crossed the street to look for terns and spotted some on the other side of the beach. Before we left town, Edson drove to a better vantage point. Unfortunately, I could not pick up (for sure) bill color and had to leave the terns unidentified. The Kelp Gulls were easy.
After passing though the park gate at Itatiaia, our first stop was a store feeder with Bananaquits, Black Jacobins, Versicolored Emeralds, Brazilian Rubies, a Glittering-bellied Emerald and two Frilled Coquettes (a female and an immature male). Itatiaia proved to be everything we had long expected. From the window of our room at the Hotel Simon, we had the best opportunity to differentiate between Gray-rumped and Ashy-tailed Swifts. Our window list included a family of Dusky-legged Guans, Roadside Hawk, Yellow-headed Caracara, Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Brazilian Ruby, Lesser Woodcreeper, Cliff (Swallow) Flycatcher, Gray-hooded Attila, Long-tailed Tyrant, Social Flycatcher, Great Kiskadee, Rufous-bellied Thrush, Creamy-bellied Thrush, Blue-and-white Swallow, Sayaca Tanager, Golden-chevroned Tanager, Blue Dacnis, Swallow-Tanager and a Cavy (Guinea Pig). From the restaurant downstairs, we added Black Hawk-Eagle, Scale-throated Hermit (I used a tablecloth to rescue one that could not get out of the restaurant) and Saffron Toucanet.
From the veranda, we could hear the Spot-winged Wood-Quail we never got to see. Blue-and-white Swallows nested at the doorway, and the grounds held Red-rumped Caciques at their nests, Masked Water-Tyrant, Double-collared Seedeater, just about all our hummers (including a fairly dependable male Frilled Coquette Andrea found on a flowering bush with small bluish flowers the first evening when she returned to the room a bit early, and Edson and I were finding a fairly low Black-capped Piprites), Picazuro Pigeon, Pale-vented Pigeon, Blue-billed and Velvety Black-Tyrant, Crested Becard, Bananaquit, Blue Dacnis and Shiny Cowbird.
Our first evening, we walked a short distance from the grounds, saw a squadron of Saffron Toucanets and got good looks at a pair of Tawny-browed Owls. The Maromba and Tres Picos traisl begin just 50 meters or so farther up. The intersection was very good for birds including Brown and Olive-green Tanagers and Lesser and White-throated Woodcreepers. We also had a troop of Brown Capuchins there.
We headed out early to get a good start on the Agulhas Negras Road. Birds we saw included Rufous-tailed Antbird, Mouse-colored Tapaculo, Rufous-browed Peppershrike, Brown Tinamou (the fourth tinamou we saw out of the four we heard), Olivaceous Elaenia, Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, Gray-bellied Spinetail, Rufous-tailed (Brazilian) Antthrush, Thick-billed Saltator, Fawn-breasted Tanager, Diademed Tanager, Itatiaia Spinetail, Black-breasted Plovercrest , Bran-colored Flycatcher and Speckle-breasted Antpitta.
A class of high school students was staying at the hotel. When we learned that they were going up the Tres Picos Trail on October 28, we were tempted to change our plans to walk up the trail that morning. Fortunately, we did not. Our 7:00 start up the trail gave us a two-hour head start, and we didn't see the class until after we had started back down. What we saw was a lot of birds. A Lesser Woodcreeper appeared before we had even left the pavement.
Once on the trail, birds we saw included Gilt-edged Tanager, Bertoni's Antbird, Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Rough-legged Tyrannulet, Plain Antvireo, two forms of Surucua Tanager (yellow male and red male), White-throated Woodcreeper, Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, Olive-green Tanager, Black-tailed Tityra, Greenpheaded Tanager, Yellow-olive Flycatcher (working on a nest), Black-billed Scythebill, Yellow-legged Thrush, Tufted Antshrike, White-barred Piculet, Spot-billed Toucanet, Rufouse-tailed Antthrush, Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant, White-breasted Tapaculo (the fifth tapaculo we saw of the five we heard), Sharpbill in a mixed canopy flock, Spot-breasted Antvireo, Streak-capped Antwren, Black Hawk-Eagle and a Masked Titi Monkey.
Before dawn I walked a short distance down the Maromba Trail and saw an Olive-green Tanager singing at eye level, rather than up in the canopy. We made a second trip to Agulhas Negras Road and got close-up looks at a Black-and-gold Cotinga, a Large-tailed Antshrike and a Black Hawk-Eagle that at one point was only twenty meters above our car.
Chris Carpenter's trip report had mentioned a dirt road between kilometers 18 and 19 of the Eng. Passos-Cuxambu Road that had a marsh with Streamer-tailed Tyrants. On the way back from Agulhas Negras, we found and tried the road. Just as we were about to turn back, I spotted a Streamer-tailed perched on a snag. We all got to watch it in its kite-like flight hawking insects over the marsh. Then, back to the hotel for lunch and time for me to take a final walk down the Maromba Trail to where it met the road and back.
We drove to the Rondonia Palace Hotel, a clean three-star hotel in Catete near the Flmengo district, for which Edson had negotiated a half-price rate.
A day of sight-seeing (buildings and people), shopping and enjoying the sights at Copacabana Beach
Andrea and I flew to Iguazu. We stayed at the Sheraton, which is located in the park on the Argentine side of the falls. Our taxi driver, Russo (firstname.lastname@example.org), gave us a good price and then offered to pick us up early on our last day and drive us to the Brazilian side of the falls. A pair of Southern Lapwings with four chicks greeted us from the lawn as we rode into the drive. Signs at the hotel said that the trails were off-limits between 6 p.m. (7 p.m. for some trails) and 8 a.m. unless in the company of a guide.
After checking in and relaxing during the heat of the day, we walked on a boardwalk by the falls. Among the hordes of Black Vultures, we found a Crane Hawk on an island. We encountered one small tanager flock. I then checked Sendero Macuco, the Macuco Traail. It didn't take long to note the difference between having a guide with tapes and being alone and tapeless. I found myself unsure of many bird calls and saw few birds that first afternoon. Over the next few days, however, I got comfortable with the common calls and found some feeding flocks and two groups of Brown Capuchin Monkeys.
I took full advantage of a full moon (and the time difference between Brazil and Argentina) to start a walk along the roads at 4:25 a.m. Early on, I saw a Pauraque, heard Tropical and Rusty-barred Owls and then had a Toco Toucan greeting sunrise from a treetop. As I was heading back for breakfast, a ranger informed me that the roads (and not just the trails) were off limits before 8 a.m. That same morning, another ranger found a Puma along one of the trails.
Upon our arrival, I had called Miguel Castelhino to see about hiring him for one day. He was unavailable, but he did provide some information about some of the birds in the area, and suggested I check a particular swampy area for Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher. After I returned from a walk with Andrea on Sendero Macuco, I tried to arrange for a car and driver to get to the swamp. The car hire place at the hotel took me instead to the safari outfit (Explorador Expediciones), where I ended up hiring Daniel Somay for four hours of birding the following day. He has taped most of the birds of the area and has their songs on a CD that allows him to punch them up easily.
We stopped at a swampy site just before the main road and saw a Greater Ani. We then proceeded directly to the gnatcatcher swamp, stopping only when a Blond-crested Woodpecker flew across the road. It was one of five we were to see that morning. At the swamp, I looked up into a tree and found Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher. We also heard Rufous-sided Crake.
We parked down the road at the start of a trail that headed toward the falls. Daniel taped in a Chestnut-headed Tanager, which proved to be smaller than I expected. Other birds included Ochre-breasted Foliage-Gleaner, Chestnut-vented Conevill, Plain Xenops, Chestnut-bellied Euphonia, Green-headed Tanager, Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner and Plumbeous Kite. The trail led into Puerto Canoas, at which point we turned onto the trail indicated in Wheatley's book as "good for Black-fronted Piping-Guan." Some large birds such as Plush-crested Jays and Greater Anis gave us momentary cause to pause, but we never saw the guan. We did get good looks at Guira Tanager, Solitary Tinamou (too bad we could not see this bird, the Macuco, on the Macuco Trail), Red-crowned Ant-Tanager and Surucua Trogon. I saw a hawk for but an instant that appeared to have been a Rufous-thighed Kite, but . . . Our grand total of birds seen and heard was more than 80.
I began our last day up on the roof of the Sheraton waiting for
and watching the birds become active. The best bird was a Bat
that came up to the roof and perched on an antenna near me. On my
last, short walk of Sendero Macuco, I saw two Saffron-billed Sparrows,
Rufous-winged Antwren, Plain Antvireo and Violaceous Euphonia. In
line for the border control, we identified the only Gilded Sapphire for
the trip. It was feeding in flowers in the road. No new
on the Brazil side, but the best views of Great Dusky Swifts perched on
rocks in the falls.
|Greater Rhea||one at Canastra 10/21|
|Solitary Tinamou||one seen in Intervales 10/24; one in Iguazu|
|Brown Tinamou||heard most places; one seen Agulhas Negras Road in Itatiaia|
|Red-winged Tinamou||two seen 10/20 Canastra|
|Spotted Nothura||a total of four or five seen 10/20-22 in Canastra|
|Neotropic Cormorant||in rivers while traveling; Iguazu|
|American Anhinga||one in a pond while traveling; several at Iguazu (both sides of the falls)|
|Magnificent Frigatebird||common at Ubatuba & Rio|
|Whistling Heron||seen twice flying over the road between Sao Paulo & Canastra|
|Cocoi Heron||one in marshy bay near airport in Rio|
|Great Egret||roadside & Iguazu|
|Snowy Egret||a few at Iguazu|
|Cattle Egret||several groups along the roadside|
|Striated Heron||one seen along the roadside on a big travel day|
|Wood Stork||Andrea spotted one in marshy bay near airport in Rio|
|Green Ibis||one heard (only) in Iguazu|
|White-faced Whistling-Duck||one flock sighted along the roadside near Sao Paulo|
|Brazilian Teal/Duck||roadside birdone at Brodowski and one near Itatiaia|
|Turkey Vulture||far less common than Black, but often spotted|
|Swallow-tailed Kite||small groups over lake, forest in Intervales|
|White-tailed Kite||several individuals seen over field on driving days|
|Plumbeous Kite||common at Iguazu|
|Crane Hawk||one at Iguazu|
|Savanna Hawk||one at Canastra, others roadside|
|Crowned Eagle||pair at Canastra 10/21|
|White-tailed Hawk||Canastra and Campos do Jordao|
|Black Hawk-Eagle||one at Intervales & two Itatiaia (Agulhas Negras and from restaurant, carrying food)|
|Laughing Falcon||one at the lower portion of Canastra|
|Barred Forest-Falcon||one seen very briefly in the early morning at Intervales|
|American Kestrel||fairly often in open areas|
|Peregrine Falcon||one seen off side of road flying rapidly on trip from Sao Paulo to Intervales|
|Aplomado Falcon||pair seen at Canastra apparently feeding on insects disturbed by a Maned Wolf|
|Bat Falcon||one at hotel in Iguazu|
|Dusky-legged Guan||fairly common except none at Canastra, Ubatuba; two family groups seen at Itatiaia|
|Spot-winged Wood-Quail||heard (only) at Intervales and Itatiaia, but never seen|
|Limpkin||one seen in flight on road from Sao Paulo toward Ubatuba; one heard in Iguazu|
|Rufous-sided Crake||one heard in Iguazu|
|Gray-necked Wood-Rail||one heard and another seen at Canastra|
|Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail||lone birds seen at Intervales, Campos & Itatiaia|
|Blackish Rail||one seen in marsh near Canastra|
|Common Moorehn||one seen in marsh near Canastra|
|Red-legged Seriema||Canastraone seen as we drove in, one as we left; others heard while there|
|Wattled Jacana||a few seen in same pond as the Anhinga|
|Southern Lapwing||common in open areas; breeding (4 chicks) at Iguazu|
|South American Snipe||one seen in marsh near Canastra|
|Kelp Gull||fairly common in Ubatuba & Rio|
|(Sterna sp. Terns)||Ubatuba|
|Rock Dove||most urban settings|
|Picazuro Pigeon||common, starting out with airport parking lot in Sao Paulo|
|Pale-vented Pigeon||common in open areas and edges|
|Plumbeous Pigeon||heard and occasionally seen in forest in Intervales, Itatiaia|
|Eared Dove||open areas, but not Itatiaia|
|Scaled Dove||Canastra, roadsides, Campo do Jordao|
|White-tipped Dove||forests in Itatiaia & Iguazu|
|Gray-fronted Dove||fairly common and widespread|
|Ruddy Quail-Dove||one heard at Itatiaia|
|White-eyed Parakeet||common at Canastra; Iguazu|
|Golden-capped Parakeet||at least three in a mixed flock at Piumhi near Canastra|
|Peach-fronted Parakeet||flocks at Canastra and towns nearby|
|Maroon-bellied Parakeet||common except at Canastra|
|Blue-winged Parrotlet||Itatiaia and Iguazu|
|Plain Parakeet||several in Sao Paulo (downtown); one in Intervales; heard Ubatuba|
|Yellow-chevroned Parakeet||a flock of approximately 20 birds near the lower section of Canastra|
|Pileated Parrot||flyovers at Itatiaia and Iguazu, but a pair seen well feeding in small trees at Intervales|
|Scaly-headed Parrot||common except at Canastra|
|(Turquoise-fronted Parrot)||Amazona flyovers on road from Canastra to Sao Paulo probably this species|
|Pearly-breasted Cuckoo||heard (only) two successive days high in trees along Sendero Macuco in Iguazu|
|(Dark-billed Cuckoo)||the probable identity of the bird at Ubatuba only seen backlit and not calling|
|Pavonine Cuckoo||one seen in fairly bad light in flight in Intervales after it was calling; shape clear|
|Squirrel Cuckoo||Intervales, Ubatuba & Iguazu; courtship feeding at Ubatuba|
|Greater Ani||fairly common near water at Iguazu|
|Guira Cuckoo||common roadside bird; seen at Canastra|
|Striped Cuckoo||individuals seen at Intervales, Ubatuba & Itatiaia|
|Tropical Screech-Owl||one heard (only) at Iguazu|
|Rusty-barred Owl||one seen and a few others heard in Campos do Jordao; one heard at Iguazu|
|Tawny-browed Owl||pair at Itatiaia|
|Burrowing Owl||common at Canastra|
|Short-eared Owl||one at Canastra|
|Common (Gray) Potoo||one heard (only) at Intervales|
|Short-tailed Nighthawk||individuals seen at Intervales, Itatiaia & Iguazu|
|Pauraque||one near Canastra as we drove off 10/22; heard nightly and seen once at Iguazu|
|Long-trained Nightjar||individuals at Intervales and Campos do Jordao|
|(Sooty Swift)||one Cypseloides seen at Itatiaia was probably this species|
|Great Dusky Swift||very common at Iguazu; best views from Brazilian side (Iguacu); mating at Iguazu|
|White-collared Swift||most places|
|Gray-rumped Swift||unsatisfactory sightings in Ubatuba; very good views from hotel room in Itatiaia|
|Ashy-tailed Swift||Canastra, Itatiaia; best views from hotel room in Itatiaia|
|Saw-billed Hermit||one at Ubatuba|
|Scale-throated Hermit||fairly common at Intervales, Campos, Ubatuba & Itatiaia|
|Planalto Hermit||fairly common at Canastra|
|Dusky-throated Hermit||one at Intervales|
|Swallow-tailed Hummingbird||several at Canastra; Itatiaia|
|Black Jacobin||several at Ubatuba & common at Itatiaia|
|White-vented Violet-ear||a few at the upper section of Canastra|
|Black-throated Mango||small numbers at the flowering tree in the fazenda in lower Canastra|
|(Black-breasted) Plovercrest||Campos (including female feeding young); Itatiaia (including males lekking)|
|Frilled Coquette||one at Canastra (flowering tree in lower section); at least three individuals at Itatiaia|
|Festive Coquette||one at Ubatuba|
|Glittering-bellied Emerald||Canastra; Intervales; Ubatuba|
|Fork-tailed Woodnymph||upper and lower sections of Canastra|
|Violet-capped Woodnymph||Intervales; Campos; most common at Itatiaia|
|Gilded Sapphire||one near border checkpoint, Iguazu|
|White-throated Hummingbird||several at Campos & Itatiaia|
|Versicolored Emerald||one at Ubatuba; one or two at Itatiaia|
|Glittering-throated Emerald||two or three at Itatiaia|
|Brazilian Ruby||a few at Campos & Ubatuba; common at Itatiaia|
|White-tailed Trogon||one at Ubatuba|
|Black-throated Trogon||small numbers at Intervales, Itatiaia & Iguazu|
|Surucua Trogon||fairly common at Intervales, Itatiaia & Iguazu|
|Ringed Kingfisher||one heard at Iguazu|
|Amazon Kingfisher||one at lower section of Canastra|
|Green Kingfisher||one at lower section of Canastra|
|Rufous-capped Motmot||pair lower section of Canastra; near nest hole at Itatiaia; Sendero Macuco, Iguazu|
|White-eared Puffbird||Canastra, Intervales|
|Chesntut-eared Aracari||several at Iguazu|
|Saffron Toucanet||Itatiaiaatop trees near end of paved road on way to Tres Picos; Hotel Simon garden|
|Spot-billed Toucanet||one seen on Tres Pico trail in Itatiaia|
|Red-breasted Toucan||conspicuous at Campos do Jorao & Itatiaia; Iguazu|
|Toco Toucan||several at Canastra; common at Iguazu|
|White-barred Piculet||lower section at Canastra; Itatiaia|
|Ochre-collared Piculet||Ubatuba; common at Iguazu (several groups of 3 or 4 birds)|
|White Woodpecker||one at Canastra|
|Yellow-fronted Woodpecker||Intervales, feeding young at nest; Iguazu|
|Little Woodpecker||several at Canastra|
|White-spotted Woodpecker||a few at Intervales & Itatiaia|
|Yellow-browed Woodpecker||a few at Campos; Itatiaia|
|Green-barred Woodpecker||one or two at Intervales|
|Campo Flicker||almost every day in open habitat|
|Blond-crested Woodpecker||one at Ubatuba; five at Iguazu|
|Lineated Woodpecker||individuals or pairs on road near Canastra; at Ubatuba; at Iguazu (no lines on back)|
|Robust Woodpecker||one at Campos do Jordao; heard Itatiaia and Iguazu|
|Rufous Hornero||everywhere in open areas|
|Araucaria Tit-Spinetail||Campos do Jordaoa pair mating and at least several others|
|Pale-breasted Spinetail||one seen at Canastra near hotel; a few others heard|
|Chicli Spinetail||one seen at Canastra; heard Intervales and Iguazu|
|Rufous-capped Spinetail||one seen at Intervales; heard Itatiaia|
|Gray-bellied Spinetail||one seen at Itatiaia (Agulhas Negras Road)|
|Pallid Spinetail||several at Campos; commonly heard in Itatiaia (where Edson found a nest)|
|Itatiaia Spinetail||several beyond marsh on Agulhas Negras Road, Itatiaia; orange throat seen well on one|
|Common (Rufous-fronted) Thornbird||Canastra, a pair at nest|
|Firewood-Gatherer||Canastraone bringing sticks to add to nest; small numbers seen|
|Plain Xenops||several seen Canastra & Iguazu; heard at Intervales|
|Streaked Xenops||heard Itatiaia|
|Buff-browed Foliage-Gleaner||several at Intervales, Campos, Itatiaia|
|Buff-fronted Foliage-Gleaner||several at Intervales, Itatiaia|
|Ochre-breasted Foliage-Gleaner||fairly common at Itatiaia|
|Black-capped Foliage-Gleaner||one at Intervales|
|White-collared Foliage-Gleaner||several at Intervales|
|White-eyed Foliage-Gleaner||several at the lower section at Canastra; Itatiaia|
|Rufous-breasted Leaftosser||Intervales, on nest; two or three seen|
|Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper||one seen at Intervales; at least one heard at Itatiaia|
|Thrushlike (Plain-winged) Woodcreeper||Ubatuba|
|Olivaceous Woodcreeper||most places; commonest at Itatiaia, Iguazu|
|White-throated Woodcreeper||several at Intervales, Itatiaia (destroying a bromeliad)|
|Scaled Woodcreeper||at least one at Intervales, one at Itatiaia|
|Lesser Woodcreeper||small numbers at Itatiaia, Iguazu|
|Black-billed Scythebill||one at Itatiaia on the Tres Picos trail|
|Spot-backed Antshrike||two seen at Ubatuba|
|(Giant Antshrike)||surprising miss; came closest in Intervales where one crashed into undergrowth|
|Tufted Antshrike||a few seen and others heard in Intervales & Itatiaia; heardIguazu|
|Large-tailed Antshrike||one seen, a few others heard on Itatiaia on Agulhas Negras Road|
|White-bearded Antshrike||one at Intervales in bamboo near White-collared Foliage-Gleaner|
|Variable Antshrike||heard or seen all locations|
|Rufous-capped Antshrike||one or two in open area near cabin at Intervales|
|Spot-breasted Antvireo||one in canopy on Tres Picos Trail|
|Plain Antvireo||most locations|
|Star-throated Antwren||several at Intervales, Ubatuba & Itatiaia|
|Rufous-winged Antwren||several at Ubatuba & Iguazu|
|Ferruginous Antbird||seen and heard fairly commonly Interales, Ubatuba, Itatiaia|
|Bertoni's Antbird||several at Intervales; Itatiaia|
|Rufous-tailed Antbird||one seen on Agulhas Negras Road in Itatiaia; others heard|
|Ochre-rumped Antbird||at least one seen at Intervales; heardItatiaia|
|Dusky-tailed Antbird||at least one seen at Intervales|
|Scaled Antbird||one at Ubatuba|
|Streak-capped Antwren||several at Ubatuba (carrying an insect to feed young) & Itatiaia; heardIguazu|
|White-shouldered Fire-Eye||a few seen Canastra, Intervales; heard most locations|
|White-bibbed Antbird||a few at Intervales|
|Squamate Antbird||one at Ubatuba|
|Short-tailed Antthrush||one seen and several heard at Intervales|
|Rufous-tailed (Brazilian) Antthrush||two seen, good numbers heard at Itatiaia; heard in Campos|
|Such's Antthrush||several heard (only) at Itatiaia|
|Variegated Antpitta||one at Intervales (on nest); heard Itatiaia & Iguazu|
|Speckle-breasted Antpitta||one Agulhas Negras Road in Itatiaia; others heard|
|Rufous Gnateater||one at Intervales; at least one other heard|
|Spotted Bamboowren||Intervales (quick look) & Ubatuba; others heard|
|Slaty Bristlefront||pair at Ubatuba; heard at Itatiaia|
|Mouse-colored Tapaculo||heard Intervales & Itatiaia; one seen at Itatiaia on Tres Picos Trail|
|Brasilia Tapaculo||one seen in upper section of Serra da Canastra; another heard|
|White-breasted Tapaculo||one seen at Tres Picos Trail in Itatiaia; several heard at Intervales|
|Swallow-tailed Cotinga||Intervales (pair at nest with young); Campos|
|Black-and-gold Cotinga||two seen, others heard Campos; one seen, others heard Agulhas Negras Road in Itatiaia|
|Hooded Berryeater||several at Intervales; also heard when stopping briefly on way down to Ubatuba to cool brakes|
|Buff-throated Purpletuft||one at Ubatuba|
|Red-ruffed Fruitcrow||several in the lower section of Canastra (fazenda)|
|Bare-throated Bellbird||common at Intervales; heard at Ubatuba|
|White-bearded Manakin||individual at Ubatuba; at least one pair at Iguazu|
|Helmeted Manakin||a few at Canastra|
|Blue Manakin||fairly commonly heard, less often seen at Campos; Ubatuba; Itatiaia; Iguacu|
|Pin-tailed Manakin||one seen fairly well and one seen extremely well lower section of Canastra (fazenda)|
|Wied's Tyrant-Manakin||one at Intervales|
|Black-capped Piprites||two at Campos & one at Itatiaia (Tres Picos)|
|Southern Beardless Tyrannulet||Canastra; Itatiaia; Iguacu; also heard Campos|
|Yellow Tyrannulet||Itatiaiaa pair on rough trail off Tres Picos trail|
|Gray Elaenia||pair in lower level of Canastra near path to the waterfall|
|Yellow-bellied Elaenia||several at Canastra, Intervales & Iguazu|
|Olivaceous Elaenia||several heard at Canastra and seen Intervales, Campos & Itatiaia|
|Plain-crested Elaenia||several at Canastra|
|Sooty Tyrannulet||individuals along river at Canastra|
|White-crested Tyrannulet||one by river at Canastra|
|Gray-hooded Flycatcher||heard at Canastra and seen at Intervales|
|Sepia-capped Flycatcher||seen at the lower section of Canastra and heard Itatiaia|
|Southern Bristle-Tyrant||heard (only) at the lower section of Canastra near the Sepia-capped|
|Serra do Mar Tyrannulet||individuals at two locations off Agulhas Negras Road at Itatiaia|
|Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet||park at Campos do Jordao; Itatiaia|
|Planalto Tyrannulet||small numbers at Intervales; Campos & Itatiaia|
|Rough-legged Tyrannulet||one in the canopy on Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia|
|Gray-capped Tyrannulet||one at Ubatuba (unusually low elevation?)|
|Sharp-tailed Tyrant||two, one displaying at upper section of Canastra after rain|
|Gray-backed Tachuri||one at upper section of Canastra|
|Eared Pygmy-Tyrant||a few individuals at Intervales & Iguazu|
|Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant||heard Intervales; one seen at Itatiaia on the rough trail off Tres Picos trail; others heard at Itatiaia|
|Brown-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant||one seen in Intervales|
|Hangnest Tody-Tyrant||one in open area at Intervales|
|Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant||one in Ubatuba near stream|
|Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher||several in Intervales; heard Itatiaia and Iguazu|
|Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher||one seen in Intervales; others heard|
|Southern Antpipit||one in fazenda at lower section of Canastra; heard at Iguazu|
|Yellow-olive Flycatcher||heard Canastra & Intervales; pair seen building nest at Tres Picos Trail in Itatiaia|
|White-throated Spadebill||individuals in Intervales; Itatiaia; heard at Iguazu|
|Yellow-rumped Flycatcher||Intervalesone flashing its tail at forest edge at Intervales; tail shape and quick look at breast indicated this species; note that Black-tailed (another Myiobius) also apparently occurs at Intervales|
|Cliff Flycatcher||all locations except Ubatuba; by nest in Itatiaia; perched near window at Itatiaia|
|Euler's Flycatcher||one at Intervales; heard at Itatiaia|
|Gray Monjita||fairly common at Canastra; Campos|
|White-rumped Monjita||fairly common at Canastra; Campos|
|Blue-billed Black-Tyrant||pair at Campos and several at Itatiaia|
|Velvety Black-Tyrant||several at upper section of Canastra and several at Itatiaia|
|Crested Black-Tyrant||fairly common at upper section of Canastra; a few at Itatiaia|
|Masked Water-Tyrant||lone birds at Canastra & Itatiaia|
|White-headed Marsh-Tyrant||female at marsh near Canastra; male at Intervales|
|Cock-tailed Tyrant||displaying males and females at upper section of Canastra|
|Streamer-tailed Tyrant||one in marsh off dirt road off road to Agulhas Negras Road in Itatiaia|
|Long-tailed Tyrant||almost everywhere; pair with female going into nest hole in Itatiaia|
|Cattle Tyrant||Canastra & roads in towns & Iguazu (on roof of the Sheraton)|
|Shear-tailed Gray-Tyrant||half a dozen or more at Intervales|
|Rufous-tailed Attila||two seen and several heard at Intervales|
|Gray-hooded Attila||one seen and several heard at Intervales and at Itatiaia|
|Sirystes||a canopy flock leader at Intervales; Itatiaia; Iguazu|
|Swainson's Flycatcher||at least several at Canastra, Intervales; Itatiaia (nest); one at Iguazu|
|Short-crested Flycatcher||a few at Canastra|
|Great Kiskadee||everywhere; at Itatiaia, one pair feeding young and another building a nest|
|Boat-billed Flycatcher||a few at Canastra; Intervales; heard Ubatuba; a few seen at Iguazu|
|Social Flycatcher||most places; feeding young in town at Canastra|
|Streaked Flycatcher||several Intervales; Itatiaia; Iguazu|
|Piratic Flycatcher||heard Intervales; seen Ubatuba and Itatiaia|
|Variegated Flycatcher||several Canastra; Intervales; Ubatuba|
|Tropical Kingbird||everywhere; feeding young at Ubatuba; at nest in Iguazu|
|Fork-tailed Flycatcher||everywhere open; pair harassing Caracara|
|Greenish Schiffornis||heard in Intervales & Itatiaia; one seen at Campos|
|Chestnut-crowned Becard||common except Canastra; several nests|
|Green-backed Becard||a few Intervales & Iguazu|
|White-winged Becard||a few lower section of Canastra; Intervales|
|Crested Becard||several Intervales; Ubatuba; Itatiaia (nest)|
|Black-tailed Tityra||one at Tres Picos trail at Itatiaia|
|Black-crowned Tityra||one at Intervales|
|Sharpbill||at least one seen singing in canopy flock along Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia|
|Brown-chested Martin||Intervales; Ubatuba|
|Gray-breasted Martin||road; Canastra; Itatiaia|
|White-rumped Swallow||Canastra; Ubatuba; road; Itatiaia; nest at Canastra|
|Blue-and-white Swallow||everywhere; nests at Itatiaia, including in entrance to Hotel Simon|
|Southern Rough-winged Swallow||almost everywhere|
|Hellmayr's Pipit||one seen displaying at Campos do Jordao|
|Ochre-breasted Pipit||several seen displaying at upper section of Canastra|
|Long-billed Wren||one at Ubatuba|
|House Wren||everywhere; several nests|
|Sedge (Grass) Wren||one heard at Canastra|
|Chalk-browed Mockingbird||almost everywhere with open areas|
|Yellow-legged Thrush||heard in Intervales; one seen atop at tree by Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia|
|Rufous-bellied Thrush||everywhere; lovely song|
|Pale-breasted Thrush||several at Canastra & Iguazu|
|Creamy-bellied Thrush||everywhere but Iguazu|
|Curl-crested Jay||Campos and several roadside locations|
|Plush-crested Jay||Campos, then very common at Iguazu|
|House Sparrow||anywhere urban; carrying food to nest in Ubatuba|
|Common Waxbill||Sao Paulo and Ubatuba|
|Red-eyed Vireo||heard at Sao Paulo airport then encountered everywhere but not noted in Itatiaia|
|Rufous-crowned Greenlet||fairly common at Intervales & Itatiaia|
|Rufous-browed Peppershrike||heard Intervales, Ubatuba; seen at Tres Picos Trail in Itatiaia|
|Hooded Siskin||pairs at Canastra and Itatiaia|
|Tropical Parula||seen Intervales, Ubatuba & Iguazu; heard Canastra & Itatiaia|
|Masked Yellowthroat||Sao Paulo roadside marsh; Canastra; Intervales; Ubatuba; heard marsh near Itatiaia|
|Golden-crowned Warbler||heard or seen most locations|
|White-rimmed Warbler||heard or seen most locations|
|White-bellied Warbler||one seen at Intervales|
|Flavescent Warbler||heard (only) in marsh near Canastra|
|Neotropical River Warbler||heard (only) in Ubatuba & Iguazu|
|Chestnut-vented Conebill||low section of Canastra; Ubatuba; Iguazu (carrying food to feed young)|
|Brown Tanager||several at Itatiaia|
|Cinnamon Tanager||at least two separate sightings in the upper section of Canastra|
|White-banded Tanager||upper section of Canastrapair dueting|
|Magpie Tanager||several at Intervales; Campos do Jordao; Itatiaia|
|Chestnut-headed Tanager||several at Iguazu on side of trail to Puerto Canoas|
|Guira Tanger||a few in Iguazu on "Piping Guan Trail" and on Sendero Macuco|
|Rufous-headed Tanger||most locations, including in canopy flock at Canastra, in exotic trees at Itatiaia|
|Olive-green Tanager||Itatiaia, usually in canopy but one singing at dawn at eye level on Maromba Trail|
|Flame-crested Tanager||one at Ubatuba|
|Ruby-crowned Tanager||most locations, generally in pairs|
|Black-goggled Tanager||lower section Canastra; Intervales; Andrea and Edson saw Itatiaia; heard Iguazu|
|Red-crowned Ant-Tanager||seen in Intervales; heard Ubatuba; seen in Iguazu|
|Hepatic Tanager||one atop hill on upper section of Canastra|
|Brazilian Tanager||Ubatubaa male, then female carrying food to nest|
|Azure-shouldered Tanager||several at Intervales|
|Golden-chevroned Tanager||several at Intervales; Campos do Jordao; Itatiaia (nest)|
|Palm Tanager||Canastra (at hotel); Ubatuba; Itatiaia (carrying nesting material)|
|Diademed Tanager||Intervales (courtship feeding); Campos; Itatiaia (where most common at Agulhas Negras Road)|
|Fawn-breasted Tanager||Intervales; Campos; Itatiaia|
|Purple-throated Euphonia||heard (only) at Canastra & Ubatuba|
|Violaceous Euphonia||heard at Intervales; seen often at Iguazu|
|Golden-rumped Euphonia||one at Intervales near lodge|
|Chestnut-bellied Euphonia||several at Intervales; Itatiaia; Iguazu|
|Green-headed Tanager||common everywhere except Canastra; feeding young with yellow gape at Iguazu|
|Red-necked Tanager||one at Ubatuba|
|Brassy-breasted Tanager||quite common at Campos and Itatiaia|
|Gilt-edged Tanager||three or four at Itatiaia|
|Burnished-buff Tanager||Canastra and Iguazu|
|Blue Dacnis||everywhere, but nowhere in large numbers; in nest at Intervales|
|Swallow-Tanager||Canastra (mating); Itatiaia; Iguazu|
|Black-masked Finch||one singing on rock at upper section of Canastra following rain|
|Bay-chested Warbling-Finch||Agulhas Negras Road at Itatiaia|
|Red-rumped Warbling-Finch||Campos do Jordao and Agulhas Negras Road at Itatiaia|
|Blue-black Grassquit||Canastra, Intervales & Itatiaia|
|Buffy-fronted Seedeater||group at Intervales|
|Temminck's Seedeater||group at Intervales moving rapidly in trees; males in immature plumage singing|
|Plumbeous Seedeater||one lower section of Canastra|
|Yellow-bellied Seedeater||one lower section of Canastra|
|Double-collared Seedeater||rather common in the lower section of Canastra; Intervales; Itatiaia|
|White-bellied Seedeater||lone birds in the upper section of Canastra and on road near Piumhi|
|Capped Seedeater||a few in the upper section of Canastra|
|Uniform Finch||small group in a high hillside in Campos do Jordao|
|Saffron Finch||Canastra; Itatiaia; Iguazu; also in cages in Rio|
|Grassland Yellow-Finch||upper section of Canastra|
|Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch||heard (only) in upper section of Canastra|
|Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch||upper section of Canastra|
|Great Pampa-Finch||two or three in the upper section of Canastra|
|Saffron-billed Sparrow||pair with male singing on Sendero Macuco in Iguazu|
|Rufous-collared Sparrow||almost everywhere|
|Black-throated Grosbeak||one at Intervales|
|Green-winged Saltator||upper and lower Canastra; Intervales; heard in Campos; Itatiaia|
|Thick-billed Saltator||six or so at Agulhas Negras Road in Itatiaia|
|Black-throated Saltator||one across from hotel in Canastra|
|Chestnut-capped Blackbird||flock in marsh near Canastra|
|Shiny Cowbird||almost everywhere|
|Giant Cowbird||Canastra and Iguazuon hotel grounds in each location|
|Red-rumped Cacique||very common and at nests at Intervales, Itatiaia and Iguazu|
|Golden-winged Cacique||a few at Intervales (at feeder near lodge) and Agulhas Negras Road in Itatiaia|
|Yellow-rumped Marshbird||Canastra and marsh near Itatiaia|