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3 - 12 October 1997

by Peter Lonsdale

I cashed in some frequent-flyer miles for a seat on Delta's new service to Sao Paulo and Rio, and 10days solo birding in Brazil (October 3 - 12), with 3 days each in the Pantanal, at Chapada and at Itatiaia, plus 1day at Brasilia.  Though I have some experience of neotropical birding in western South America, Central America, and Mexico, this was my first time in Brazil, so about 75% of the 300 species I identified were lifers.  Of course, at these fabled sites finding new birds is no problem, but identifying many of them is, in the absence of any Brazilian field guide or an experienced human guide (I prefer to pick my own way around).  My ID aids were Dunning's "Birds of South America, a photo aid.  .  .  .  "; the relevant pages of Forrester's invaluable "Birding Brazil", especially his site checklists; b+w xeroxes of much of Narosky and Yzurieta's "Birds of Argentina and Uruguay"; and the notes which I made to check against my Ridgely and Tudor (Birds of South America, v I and II) and HBW (v1-3), which I left at home.  I do not use tapes, for aesthetic rather than ethical reasons, so I did poorly with owls, crakes, and antbirds.  I met no other birders, except for a brief and pleasant encounter with a Field Guides tour at the big Voi de Nueva falls at Chapada (we watched a LESSER ELAENIA on a nest); however, many of the local ranchers, fishermen, etc., I came across showed a lot of interest in and knowledge of the birds, and liked to thumb through my 'Dunning" to point out what was around.  Since I speak no Portuguese, these were my only "conversations" in the field.

Forrester lists 225 'common resident species' at Itatiaia, with another 125 'scarce' or 'seasonal', and each of the other sites has comparably huge numbers.  I've heard other neotropical neophytes express concern about being "overwhelmed" by such profusions of unfamiliar birds.  Me, I love being overwhelmed, even if it means I have to more-or-less give up on some groups that would either take too long to ID, or would provide dubious IDs because of my lack of illustrations or info on vocalisations (eg, small flycatchers at Itatiaia --- rather than stalking a pygmy-tyrant for half a hour to convince myself whether it was a Brown-breasted or a Drab-breasted, I get distracted by colourful tanagers, manakins, etc.  ).  In these circumstances, I'm not sure my trip list of the birds I happened to identify is of much value, but I'll append it anyway.  I hope the highlights I'll mention in this text might encourage others to go, and that they may find the logistics info useful.

I made no advance hotel or rental car reservations; at this low travel season all the hotels were empty, and I got much better deals with small local rental car companies than I'd been offered in advance by the major national/international operators.  I used US credit cards wherever possible (most places, except in the Pantanal), relying on my AmEx for rental car insurance/CDW -- this took some argueing, and I was never really sure how well covered I was.  Though I only took a few internal flights, Brazilian domestic airfares are so high that this was a major expense, and it paid me to get a $300 VARIG southern Brazil airpass (must be bought in advance outside of Brazil, with a schedule you select but cannot change).  The springtime weather was excellent, with just one heavy thunderstorm in the Pantanal.

Into Sao Paulo on Delta at dawn.

While waiting for the 1.5 hour flight back north to Brasilia, I spent a pleasant hour watching a dozen common spp.  (Sayaca Tanager, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Rufous-bellied Thrush, . . .  ) in the nice birdy wooded strips at the S. P. airport parking lot.  Brasilia was a 24 hr acclimatizing/jet-lag recovery stop for me.  I negotiated a $35/day rental car at the airport, and drove through downtown on the central uncongested boulevard to Brasilia National Park, where I spent the afternoon.  This large park has diverse woodland/savannah/lake habitats, some nice trails, and a long bird-list, but is spoiled for birders by its 9-5 opening hours.  I had written well in advance for permission to stay later and enter earlier, and to get access to the large fraction of the park closed to the general public, but received no reply, and couldn't find any authorities to plead my case with once I arrived.

Forrester reports that toward dusk the area around the pools near the park entrance comes alive with several spp I'd love to have seen, but soon after 5 p.  m.  I was ejected by friendly though armed guards; next time I'll lurk on the forest trails until almost dusk, and then emerge at the pools with my best 'lost tourist' imitation --- there seemed to be enough park employees around that there would be little danger of getting you and your car locked in for the night.  Anyway, I enjoyed my visit, an introduction to some good birds I later saw elsewhere (RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR, STREAKED XENOPS, RUSTY-MARGINED GUAN,...  ) plus a dozen I saw nowhere else (SPOTTED NOTHURA, CHECKERED WOODPECKER, WHITE-WEDGED PICULET, NARROW-BILLED WOOD- CREEPER, RED-SHOULDERED MACAW, WHITE-BELLIED and WHITE-STRIPED WARBLERS, .  .  ).

I stayed at a $35 downtown hotel.

Next morning I had a flight scheduled out at 10.  30 (it actually left at noon) so I couldn't revisit the park.  At dawn I drove down Brasilia's ceremonial way past the federal office buildings, saw the GREATER RHEA family on the huge lawn in front of the Presidential Palace, wandered around the University (CAMPO FLICKER, SCALED DOVE, GREY MONJITA, .  .  .  ), and then just looked around the city.

Landed at Cuiaba, gateway to the Pantanal, about 1400.  No rental car deals here; I ended up paying $72/day for unlimited mileage at Best Car (just outside the airport, 100m up the street to the right), which I thoroughly recommend, not because the rate was a few dollars less than the competition, but because the two girls running the operation are stunners, and so helpful.  A fast 100km drive south on good paved roads (pausing only for roadside TOCO TOUCAN, BLACK-COLLARED HAWK and GREEN- BARRED WOODPECKER) to Pocone.  Just beyond this town is the start of the 'Transpantaneira', the good (dry-season) dead-end dirt road that extends on a causeway 150km into the heart of the Great Swamp (the Pantanal), over more than 120 dilapidated-to-completely-derelict plank bridges.

Just 10-20 km south of Pocone the late afternoon roadside scene was extraordinary: marshes and lagoons full of giant JABIRU, MAGUARI STORKS, LIMPKINS, HERONS (COCOI, RUFESCENT TIGER-, CAPPED, STRIATED), EGRETS, IBIS(PLUMBEOUS, GREEN, WHISTLING, WHITE-FACED), DUCKS(MUSCOVY, WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-, BRAZILIAN), and SOUTHERN SCREAMERS; roosting in scattered trees noisy BUFF-NECKED IBIS, CHACO CHACHALACAS and MONK PARAKEETS; cruising overhead SNAIL KITES, GREAT BLACK HAWKS, AMAZON and GREAT BILLED TERN; and in the reeds and scrub.  .  .  .  .  .  I didn't have time to look, for as it was I got to the hotel at Pixaim well after dark (thankfully, the bridges north of Pixaim are in relatively good shape).  I stayed at the rustic but a/c(=mosquito-free)Pousada Pixaim, $55/day incl all meals.  I recommend it for its friendliness, hearty meals, and a feeder attracting a pretty eclectic mix(from YELLOW-BILLED CARDINALS and BAY-WINGED COWBIRDS through PURPLISH JAYS to CRESTED CARACARAS).

The alternative hotel, across the river, is the more modern/blander H.  Beira Rio, while 50km further down the road the "drinks hut" of Forrester has been expanded to include the smaller, cheaper ($30) Pousada Pantanal, which looked OK when I stopped for a drink next day.  The area around the Pixaim hotels, in fact, more than half the land along the Transpantaneira (TP), isn't "primeval swamp" but diked wet meadows with copses and patches of scrub.  I spent a productive hour in this around the hotels before breakfast next morning (MATO GROSSO ANTBIRD, SOLITARY CACIQUE, TROUPIAL, RED-BILLED SCYTHEBILL, .  .  .  ), then continued down the TP on a leisurely 90 km drive to the end of the road at Porto Jofre.  Right on the road, and on frequent forays into the woods, were more great birds -- SUNBITTERNS on several of the bridges, flashing their wing displays at my car; a BARE-FACED CURRASOW in the middle of the traffic-free road (which had flocks of JABIRU I had to get out and shoo off); time today to admire the YELLOW-THROATED RUSHBIRDS, WHITE-HEADED MARSH-TYRANTS and other small passerines in the marshes, and the GREAT RUFOUS WOODCREEPERS, CHESTNUT- EARED ARACARIS, BLUE-CROWNED TROGONS, etc in the woods;and *finally* clearly identified LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURES, so I never again have to stop and pick hopefully through flocks of TVs!

And there were some truly scary bridges to cross -- basically skeletons of rotten timber with heaps of splintered planks for each motorist to rearrange to fit his wheel spacing.  It would have helped to have a companion to check that most wheels really were lined up o0n the planks, rather than on the yard-wide gaps between them; it would have helped if there hadn't been quite so many teeth-baring caimans waiting beneath the gaps.  Fortunately, some kindly experienced Transpantaneiros had marked the handful of quite uncrossable "bridges" with warning piles of brush, and truck trails led around them, off the causeway and into the swamp muck -- fine in the dry season, but impassable after rain.  Surprisingly, by 1500 I'd made it to the end of the road at Porto Jofre, to be greeted by flocks of enormous HYACINTH MACAW and BLUE- FACED PIPING-GUAN (6-8 of each, gliding around the same trees along the side road to the Hotel Santa Rosa), nesting colonies of YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUES and CRESTED OROPENDOLAS, LITTLE, PALE-CRESTED and CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKERS, etc.  Dissuaded from staying at the Hotel by its reputed $100+ price, I slept in the car at the riverside campground ($3 for the use of nice showers, etc), watched over by a TROPICAL SCREECH-OWL on a utility pole and a huge roost of Egrets across the broad Rio San Lourenco.

Next morning I was heading back up the TP soon after dawn, early enough to see several vividly coloured 4-5m-long snakes slither off the road ahead of me.  A clouding and darkening sky, and hunger, persuaded me to get back to Pousada Pixaim by lunch, and just before I arrived thunder and lightning started to crash around, and down it poured, perhaps marking the start of the Pantanal's Oct - March season of rains and flooding -- if I hadn't negotiated the last of the broken-bridge diversions just before it started, then my car and I might be there still!  At Pixaim a lull in the rain at dusk allowed me to watch the delicate BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWKS flitting over the river by the hotels, and by morning the rain had stopped.

I spent another 2-3 hours in the nearby woods and scrub before a late breakfast, then retraced my route back to Pocone and Cuiaba, driving straight through this modern skyscraper-full city; my destination was the small resort town of Chapada, about 70km further north, on the edge of a limestone plateau which overlooks Cuiaba and the Pantanal.  An obligatory stop near the top of the escarpment is the Portao do Inferno cafe, with CLIFF FLYCATCHERS sallying out over the cliffs below, and a pair of awesome RED-AND-GREEN MACAWS making sorties from their nest-hole high on the cliff on the other side of the main road.  Then (late afternoon by now) I went to the top of the scenic Voi de Neuva waterfall, where a stream falls off the plateau into a wooded valley, up which a pair of GREAT DUSKY SWIFTS screamed.  Creeping up the streambed above the falls (reached from a cafe on the main road) was a bold noisy pair of SHARP-TAILED STREAMCREEPERS.  I stayed at the perfectly adequate $25 Hotel Turismo in downtown Chapada.

The next day started at the forest behind the Portao da Fe mission, about 6km out of Chapada.  Birding was good but not great, probably because fire had recently swept through, charring the undergrowth, and because my inexperience with with vocalisations meant I spent a lot of time working for glimpses of what proved to be common birds, rather than concentrating on the rarer ones as an expert would have.  Most of the Chapada region is fire-maintained grassland, with forests surviving only in steep valleys.  During the heat of this cloudless day I revisited the other sites within 20km of town, ending up in late afternoon in the gallery forest below the Voi de Nueva falls, with great views of the remarkable HELMETED MANAKIN (and a cooling dip in the fall's plunge pool).

My most exciting Chapada birding was at dawn the next day, along the final 2 km of the paved side road to a radio tower, where the woods had been "dead" (except for CHESTNUT-EARED ARACARIs) the previous midday.  Nice surprises were a flight of 7 GOLDEN-COLLARED MACAWS, and a huge CRESTED EAGLE (not listed for Chapada by Forrester) which landed in a roadside tree 100m away and allowed close approach with excellent views.  Plus other typical Amazonian birds, like a noisy troupe of MOUSTACHED WRENs and a YELLOW-RIDGED TOUCAN, at the southern limit of their range.  Near the end of the road, between the woods and the radio tower, the road crosses grazing fields where I stumbled upon "nests" of LITTLE NIGHTJAR and GRASSLAND SPARROW, and had nice views of TATAUPA TINAMOU (allowing good comparison with the similar SHORT-BILLED TINAMOU I had watched the day before on a path in the Portao da Fe woods).

Before I wanted to on this overcast and birdier day, I had to leave Chapada for Cuiaba and my flight to Rio.  A lucky find on the drive down to Cuiaba was a WHITE-NAPED JAY in a clump of trees below the escarpment, with a family of WHITE WOODPECKERS nearby.  With VARIG delays and a stopover in Brasilia, I didn't get to Rio de Janeiro til 8.  30p.  m.  At the airport I found a rental car "deal" with Mega cars -- 3 days for $100 with 500"free"km, rising to $180 if the limit was exceeded by even a single km.  3 days was what I wanted, and I reckoned 500km would suffice for my visit to Itatiaia National Park, 180km away.  (I actually returned with 495km clocked, but I'd wasted 30km during my night-time escape from Rio by a wrong turn on the unfamiliar and basically unsigned "freeway" system.  )After a nightmarish drive through the mountains on the congested Rio - Sao Paulo highway (tailing an overloaded 30km/hr truck, another behometh hitting high beams and horn 2" from my rear bumper and all 3 of us being passed by cars doing 100km+ along the right shoulder) I staggered into Itatiaia town after midnight, and was pleased to find a $23 roadside hotel still open.

For the next 2 nights, my last in Brazil, I moved upscale to the very nice Hotel Conora ($32 incl.  breakfast, served til 1000), on the river half-way (~4km) up the side road to the Park.  Inside the National Park are several beautifully situated hotels that looked wonderful as romantic get-aways, but are way too expensive for mere birders (I was quoted $160 per weekend night at the Hotel Simon, for instance).  The real benefits of these hotels are that they force the park gates to be open 24hours (one reason I went to Itatiaia rather than the closer-to-Rio 8a.m -5p.m.Serra dos Orgaos N.P.).

Itatiaia is well covered in the bird-finding guides, and I don't have much to add.  Even on the weekend days, when there was a fairly steady stream of cars into the park by 9am, the trails were empty 'cos most tourists head for water fun at the places where roads cross the river.  My favourite site was the upper part of the Maromba jeep trail several km past the gate and 'No Entry' sign, which a park official said I could ignore.  The 'H.  Simon tr' in my bird list is the short-but-birdy level path between the Hotel Simon and the Hotel do Ype.  (The latter, supposedly a hotspot favoured by birding tours, resembled a noisy radio-blaring construction site as workers were chopping down the forest and extending the buildings -- not, I hope, to accomodate larger birding groups!)The bird feeders outside the house of the affable and doubtless rich owner of H.  Simon were great (and don't neglect other hummer feeders, like the busy ones at the souvenir shop on the right of the road less than 1km past the main gate).

My favourite birds would have to be the hummers -- the bold flashy BLACK JACOBINs;BRAZILIAN RUBY flashing its glowing red spot;the first COQUETTEs I've seen at feeders; and the absurd PLOVERCREST (a tiny bird with the head ornament of a Northern Lapwing) and SWALLOW-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (ditto, with the tail of a Barn Swallow).  The many Tanagers were a close second, but some species are just too gaudy!  Favourite individual spp were a confiding pair of SAFFRON TOUCANETs, and a SWALLOW-TAILED COTINGA.  The latter, and several other spp, I saw only (just) outside the park, when I walked up the road that goes left at the military post just before the park entrance to the Pousada Esmeraldas hotel and beyond.  At the very end of this 'Esmeraldas rd' is a private residence with a lovely bird-full garden where I watched over the gate and saw one of my best birds, a dark-legged honeycreeper with a small black bib, the rare endemic BLACK-LEGGED DACNIS.

I didn't drive around to the summit region of the park, which I now regret even though it would have busted my car's mileage allowance.  I was still identifying lots of new birds in the main part of the park up til the moment I had to leave, and I had no great wish to get back on the highway.  My drive back to Rio, on a Sunday afternoon with few trucks on the road, was perfectly pleasant, however.

I'd heartily recommend any other jaded business traveller with 50, 000 frequent flyer miles to zip on down to southern Brazil.  Leaving Atlanta after dinnertime, you can be starting to identify Itatiaia's 350 spp before lunchtime the next day, while staying at lovely inexpensive hillside hotels with natural swimming pools, great Brazilian food and hospitality.  Getting to the Pantanal takes a little longer and costs a little more, but it's a very memorable and quite different experience.


What follows is a list of 297 species identified during 10 days in Brazil, by an inexperienced observer with inadequate ID reference material.  Although I have tried hard to omit any "uncertain" IDs, I daresay some mistakes were made.  Most sins are of omission: many birds seen were not adequately identified, so are not listed.

Sorry for the lack of scientific names.  (I type especially badly in Latin).  Nomenclature generally follows Ridgely + Tudor and Sibley + Monroe.


BR = Brasilia(mainly Nat. Park)
TP = Transpantaneira road
CH = Chapada
IT = Itatiaia (mainly Nat. Park)
Rhea, Greater BR (Nat.Park, and Presidential palace) 
Tinamou, Tataupa CH (end of Radio tower rd)
" , Red-winged CH (P da Fe entry rd) 
" , Small-billed CH (P. da Fe woods)
Nothura, Spotted BR
Grebe, Pied-billed TP
Frigatebird, Magnificent Rio de Janeiro airport rd 
Cormorant, Neotropic TP
Anhinga TP
Egret, Great TP; IT
" , Cattle TP, IT
" , Snowy TP
Heron, Striated BR; TP
" , Little Blue TP
" , Cocoi TP (abundant)
" , Capped TP (common)
" , Rufescent Tiger- TP (abundant)
" , Boat-billed TP
" , Black-crowned Night- TP
Stork, Wood TP
" , Maguari TP (f.common)
Jabiru TP (abundant)
Limpkin TP (abundant)
Ibis, Plumbeous TP (abundant)
" , Whispering (Bare-faced) TP
" , Green TP (common)
" , Buff-necked TP (in trees near Pixaim) 
" , White-faced TP
Jacana, Wattled TP (abundant)
Screamer, Southern TP (abundant)
Duck, White-faced Whistling- TP (near Pocone)
" , Brazilian TP (near Pocone)
" , Muscovy TP (f.common)
Vulture, Black -
" , Turkey -
" , Lesser Yellow-headed TP
Kite, White-tailed BR
" , Plumbeous CH
" , Grey-headed CH (near Inferno) 
" , Snail TP (f.common)
Hawk, Rufous-thighed IT
" , Roadside TP
" , Black-collared TP
" , Savannah BR; TP; CH
" , Great Black TP
" , Crane TP (a group near Pixaim)
Eagle, Crested CH (radio tower rd)
Falcon, Laughing TP
Kestrel, American TP
Caracara, Yellow-headed BR
" , Crested TP (abundant)
Chachalaca, Chaco TP (abundant)
Guan, Dusky-legged IT (easy at dawn/dusk)
" , Rusty-margined BR; CH (P.da Fe woods)
" , Blue-throated Piping- TP (mainly at Porto Jofre)
Curassow, Bare-faced TP
Wood-quail, Spot-winged IT (several on Maromba trail) 
Rail, Blackish TP (1 crossing the road near dusk) 
Rail, Slaty-breasted Wood-  IT (high on Maromba Trail, noon) 
Sunbittern TP (on road bridges, early a.m.) 
Sandpiper, White-rumped TP (2 fly-bys)
Lapwing, Southern BR; TP
Tern, Large-billed TP
" , Amazon TP
Pigeon, Picazuro CH; BR
" , Plumbeous IT
" , Pale-vented TP; CH
Dove, Eared TP
" , Scaled BR
" , Gray-fronted IT
" , White-tipped TP
Ground-dove, Long-tailed TP
" , Plain-breasted TP
" , Ruddy TP
Macaw, Hyacinth TP (Porto Jofre)
" , Golden-collared CH (radio tower rd) 
" , Red-and-green CH (Portao do Inferno) 
" , Red-shouldered BR
Parakeet, White-eyed TP
" , Peach-fronted TP (near Pixaim) 
" , Plain IT (just outside park)
" , Canary-winged BR; TP
" , Monk TP
" , Reddish-bellied IT
Parrotlet, Blue-winged IT (just outside park) 
Parrot, Scaly-naped IT
" , Turquoise-fronted TP (near Pixaim)
Cuckoo, Guira BR, TP, CH
" , Striped BR
" , Pheasant CH (upstream of Veu de Noiva) 
" , Squirrel TP; IT
Ani, Smooth-billed BR; TP; CH; IT
Owl, Tropical-Screech TP (Porto Jofre) 
Nighthawk, Band-tailed TP (over river at Pixaim, dusk)
" , Nacunda TP (Pixaim, dawn and dusk)
Pauraque TP (on road, at night)
Nightjar, Little CH (flushed from eggs, radio tower rd) 
Swift, Biscutate CH (Maromba bridge)
" , White-collared IT (H.Simon)
" , Great Dusky CH (Veu de Noiva)
" , Sooty IT (Maromba bridge)
" , Grey-rumped IT (Hotel Simon)
" , Ashy-tailed CH (upstream from Veu de Noiva)
Hermit, Scale-throated IT (H.Simon, at feeders)
" , Buff-bellied TP (Porto Jofre)
Hummingbird, Swallow-tailed IT (H.Conora) 
Jacobin, Black IT (H.Simon, and other feeders) 
Violetear, White-vented IT (souvenir shop feeders) 
Mango, Black-throated TP (Porto Jofre) 
Plovercrest IT (half-way up Maromba trail) 
Coquette, Frilled IT (H.Simon feeders)
Emerald, Glittering-bellied IT (H.Simon trail) 
Woodnymph, Violet-capped IT (H de Ype, H.Simon) 
Hummingbird, White-throated IT (H.Simon feeders) 
Ruby, Brazilian IT (H.Simon and other feeders) 
Sapphire, Rufous-throated TP (Pixaim) 
Trogon, White-tailed IT (Tres Picos trail)
" , Surucua IT (Tres Picos trail)
" , Blue-crowned TP (Porto Jofre)
Kingfisher, Ringed TP
" , Green TP
" , Amazon TP
Motmot, Rufous-capped IT (Laguna Azul)
" , Blue-crowned CH (P. da Fe woods)
Jacamar, Rufous-tailed BR; TP; CH; IT
Nunbird, Black-fronted TP (Porto Jofre); CH 
Aracari, Chestnut-eared TP; CH (radio tower rd) 
Toucanet, Saffron IT (Maromba bridge) 
Toucan, Red-breasted IT (H.Simon feeders, etc.)
" , Yellow-ridged CH (radio tower rd) 
" , Toco nr.Pocone; TP
Piculet, White-wedged BR
" , White-barred IT (H.Simon trail)
Flicker, Campo BR
Woodpecker, Green-barred nr. Pocone; IT (Esmeraldas)
" , Yellow-browed IT (Tres Picos trail) 
" , Pale-crested TP (Porto Jofre)
" , White Cuiaba-Chapada road
" , Little TP (Porto Jofre, Pixaim) 
" , Checkered BR
" , Robust IT (high on Maromba trail) 
" , Crimson-crested TP (Porto Jofre)
Hornero, Pale-legged TP (Pixaim)
" , Rufous TP
Spinetail, Chotoy TP (Pixaim)
" , Rufous-capped IT (H.Simon trail) 
" , Plain-crowned TP (Pixaim)
" , Pallid IT (Maromba trail)
" , Yellow-chinned TP
Thornbird, Common TP (Porto Jofre)
Cachalote, Rufous TP (Pixaim)
Xenops, Streaked BR, IT
Treehunter, Sharp-billed IT (Tres Picos trail) 
Foliage-gleaner, Buff-browed IT (nr.Maromba bridge)
" , Buff-fronted IT (Tres Picos tr) 
" , Black-capped IT (Tres Picos tr)
" , White-collared IT (Maromba trail)
Streamcreeper, Sharp-tailed CH (nr Veu de Noiva) 
Woodcreeper, Plain-winged IT (Tres Picos trail)
" , Olivaceous IT (Esmeraldas rd) 
" , Planalto IT (H.Simon trail)
" , White-throated  (nr.Maromba bridge)
" , Great Rufous TP (nr.Pixaim)
" , Buff-throated:CH  (below Veu de Noiva) 
" , Scaled IT (Esmeraldas rd)
" , Narrow-billed BR
Scythebill, Red-billed TP (Pixaim)
Antshrike, Great TP (Porto Jofre)
" , Barred TP (Pixaim)
" , Rufous-capped IT (H.Simon trail) 
" , Variable BR
Antvireo, Plain CH (P.da Fe woods); IT 
Antwren, Large-billed BR
" , Rusty-backed TP (nr Pixaim)
Antbird, Mato Grosso TP (Pixaim)
" , White-bibbed IT (Maromba trail)
Gnateater, Rufous IT (Tres Picos trail) 
Flycatcher, Campo Suriri BR
Elaenia, Lesser CH
" , Forest BR
Tyrannulet, White-crested Sao Paulo airport
" , Grey-capped IT
Flycatcher, Grey-hooded IT (H.Simon trail) 
Pygmy-tyrant, Eared IT
Bamboo-tyrant, Drab-breasted IT (Tres Picos tr) 
Tody-flycatcher, Rusty-fronted TP (nr.Pixaim) 
Tody-flycatcher, Common Sao Paulo airport; TP 
Flycatcher, Euler's IT (Esmeraldas rd)
" , Cliff CH ( Inferno); IT (entrance rd)
Monjita, Grey BR; CH
" , White-rumped TP (nr.Pixaim)
Tyrant, Cattle TP (Pixaim)
" , Long-tailed TP (Esmeraldas rd)
" , Crested Black CH (Veu de Noiva); IT
Water-tyrant, Black-backed TP (nr Pixaim)
" , Masked IT (H.Simon)
Marsh-tyrant, White-headed TP
Flycatcher, Brown-crested  CH
" , Short-crested BR
" , Boat-billed BR; TP
Kiskadee, Greater BR; TP; CH; IT
" , Lesser TP (nr.Pixaim)
Flycatcher, Rusty-margined TP (Porto Jofre)
" , Streaked TP, IT
" , Piratic CH (radio tower rd)
Kingbird, Tropical BR; TP; CH; IT
Flycatcher, Fork-tailed Sao Paulo; BR; IT 
Becard, White-winged CH (radio tower rd)
" , Chestnut-crowned IT (L.Azul)
" , Crested IT (Tres Picos)
Tityra, Black-tailed TP (Pixaim); IT
Manakin, Blue (Swallow-tailed) IT (Maromba tr; L.Azul)
" , Helmeted CH (below Veu de Noiva)
Cotinga, Swallow-tailed IT (Esmeraldas rd) 
Jay, Purplish TP (Pixaim)
" , Curl-crested BR; CH
" , White-naped Cuiaba-Chapada road
Martin, Brown-chested TP
" , Grey-breasted TP
Swallow, White-winged TP (abundant on bridges)
" , White-rumped TP
" , Southern Rough-winged BR, TP
Donacobius, Black-capped TP
Wren, Thrush-like TP (Porto Jofre)
" , Moustached CH (radio tower road) 
" , Buff-throated CH (P.da Fe woods) 
" , Southern House TP; IT
Thrush, Rufous-bellied Sao Paulo; BR; IT
" , Creamy-bellied BR; IT
" , White-necked IT
Mockingbird, Chalk-browed BR; TP; CH; IT 
Peppershrike, Rufous-browed BR; IT
Greenlet, Rufous-crowned IT (Tres Picos tr)
" , Lemon-chested IT (L.Azul)
Warbler, Golden-crowned BR; IT
" , White-bellied BR
" , White-striped BR
" , Flavescent CH (upstream of Veu de Noiva)
Dacnis, Blue BR; IT
Dacnis, Black-legged IT (Esmeraldas rd) 
Honeycreeper, Red-legged CH (P.da Fe woods) 
Bananaquit BR; CH; IT
Conebill, Chestnut-vented IT (nr.H.Conora) 
Tanager, Guira CH (Portao de Inferno)
" , Rufous-headed IT (Maromba trail) 
" , Hooded TP (Pixaim)
" , Burnished-buff BR
" , Green-headed IT (Laguna Azul)
" , Brassy-breasted IT (the commonest in park)
" , Green-and-gold CH (upstream of Veu de Noiva) 
" , Gilt-edged IT (Maromba trail)
Euphonia, Thick-billed CH (upstream of Veu de Noiva)
" , Purple-throated IT (Esmeraldas rd) 
" , Chestnut-bellied IT (H.Simon)
Tanager, Swallow CH (nr.Veu de Noiva); IT
" , Fawn-breasted IT
" , Sayaca Sao Paulo; BR; CH; TP; IT
" , Golden-chevroned IT (H.Simon, etc) 
" , Silver-beaked TP (Pixaim)
" , Gray-headed BR
" , Ruby-crowned IT
" , White-lined BR
" , Brown IT (Maromba trail)
" , Black-goggled IT
" , Olive-green IT (Maromba trail) 
" , Palm IT
" , Magpie IT
Blackbird, Chestnut-capped TP (Pixaim)
" , Unicoloured TP
" , Chopi BR
Cowbird, Shiny TP
" , Bay-winged TP (Pixaim)
Oriole, Epaulet TP (Pixaim)
Troupial TP (Pixaim)
Cacique, Solitary TP (Pixaim)
" , Red-rumped IT (H.Simon, nesting colonies) 
" , Yellow-rumped TP (Porto Jofre, colonies) 
" , Golden-winged IT (Maromba trail, 1 nest)
Oropendola, Crested TP (Porto Jofre, colonies) 
Saltator, Buff-throated CH
" , Grayish TP
" , Thick-billed IT (H.Simon trail) 
" , Black-throated CH
Cardinal, Yellow-billed TP
Finch, Uniform IT (H.Simon, swamping feeders!) 
Seedeater, Lined IT
" , Rusty-collared TP
" , Yellow-bellied TP (Porto Jofre) 
" , Double-collared TP (Porto Jofre)
Grassquit, Blue-black TP
Sparrow, Pectoral CH (P. da Fe woods)
" , Rufous-collared everywhere
" , Grassland CH (on nest off radio tower rd)
Grassfinch, Wedge-tailed BR; near Pocone 
Finch, Red-pileated TP (Porto Jofre); CH 
Finch, Saffron TP
Sparrow, House IT (outside park)

Peter Lonsdale,
Scripps Institution of Oceanography,
La Jolla, California
pfl@mpl. ucsd. edu

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