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24 September - 15 October 2000

by Ron Ketchum


Day 1 9/24 - Lima to Paracas with stop at Pantanos De Puerto Viejo

Day 2 9/25 - Paracas to Bellestras Islands and outward, plus Paracas NP & Lagunillas

Day 3 9/26 - Paracas to Lima with a stip at Pantanos De Pueto Viejo

Day 4 9/27 - Travel Day, Lima to Cuzco

Day 5 9/28 - Cuzco (3400m) to Aquas Calientes(2050m) & Machu Picchu & Urubamba River

Day 6 9/29 - Machu Picchu(2400m) to Aquas Calientes(2050m) walking down road & trail. Stayed in Yucay

Day 7 9/30 - East side of Abra Malaga - birded from 3600m to 3200 m.

Day 8 1011 - West side of Abra Malaga - Climbed to top of ridge and down valley to road, 3900m to 3750m. Stayed in Cusco (Los Andes).

Day 9 10/2 - Cuzco(3400m) to Pillahuata Camp(2800m) with stops at Huancari(3800m).

Day 10 10/3 - Pillhuata Camp(2800m) to Cock on the Rock Lodge(2000m) via Buenas Aires.

Day 11 10/4 - Cock of the Rock Lodge to San Pedro (1800 - 1100m).

Day 12 10/5 - Above Cock of the Rock Lodge.

Day 13 10/6 - Cock of the Rock Lodge to Manu Wildlife Center(MWC) (250m) via Atalaya (650m).

Day 14 1on - MWC - Cocha Blanca and trails.

Day 15 10/8 - MWC - Walked the Grid System (6hrs.) River Trail and Toucan Loop (3hrs.)

Day 16 10/9 - MWC - 35m Canopy Tower and Creekside Trail.

Day 17 10/10 - MWC - Blanquilla Macaw Lick & Cumuga Trail, off in PM.

Day 18 10/11 - MWC Bamboo Viaje Trail in AM and Cocha Naeva in PM.

Day 19 10/12 - MWC to Boca Manu to Cuzco.(Los Andes)

Day 20 10/13 - Cuzco to Lima, Los Pantanos de Villa in PM.

Day 21 10/14 - Lima to Miami.

Day 22 10/15 - Miami to Medford

This trip was arranged through Manu Expeditions, P.O. Box 606, Cusco, Peru(email  The planning and itinerary setting started in December, 1998, and was greatly aided by the professionalism and consideration of Barry Walker and the rest of the Manu Expeditions staff.

Ten participants took part in the trip and they were: Kathy and Kraig Kemper, Zoa Shumway, Seattle, WA; Joe and Ruth Terlouw, Buckley, WN; Kathy Ketchum and Terry Droessler, Monmouth, OR; Edith Lindner, Mickey and Ron Ketchum, Medford OR.  All of the group had been to South America previously, but none had ever visited Peru.

Our guide was Colin Bushell, from Hertfordshire, England, who also runs Toucan Tours.  Colin was very knowledgeable in the birdlife of the entire country of Peru.  He was also solicitous in the welfare of the group, at times changing room assignments to make it more convenient to individual needs.  It is fair to say that the success of the trip was because of his fine leadership and expertise.

The trip summary is as follows: I saw 454 bird species, of which 210 were life-listers.  There were 18 additional species that someone else in the group saw that I did not, making a group list of 472 species.  In addition, Colin identified 37 other birds by sound making a total of 509 bird species encountered in 3 weeks.

My personal birdlist and daily logs of birds seen are attached in Microsoft Excel format.  If you are unable to read this, please email me at, and I will send a text formatted document.

The Trip

The trip officially started on 9/23/00, when the last group of us arrived at the Lima Airport and were met late at night by Colin.  We were then transferred to Hotel La Castellana in Miraflores.

At 0800 hours we loaded on our tour bus and headed south on the Pan-American Highway toward Paracas.  The terrain along the coast consists of rocky high hills interspersed with marshes and alluvial plains, however even though I had read that the country was barren, I was not prepared for the total lack of anything growing over thousands of acres.  Outside of the occasional marsh and irrigated land in the river valleys, it is the most barren countryside I have ever seen.

This condition contributes to the concentration of birdlife in the few green and watered areas that are encountered.  Our stop at Pantanos De Puerto Viejo, was very productive giving us such birds as the Many-colored Rush-tyrant and the Wren-like Rushbird.  The Peruvian Meadowlark, Yellowish Pipit and Grassland Yellow-finch were also relatively common.  Many waders and marsh birds were easily seen.

As we drove along the coast, we encountered Peruvian Pelicans, Peruvian Boobies and Inca Terns.  While the land was barren, the waters off of Peru are extremely productive because of the cold Humboldt Current.

Away from the coast, we saw Croaking Ground-doves and  Long-tailed Mockingbirds.

The night was spent in Pisco at the Hotel Paracas, a very nice resort that had a good restaurant, but only average rooms.  It was quite comfortable however, and we were treated well there.

On the morning of 9/25 we boarded a boat on which we were the only group, allowing us to do a primarily birding trip.  The destination was Paracas Bay and the Bellestras Islands and outward.  We had a wonderful trip that took up the better part of five hours allowing us to see the Humboldt Penguin, Cape Petrel, Red-legged Cormorant, Peruvian Booby, Blue-footed Booby, Inca Tern, Guanay Cormorant, Kelp Gull, Gray-headed Gull, Inca Tern, Peruvian Sea-cincloides and many other birds and mammals.  It is trip that should not be missed.

In the afternoon, we drove through a portion of the Paracas National Park and by the village of Lagunillas.  The major sightings of the trip were Chilean Flamingos and Coastal Miners.

We headed back to Miraflores on 9/26, stopping in a few sparsely vegetated areas where we found the Short-tailed Field-tyrant.  We stopped back at Pantanos de Puerto Viejo to see if we could find the Peruvian Thick-knee, but we were unsuccessful.  We did see Band-tailed Gulls, White-tufted and Great Grebes and a Short-eared Owl.  We arrived back at the Hotel La Castellana in late afternoon.

In the planning of our trip, we had considered going to the Nazca lines, but had discarded it.  In retrospect, we are glad that we did, because it would have required two more days of driving through the Atacama Desert.  While the trip would have been interesting from an archeological standpoint, when the objective of the trip is primarily birding, we would have lost those two days.

Our plans on 9/27 were to fly from Lima to Cusco, then bird the Huacarpay Lake area in the afternoon.  When we arrived, we found that all of the taxi and bus drivers were on strike, essentially stranding us at the airport.  Our bus had arrived at the airport parking lot, and we were able to put our luggage on board, but unable to take the bus out on the streets.

Manu Expeditions made a quick change of plans and put us up in the Hotel Savoy in downtown Cusco.  Unfortunately we had to walk from the airport to there.  At approximately 10,000+ elevation, when you are not acclimated, it is slightly easier said than done.  The public transportation going were a fleet of independently owned, pedal powered, cargo tricycles, and one of our group was given a ride to the hotel on one of these.  The rest of us walked the two to three miles.

Because of the strike we were unable to visit the Huacarpay Lakes, but our plan was to go there after our return from Manu Wildlife Center.  As it turned out, it was probably best that we had this afternoon and evening to take it easy and laze around.  It gave us a chance to adapt to the altitude, and we were all feeling some effects, varying from my feeling slightly light-headed to some who were physically ill.

Several of us had obtained a prescription (Diamox) for relieving the effects of altitude sickness and my assessment is that they were very worthwhile.  While I did get a mild case of food poisoning for one day, I felt quite well all of the time we were in the high country.  My recommendation is to obtain these pills prior to leaving your home country.

In any case, we were told that the strike would only last until 7:00 PM, which is the custom of strikes in Peru, and our luggage would be delivered to our room.  This turned out to be the case.

Early the morning of 9/28 we were transported to the train station, and boarded the train for Aquas Calientes, portal to the ruins of Machu Picchu.  It was scheduled to be a three hour trip, but our luck was continuing, and as we were negotiating the five rail switchbacks that raise the tracks over the ridge surrounding Cusco, we derailed.  It took about a hour and half to jack the car back on the track and we were on the way again.  During the wait, we observed Chiquanco Thrushes and Peruvian Sierra-finches outside the windows, and at one point had two Black-chested Buzzard-eagles in sight.

The rail trip was scenic and relaxing, and we were able to spot such birds as the Andean Gull, Torrent Duck and Bar-winged Cincloides from the train.  We arrived at Aquas Calientes around noon, and porters were at the station to escort us and carry out luggage to the Hotel Presidente.

This hotel was a fairly new accommodation near the outskirts of the town along the Urubamba River.  While it was not fancy, it was very comfortable and I would recommend it.  We visited some of the more top line resort/hotels, and I suspect the price we paid there was much more reasonable and very adequate for our needs.

We visited the ruins that afternoon, spending around 3 hours in all.  I enjoyed it immensely and you have to see it to really appreciate it.  The workmanship is exquisite and planning must have been extraordinary, for it would have taken a thousand people the better part of 100 years to complete the entire area.

From the birding standpoint, we didn't do much on the grounds, however we did find Rust-and-yellow Tanagers quite common.  Several of us disembarked from the bus where it crossed the river to the east of Aquas Calientes and birded our way back to the hotel.  A few of the typical birds were Saffron-crowned Tanagers, Ocellated Piculets and Torrent Tyrannulets along with Slate-throated Redstarts and Masked Flower-piercers.

The next morning (9/29) we went up to Machu Picchu again, with two going into the ruins and the rest of us walking down the road back toward Aquas Calientes.  The main target was the Inca Wren, which we found just outside the ruins grounds.  Other birds of note were Andean Guan, Andean Parakeet which we saw as we walked the road.  The Green-and-white Hummingbird and Speckled Hummingbird were found along with Blue-capped Tanager, Blue-necked Tanager, Blue and Black Tanager and host of tryannulets and elaenias.  The bird of the day was the Masked Fruiteater that we found as we walked the trails (steps) between the road switchbacks.

After returning to Aquas Calientes for lunch we went to a resort grounds to pick up the Chestnut-breasted Cornet which was coming to their feeders in numbers.

In the late afternoon, we boarded the train and went back toward Cusco as far as Ollantaytambo, where our bus was waiting, then transferred to Urubamba and Yucay(a village adjacent to Urubamba) where we stayed at the Hostal Posada del Libertador for the next two nights.  This was a comfortable place with a good restaurant and a meeting room/bar.

On 9/30 we went by our bus (20 passenger with only 10 of us on it) over Abra Malaga (Malaga Pass approx. 12000+ feet) through Puna down to treeline.  The weather was cool and cloudy with an occasional light shower, so birding was slow, but we still got 46 birds that day, only slightly below average.  The species that come to mind are Shining Sunbeam, Red-crested Cotinga, Tit-like Dacnis, Rusty Flower-piercer, Andean Ibis, Andean Lapwing, Mountain Caracara, Sapphire-vented Puffleg, White-winged Diuca-finch and many more.  On the way home, we found the Andean Flicker and White-tufted Sunbeam.

As an aside, one thing I hadn't prepared for in a tropical country, was how cool the weather was.  If you plan on spending time on the coast and in the Andes one needs to dress for 60 to 70 degree Fahrenheit temperatures.  I had some clothes suitable for this, but could have used three changes rather the two that I had.

The next day (10/1) was planned for a climb from 12000 feet to 12500+ in an effort to find the Royal Cincloides in the fast disappearing Polylepsis stands that used to occur commonly in the Abra Malaga area.  This is not a hike for those who have bad knees, are overweight, overage and generally out of shape.  I was 66 at the time of this trip, and in pretty good shape, but I found it to be about my limit.  While climbing, I could muster 5 steps then a rest.

I had not planned on making the trip, but the day was so bright and clear that I decided to go at the last minute.  I am thankful that I did, because it was a beautiful, if tiring walk, and we saw our only Andean Condor of the trip there.  We also found a pair of Giant Conebills, Andean Hillstar, Blue-mantled Thornbill, Tufted Tit-tyrant, Tawny Tit-spinetail and White-browed Tit-spinetail.  We were unsuccessful in finding the Royal Cincloides but the rest of the day spent out in the High Andes was well worth it.

In late afternoon, we drove back to Cusco and spent the night in Los Andes Hostal, a comfortable upscale hotel just off the main plaza.

The following day, we headed east out of Cusco by bus toward Pillhuata Camp on the eastside of the Andean summit and in Manu National Park.  The morning was spent driving through dry, open country that had been farmed and irrigated by the Incas, and the present occupants still farm the better lands.  Our only stop in the morning was just outside Paucartambo to pick up the Chestnut-breasted Mountain-finch, Mourning Sierra-finch and Black-faced Brush-finch.

Lunch was at the Manu National Park boundary near Tres Cruces, some birding was done in the area but no real standouts were found.  We then moved down the road, which now was forested and moving into true Cloud-forest on the eastside of the Andes.  A tent camp was set up at a meadow that was called Pillhuata Camp, where we stayed that evening in sleeping bags provided by Manu Expeditions.

I was glad we opted to have one campout, but that was all I needed.  Even though we had sleeping pads, etc. there is just not enough room in tents to be comfortable for very long.
We were treated to a good dinner and breakfast prepared by Manu Expeditions personnel, which was served inside a larger dining tent, outfitted with a large camp table and chairs.

Just after sundown, we tried for the Swallow-tailed Nightjar.  Colin was able to get sound responses to tapes, but we were unable to bring the birds in for sighting.  Colin and Kraig Kemper arose early the next morning and did get a good sighting at dawn.

On October 3, day 10 of our trip we walked down the road toward Cock of the Rock Lodge, interspersing riding the bus which followed behind us as a support vehicle.  The entire route was in Cloud Forest (2800 meters to 2000 meters in elevation), and the weather remained cool, but comfortable for most of the day.

The Manu Road follows the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, and traverses very steep ground.  Some of the books say there is a system whereby vehicles only go down one day, then only up the next.  We didn't find that to be the case, and while the road is fairly narrow, there are enough turnouts that it will handle traffic in both directions.  The road standard is not high, and is relatively rough where compared to a crushed rock running surface.

Since we were traversing cloud forest, many of the birds were colorful tanagers, including the Grass-green Tanager, Scarlet-bellied Mountain-tanager and Blue-necked Tanager.  We also got brief looks at the Red-and-white Antpitta, good looks at Golden-headed Quetzal, Gray-breasted Mountain-toucan, Barred Fruiteater and a number of hummingbirds.  We spent a good deal of time working on various spinetails and their ilk., coming up with good looks at many of the skulkers (see list for Oct 3).

Late in the afternoon a downpour started, cutting off the birding and we headed for Cock of the Rock Lodge, arriving about 5:30.  The rain lasted most of the evening, so we were glad we were under a roof rather than in the tent as we had been the night before.

Cock of the Rock Lodge is a very simple place, providing several sleeping cubicles for two people, but relatively little privacy since the wall is only one board wide and there are no ceilings.  Bathroom facilities are shared, however there are four bathrooms, so there is seldom a need to wait to use them.

They have constructed four cabanas, which are self-contained and relatively large.  I had the impression they were planning more.

The dining room was a screened in area next to the dormitory cubicles with an attached kitchen.  The meals were quite good always served by candlelight, because they did not use an electrical generator.

I found the place quite comfortable, and we stayed three nights.  The weather was warm and humid, but not oppressive at all.

The major claim to fame is an Andean Cock of the Rock lek within a thousand feet of the lodge, and just below the road.  Access to the observation platform is locked and is controlled by the lodge manager.  Our group went to the platform at sunrise one morning and were impressed by the number and activity of the birds at the lek.  We were there about a hour and saw the display start with the daylight and slowly ebb until there were just a few males left when we departed.

We birded for two full days out of the lodge, both above and below along the road.  The mixed flocks of tanagers, redstarts, etc. were great to come across.  We worked hard pulling out antbirds and wood-wrens and found a great number of flycatchers.  The top birds of the two days for me were the Amazonian Umbrellabird sitting on a bare limb within 50 feet, and the Lanceolated Monklet that we saw twice.

While I could enumerate the birds sighted while at this location, I think you can refer to the daily listings for a good feeling of it's worth as a birding site.  I was glad we spent the time we did there.

On the morning of October 6 we arose at 3:00 AM, had breakfast and left by 3:30 in a light rain.  We were heading for Manu Wildlife Center on the Rio Madre de Dios and it was a long distance to travel.  As the crow flies, it is about 50 km from Cock of the Rock to Atalaya where we were to board a motorized canoe for the remainder of the journey.  This meant that it was probably over 75 km by poor road.  In any case we did not get to Atalaya until about 8:30, which included a short stop in Pillacopata for a few supplies.

We loaded into the boat and were underway for what we were told would be a seven hour ride downriver.  The seats were comfortable with two seats in each row and seating about 16.  It was covered and tarps were provided to cover your legs.  The weather was cloudy and damp and the temperature about 75, very cool for this elevation (650 meters).  As long as one kept his sweatshirt or light jacket on and covered his legs the ride was very comfortable.  Had it been raining and with your clothing damp it might have been very uncomfortable.

Birding from the boat was pleasant, and we were able to tick off Fasciated Tiger-heron, Capped Heron, Snowy Egret and Cocoi Heron rather easily.  With the change in habitat and the easy viewing, this day proved to me the second highest species count day of the entire trip with 66.

We soon started to see parrots and macaws in large numbers, with the Blue and Yellow Macaw being quite common along with Red and White Macaw and Scarlet Macaw following in slightly fewer numbers.  We also saw many Blue-throated Piping-guans in the trees and flying across the river.

The river at this point is not deep, and has many sandbars and islands making good habitat for the herons and other shorebirds such as Pied Lapwings.  One island had a pair of Horned Screamers on it.  Cuvier's Toucan was also common in the shoreline trees.

After a brief pit stop in Boca Manu, we travelled downriver until approximately 4:30 PM, when we arrived at Manu Wildlife Center.

Manu Wildlife Center is a relatively new developement, and is well planned to take care of the nature visitors needs.  The main area covers about 10 acres, with a large dining hall with screened walls and thatched roof, a kitchen about the same size across the path, a bar/conference room, about 20-25 two person cabanas raised on four foot stilts, each with a bath room and shower (hot water) and a small desk.  These are spaced about 30 feet apart and interspersed in between the trees.  The walls are screened in the upper half and wooden lattice in the lower half.  The roofs are steeply peaked and thatched and the floors are polished hardwood boards.

Manu Wildlife Center is set up with a good system of trails that appear to be well-marked.  I was not required to find my way back by myself, since we were with our guide at all times, but I feel I would not have had a problem.

One of the more interesting trail setups is a grid system, whereby if we heard a bird away from the trail we were on, we could go over to the next grid line, and usually get quite close to it.

The other trails took one to different types of habitat, from riverine to upland forest, so a wide variety of birdlife was made available to us right at Manu itself.  In addition, there is a canopy platform approximately 120 feet up in an emergent Kapok tree.

Within less than 1 hours motor canoe ride, there are several oxbow lakes, a macaw clay lick, some bamboo trails, and other trail systems accessing habitats that are not available at Manu Wildlife Center.

Normally, there are two or more groups at the center, and a schedule is set up to visit the various destinations, so they do not conflict with one another.  We were the only ones there, since we were close to the end of the dry season, so we had our pick of the places to go.

Our weather was quite warm and humid with cloudy mornings and sunny afternoons all of the time were there.  As far as I was concerned it was perfect weather.

The first day there we went to Cocha Blanca, where the Giant River Otter were said to be found.  It was about a half hour downriver, then a short hike inland to the oxbow lake where a catamaran type float was available.  Our Manu Expedition boatmen paddled the boat and all we had to do was stand or sit and look.  The otters were there and not shy, plus this habitat gave the biggest species day of the trip with 90.  Included were Silvered Antbird, Hoatzin, Razor-billed Currasow, Black-capped Donacobius, several species of Oropendola, Boat-billed Heron, Rufous-sided Crake and Jabiru.

The third day was a trip to the canopy platform and the 4th day was the trip the Blanquilla Macaw Lick, truly a sight not to be missed.

The remainder of the time was spent either on trails around Manu Wildlife Center or trips offsite to places named Cumunga Trail, Cocha Naeva and Bamboo Viaje Trail.  All were good birding, however birding in the bamboo is a slow and trying process, because alot of the time is spent waiting to intercept a flock of feeding birds, then it is frustratingly difficult to get a good look at some of the birds like Foliage-gleaners and Antbirds who tend to be skulkers anyway.

In the time we spent going and coming on the Rio Madre de Dios, a total of about 6 days, we saw around 195 species of birds, almost half of the total for the trip.  This was due in large part to Colin Bushell, our guide, who really worked hard to get the antbirds, tryannulets and their ilk to show themselves.

All in all it is a wonderful place.

Early on the morning of October 11 we boarded the canoe for the last time and headed upriver to the Boca Manu airfield where we had scheduled the Twin Otter Military Aircraft to pick us up at 9:00 AM and fly us back to Cusco.

The airstrip there is grass and has been cut out of the jungle.  A 50X25 foot thatched gazebo type building houses a radio and a place to stand in the shade while waiting.  The plane, operated by the military, was right on time and it was a beautiful day.

When we rose above the treetops, we got our first real good view of how large the Amzaon basin really is.  Unbroken rainforest stretched out to the east as far as we could see.  A sight that I hope lasts forever.  The Andes with their snow peaks were to the west and the deeply incised east slopes with their heavily forested canyons and ridges were in front.  A really grand sight.

It took about 90 minutes to fly back over the country that had taken us 5 days to leisurely cross.  When we touched down in Cusco, we found that there was another taxi and bus driver strike.  This cut out our chance to visit Huacarpay Lakes.  As it turned out, about the only bird that we had been planning on getting there was the Bearded Mountaineer which is common and endemic.  Another was the Plumbeous Rail, but we would have one more chance on our last day outside of Lima.

When we got to the  Cusco airport parking area, Manu Expeditions had already lined up the manpowered cargo tricycles to carry our luggage to the Hotel Los Andes, and also had a couple for some people to ride if they wished.  Most of us walked, which took about an hour.  The rest of the day was spent picking up souvenirs, resting and catching up on the world news.

We flew out early the next morning, and true to form the strike had only lasted until 7:00 PM so we had a bus to ride to the airport.  We arrived in Lima about 10:00AM were picked up and taken to the Hostal La Castellana again.  Another vehicle was there to take those of us who wished to go to Pantanos de Villa, just outside of Miraflores, to try one more time for the Peruvian Thickknee.

We spent about 4 hours there, did find the Thickknee plus the Plumbeous Rail, so we finished up the birding part of the trip with almost all expectations met or exceeded.

When leaving the country, the airlines require you arrive 3 hours prior to departure.  This required another 3:00 wakeup in order to get to the airport by 4:00 AM.  Surprisingly, the terminal was actually pretty busy at that ungodly hour.  We processed through with no problems and left the beautiful country of Peru right on time.

The trip was a wonderful experience.  This was due for the most part in a good group to travel with, but also due to the professionalism and caring attitude of our guide Colin Bushell and Manu Expedition's personnel.

TRIP LIST:  (Note: to obtain a copy of the species lists for each location, contact the report author:)

Ronald L. Ketchum
White-tufted Grebe Rollandia rolland
Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps
Great Grebe Podiceps major
Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti
Cape Petrel Daption capense
Pink-footed Shearwater Puffinus creatopus
Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus
Wilson's Storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus
Peruvian Diving-petrel Pelecanoides garnotii
Blue-footed Booby Sula nebouxii
Peruvian Booby Sula variegata
Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus
Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii
Red-legged Cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi
Anhinga Anhinga anhinga
Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus
Horned Screamer Anhima cornuta
Andean Duck Oxyura ferruginea
Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata
Torrent Duck Merganetta armata
Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera
White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis
Speckled Teal Anas flavirostris
Chilean flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis
Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea
Snowy Egret Egretta thula
Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus
Cocoi heron Ardea cocoi
Great Egret Ardea alba
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
Striated Heron Butorides striatus
Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Boat-billed heron Cochlearius cochlearia
Fasciated Tiger-heron Tigrisoma fasciatum
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis
Puna Ibis Plegadis ridgwayi
Andean Ibis Theristicus branickii
Roseate Spoonbill Ajaia ajaja
Jabiru Jabiru mycteria
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura
Greater yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus
Andean Condor Vultur gryphus
King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa
Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Double-toothed Kite Harpagus bidentatus
Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea
Cinereous Harrier Circus cinereus
Great Black-hawk Buteogallus urubitinga
Harris's Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus
Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis
Black-chested Buzzard-eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus
Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris
Red-backed Hawk Buteo polyosoma
Puna Hawk Buteo poecilochrous
Zone-tailed hawk Buteo albonotatus
Ornate Hawk-eagle Spizaetus ornatus
Black-and-chestnut Eagle Oroateus isidori
Black Caracara Daptrius ater
Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus
Mountain CAracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus
Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans
American Kestrel Falco sparverius
Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis
Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis
Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata
Andean Guan Penelope montagnii
Blue-throated Piping-guan Pipile cumanensis
Razor-billed Curassow Mitu tuberosa
Rufous-sided Crake Laterallus melanophaius
Plumbeous Rail Pardirallus sanguinolentus
Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
Andean Coot Fulica ardesiaca
Sungrebe Heliornis fulica
Sunbittern Eurypyga helias
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
Surfbird Aphriza virgata
Sanderling Calidris alba
Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla
Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos
Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor
Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicaria
Peruvian Thick-knee Burhinus superciliaris
American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus
Blackish Oystercatcher Haematopus ater
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus
Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus
Collared Plover Charadrius collaris
Pied Lapwing Vanellus cayanus
Andean Lapwing Vanellus resplendens
Band-tailed Gull Larus belcheri
Grey Gull Larus modestus
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus
Grey-headed Gull Larus cirrocephalus
Andean Gull Larus serranus
Franklin's Gull Larus pipixcan
Sabine's Gull Xema sabini
Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus
Elegant Tern Sterna elegans
Yellow-billed Tern Sterna superciliaris
Peruvian Tern Sterna lorata
Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex
Inca Tern Larosterna inca
Chilean Skua Catharacta chilensis
Black Skimmer Rynchops niger
Rock Dove Columba livia
Band-tailed Pigeon Columba fasciata
Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis
plumbeous Pigeon Columba plumbea
Eared dove Zenaida auriculata
Pacific Dove Zenaida meloda
Ruddy Ground-dove Columbina talpacoti
Croaking Ground-dove Columbina cruziana
Sapphire Quail-dove Geotrygon saphirina
Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna
Scarlet macaw Ara macao
Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloropterus
Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa
Red-bellied Macaw Ara manilata
Mitred Parakeet Aratinga mitrata
White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus
Dusky-headed Parakeet Aratinga weddellii
Black-capped Parakeet Pyrrhura rupicola
Andean Parakeet Bolborhynchus orbygnesius
Dusky-billed Parrotlet Forpus sclateri
Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera
White-bellied Parrot Pionites leucogaster
Orange-cheeked Parrot Pionopsitta barrabandi
Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus
Speckle-faced Parrot Pionus tumultuosus
Yellow-crowned Parrot Amazona ochrocephala
Scaly-naped Parrot Amazona mercenaria
Mealy Parrot Amazona farinosa
Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana
Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin
Greater Ani Crotophaga major
Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani
Groove-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris
Tawny-bellied Screech-owl Otus watsonii
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus
Common Potoo Nyctibius griseus
Sand-colored Nighthawk Chordeiles rupestris
Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis
Chestnut-collared Swift Cypseloides rutila
White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris
Grey-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris
White-tipped Swift Aeronautes montivagus
Great-billed hermit Phaethornis malaris
White-bearded Hermit Phaethornis hispidus
Reddish Hermit Phaethornis ruber
White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora
Green Violet-ear Colibri thalassinus
Sparkling Violet-ear Colibri coruscans
Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata
Golden-tailed Sapphire Chrysuronia oenone
Green-and-white Hummingbird Amazilia viridicauda
Amazilia Hummingbird Amazilia amazilia
Speckled Hummingbird Adelomyia melanogenys
Fawn-breasted Brilliant Heliodoxa rubinoides
Violet-fronted Brilliant Heliodoxa leadbeateri
Andean Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella
Shining Sunbeam Aglaeactis cupripennis
White-tufted Sunbeam Aglaeactis castelnaudii
Great Sapphirewing Pterophanes cyanopterus
Gould's Inca Coeligena Inca
Violet-throated Starfrontlet Coeligena violifer
Chestnut-breasted Coronet Boissonneaua matthewsii
Amethyst-throated Sunangel Heliangelus amethysticollis
Sapphire-vented Puffleg Eriocnemis luciani
Scaled metaltail Metallura aeneocauda
Tyrian Metaltail Metallura tyrianthina
Rufous-capped Thornbill Chalcostigma ruficeps
Blue-mantled Thornbill Chalcostigma stanleyi
Long-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus kingi
Wedge-billed Hummingbird Augastes geoffroyi
Golden-headed Quetzal Pharomachrus auriceps
Black-tailed Trogon Trogon melanurus
White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis
Collared Trogon Trogon collaris
Blue-crowned Trogon Trogon curucui
Ringed Kingfisher Ceryle torquata
amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona
Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana
Highland Motmot Momotus equatorialis
Chestnut Jacamar Galbalcyrhynchus purusianus
Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens
Lanceolated Monklet Micromonacha lanceolata
Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons
White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus
Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa
Gilded Barbet Capito auratus
Lemon-throated Barbet Eubucco richardsoni
Scarlet-hooded Barbet Eubucco tucinkae
Versicolored Barbet Eubucco versicolor
Emerald Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus
Brown-mandibled Aracari Pteroglossus mariae
Chestnut-eared Aracari Pteroglossus castanotis
Grey-breasted Mountain-toucan Andigena hypoglauca
Cuvier's Toucan Ramphastos cuvieri
Bar-breasted Piculet Picumnus aurifrons
Ocellated Piculet Picumnus dorbygnianus
Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus
Crimson-mantled Woodpecker Piculus rivolii
Andean Flicker Colaptes rupicola
Chestnut Woodpecker Celeus elegans
Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis
Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos
Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus
Long-billed Woodcreeper Nasica longirostris
Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper Dendrexetastes rufigula
Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus
Montane Woodcreeper Dendrocincla lacrymiger
Lineated Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes albolineatus
Coastal Miner Geositta peruviana
Bar-winged Cinclodes Cinclodes fuscus
Peruvian Seaside Cinclodes Cinclodes taczanowskii
Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus
Tawny Tit-spinetail Leptasthenura yanacensis
White-browed Tit-spinetail Leptasthenura xenothorax
Puna Thistletail Schizoeaca helleri
Azara's Spinetail Synallaxis azarae
Marcapata Spinetail Cranioleuca marcapatae
Rusty-fronted Canastero Asthenes ottonis
Cordilleran Canastero Asthenes modesta
Streak-throated CAnastero Asthenes humilis
Line-fronted Canastero Asthenes urubambensis
Plain Softtail Thripophaga fusciceps
Wren-like Rushbird Phleocryptes melanops
Pearled Treerunner Margarornis squamiger
Streaked Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii
Montane Foliage-gleaner Anabacerthia striaticollis
Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner Philydor ruficaudatus
Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus
Brown-rumped Foliage-gleaner Automolus melanopezus
Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Automolus rubiginosus
Plain Xenops Xenops minutus
Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans
Fasciated Antshrike Cymbilaimus lineatus
Bluish-slate Antshrike Thamnomanes schistogynus
Pygmy Antwren Myrmotherula brachyura
Streaked Antwren Myrmotherula surinamensis
White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris
Long-winged Antwren Myrmotherula longipennis
Ihering's Antwren Myrmotherula iheringi
Striated Antbird Drymophila devillei
Manu Antbird Cercomacra manu
White-backed Fire-eye Pyriglena leuconota
White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys
Silvered Antbird Sclateria naevia
Black-throated Antbird Myrmeciza atrothorax
Black-faced antthrush Formicarius analis
Rufous-breasted Antthrush Formicarius rufipectus
Stripe-headed Antpitta Grallaria andicola
Red-and-white Antpitta Grallaria erythroleuca
Amazonian Antpitta Hylopezus berlepschi
Red-crested Cotinga Ampelion rubrocristata
Barred Fruiteater Pipreola arcuata
Masked Fruiteater Pipreola pulchra
White-browed Purpletuft Iodopleura isabellae
Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayana
Bare-necked Fruitcrow Gymnoderus foetidus
Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata
Amazonian Umbrellabird Cephalopterus ornatus
Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruviana
Band-tailed Manakin Pipra fasciicauda
Yungas manakin Chiroxiphia boliviana
Dwarf Tyrant-manakin Tyranneutes stolzmanni
Streak-necked Flycatcher Mionectes striaticollis
Slaty-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon superciliaris
White-cheeked Tody-tyrant Poecilotriccus albifacies
White-eyed Tody-tyrant Hemitriccus zosterops
Spotted Tody-flycatcher Todirostrum maculatum
Common Tody-flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum
Yellow-browed Tody-flycatcher Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum
Sclater's Tyrannulet Phyllomyias sclateri
Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet Phyllomyias uropygialis
Bolivian Tyrannulet Zimmerius bolivianus
Mottle-backed Elaenia Elaenia gigas
Highland Elaenia Elaenia obscura
Sierran Elaenia Elaenia pallatangae
White-throated Tyrannulet Mecocerculus leucophrys
White-banded Tyrannulet Mecocerculus stictopterus
Torrent Tyrannulet Serpophaga cinerea
Tufted Tit-tyrant Anairetes parulus
Many-colored Rush-tyrant Tachuris rubrigastra
Scale-crested Pygmy-tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus
Golden-crowned Spadebill Platyrinchus coronatus
Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus
Cinnamon Flycatcher Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea
Euler's Flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri
Smoke-colored pewee Contopus fumigatus
Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus
Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans
Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus
Rufous-breasted Chat-tyrant Ochthoeca rufipectoralis
Brown-backed Chat-tyrant Ochthoeca fumicolor
White-browed Chat-tyrant Ochthoeca leucophrys
Drab Water-tyrant Ochthornis littoralis
Streak-throated Bush-tyrant Myiotheretes striaticollis
Rufous-bellied Bush-tyrant Myiotheretes fuscorufus
Rufous-webbed Bush-Tyrant Polioxolmis rufipennis
Spot-billed Ground-tyrant Muscisaxicola maculirostris
Rufous-naped Ground-tyrant Muscisaxicola rufivertex
Puna Ground-tyrant Muscisaxicola juninensis
Plain-capped Ground-tyrant Muscisaxicola alpina
Short-tailed Field-tyrant Muscigralla brevicauda
Dull-capped Attila Attila bolivianus
Greyish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex
Cinereous Mourner Laniocera hypopyrra
Sirystes Sirystes sibilator
Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer
Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox
Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus
Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus
Sulphury Flycatcher Tyrannopsis sulphurea
Lemon-browed Flycatcher Conopias cinchoneti
Golden-crowned Flycatcher Myiodynastes chrysocephalus
Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus
Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis
Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius
Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor
Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus
Barred Becard Pachyramphus versicolor
Black-tailed Tityra Tityra cayana
Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata
Black-crowned Tityra Tityra inquisitor
Purplish Jay Cyanocorax cyanomelas
Violaceous Jay Cyanocorax yncas
Green Jay Cyanocorax violaceus
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus
Brown-capped Vireo Vireo leucophrys
Dusky-capped Greenlet Hylophilus hypoxanthus
White-capped Dipper Cinclus leucocephalus
White-eared Solitaire Entomodestes leucotis
Chiguanco Thrush Turdus chiguanco
Great Thrush Turdus fuscater
Glossy-black Thrush Turdus serranus
Long-tailed Mockingbird Mimus longicaudatus
Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapillus
Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus
Inca Wren Thryothorus eisenmanni
Moustached Wren Thryothorus genibarbis
House Wren Troglodytes aedon
Mountain Wren Troglodytes solstitialis
Grey-breasted Wood-wren Henicorhina leucophrys
Musician Wren Cyphorhinus aradus
White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer
Brown-chested Martin Progene tapera
Purple Martin Progne subis
Brown-bellied Swallow Notiochelidon murina
Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca
White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata
Andean Swallow Stelgedopteryx andecola
Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis
Bank Swallow Riparia riparia
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
Chestnut-collared Swallow Hirundo rufocollaris
House Sparrow Passer domesticus
Yellowish Pipit Anthus lutescens
Hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica
Black Siskin Carduelis atrata
Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi
Slate-throated Redstart Myioborus miniatus
Spectacled Redstart Myioborus melanocephalus
Golden-bellied Warbler Basileuterus chrysogaster
Citrine Warbler Basileuterus luteoviridis
Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus
Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis
Yellow-browed Sparrow Ammodramus aurifrons
Black-faced Brush-Finch Atlapetes melanolaemus
Tricolored Brush-finch Atlapetes tricolor
Olive Finch Lysurus castaneiceps
Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis
Bananaquit Coereba flaveola
Cinereous Conebill Conirostrum cinereum
White-browed Conebill Conirostrum ferrugineiventre
Capped Conebill Conirostrum albifrons
Giant Conebill Oreomanes fraseri
Magpie Tanager Cissopis leveriana
Grass-green Tanager Chlorornis riefferii
Common Bush-tanager Chlorospingus ophthalmicus
Yellow-whiskered Bush-tanager Chlorospingus parvirostris
Yellow-throated Bush-tanager Chlorospingus flavigularis
Superciliaried Hemispingus Hemispingus superciliaris
Black-eared Hemispingus Hemispingus melanotis
Drab Hemispingus Hemispingus xanthophthalmus
Three-striped Hemispingus Hemispingus trifasciatus
Rust-and-yellow Tanager Thlypopsis ruficeps
White-winged Shrike-tanager Lanio versicolor
Slaty Tanager Creurgops dentata
White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus
Red-crowned Ant-tanager Habia rubica
Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo
Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis episcopus
Blue-capped Tanager Thraupis cyanocephala
Hooded Mountain-tanager Buthraupis montana
Scarlet-bellied Mountain-tanager Anisognathus igniventris
Yellow-throated Tanager Iridosornis analis
Chestnut-bellied Mountain-tanager Delothraupis castaneoventris
Fawn-breasted Tanager Pipraeidea melanonota
Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris
Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster
Orange-eared Tanager Chlorochrysa calliparaea
Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis
Green-and-Gold Tanager Tangara schrankii
Golden Tanager Tangara arthus
Saffron-crowned Tanager Tangara xanthocephala
Blue-necked Tanager Tangara cyanicollis
Beryl-spangled Tanager Tangara nigroviridis
Blue-and-black Tanager Tangara vassorii
Opal-rumped Tanager Tangara velia
Yellow-bellied Dacnis Dacnis flaviventer
Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana
Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza
Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus
Tit-like Dacnis Xenodacnis parina
Swallow tanager Tersina viridis
Peruvian Sierra-finch Phrygilus punensis
Mourning Sierra-finch Phrygilus fruticeti
Plumbeous Sierra-finch Phrygilus unicolor
Ash-breasted Sierra-finch Phrygilus plebejus
White-winged Diuca-finch Diuca speculifera
Chestnut-breasted Mountain-Finch Poospiza caesar
Bright-rumped Yellow-finch Sicalis uropygialis
Grassland Yellow-finch Sicalis luteola
Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina
Plain-colored Seedeater Catamenia inornata
Rusty Flower-piercer Diglossa sittoides
Black-throated Flower-piercer Diglossa brunneiventris
Deep-blue Flower-piercer Diglossopis glauca
Masked Flower-piercer Diglossopis cyanea
Black-backed Grosbeak Pheucticus aureoventris
Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus
Golden-billed Saltator Saltator aurantiirostris
Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides
Casqued Oropendola Psarocolius oseryi
Dusky-green Oropendola Psarocolius atrovirens
Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons
Amazonian Oropendola Gymnostinops bifasciatus
Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela
Peruvian Meadowlark Sturnella bellicosa
Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora

Ronald L. Ketchum