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8-23 April 2000

by David Kelly

Costa Rica is a small country which is well known for the abundance of its wildlife and its enlightened attitude to conservation.  Neither my wife nor I had ever visited Latin America and we were looking for somewhere other than Africa to visit.  We decided on Costa Rica because of the wildlife and because we knew it to be a relatively safe and stable country.  This report covers that trip.

The main resources used were An Ecotravellers Guide to Costa Rica by Les Beletzky, A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica by Stiles & Skutch and Lonely Planet Guide to Costa Rica.  I also looked at a lot of trip reports from Blake Maybank "Birding the Americas Trip Reports & Planning" site and some websites from "Where do you want to go birding today?"  also useful was Doug von Gausig's website at


We arranged our flight with American Airlines, a British Airways flight took us from Edinburgh to London Gatwick and from there to Dallas-Fort Worth and then on to San Jose.  When we arrived in San Jose we found that Lillian's bag was missing (and is still missing).  Mine came through okay, as did the bag with our boots in.


After touring Africa with overland companies we decided to do the same around Costa Rica.  We booked a tour with GAP Tours of Toronto through Guerba Expeditions in London.  This was mainly on private transport but the initial journey out of San Jose was on the public bus.  The accommodation was mainly cabinas or casitas, except Monteverde and Quepos.  In many ways I preferred the cabinas to the hotels as they seemed to be more personal and have more character.  Our tour guide was a Nicaraguan-Scot named Duncan McGowan who told us we were the first Scots he had ever had on any of his tours.


Beans and rice, rice and beans, beans with rice, rice with beans and beans surprise (rice and beans).  Only joking!  But there was a kind of a ricey, beansy feel to the diet.  On the whole the food was excellent, especially the seafood, and I enjoyed trying different ways of preparing plantain.  Beer was okay, I preferred Imperial to other brands and the rest of the crew joked that when they heard the Scots were coming Cervezeria Costa Rica built an extra wing on the brewery.  I don't really enjoy spirits but you can get some excellent rum, as well as the local firewater.  Coffee was, as one would expect, generally excellent.

And now onto the report.

8 April 2000

We left Edinburgh on the 6.25 flight to Gatwick where we connected to American Airlines to Dallas-Fort-Worth.  As the plane taxied at DFW I tried to see birds through the window.  All I could see were Grackles, which I assumed to be Common.  We had a couple of hours in DFW before going onwards to San Jose.  When we arrived in San Jose it was night and we discovered that Lillian's bag had not arrived.  Once we reported the loss to American Airlines we caught a taxi from the airport to our hotel, the Hotel Aranjuez, costing $12.  When we arrived the rest of the group were waiting with Duncan and we were all introduced over a few rums.

9 April 2000

My first dawn in Costa Rica and I was up as soon as I heard birds.  The tiny garden of the hotel started off my trip list with my first lifer, Inca Dove soon followed by Clay-coloured Robin, Blue-grey Tanager, Chestnut-collared Sparrow, Streaked Saltator and Rufous-tailed Hummingbird.  Two birds familiar from my trips to central Canada were Swainson's Thrush and Chestnut-sided Warbler.  Most unexpected was a pair of Blue-crowned Motmots which included the garden in their territory.  Then it was off for breakfast where I was introduced to the delights of Gallo Pinto before we caught the express bus to Puerto Viejo de Talamanca on the Caribbean coast.

It rained the whole bus journey down and the only birds I really saw from the bus were Cattle and Snowy Egret and Black and Turkey Vultures.  It was still raining on arrival in Puerto Viejo and there were no taxis to take us to our cabinas so we had to walk through the rain.  We then had the rest of the wet Sunday afternoon to wander.  I saw a few birds but the rain was keeping birds down.  I did see my lifer Tricoloured Heron and a Greater Kiskadee and a White-ringed Flycatcher sharing a fence.

10 April 2000

Again I was up at 5.15am and out birding to see what avian wonders awaited me.  It was overcast and rain showers constantly interrupted me before the cloud dispersed and the heat and humidity made birding difficult because my glasses steamed up.  In that few hours I collected a few lifers without leaving the grounds of the Cabinas.  These included Green-breasted Mango, Variable Seed-eater, White-lined Tanagers, Common Tody-Tyrant, Red-rumped Woodpecker and Short-billed Pigeon.  There were lots of other birds I could not identify because the views were too brief and I was completely unfamiliar with Neotropical birds.  The most spectacular sight though was the visible diurnal migration of Tree and Barn Swallows mixed in with Eastern Kingbirds heading northwards in their thousands.  No lifers in these flocks but what a memorable sight.

Later we had breakfast and walked to the Botanical Gardens, on the way picking up Amazon Kingfisher, Green-backed Heron and more Tricoloured Herons.  Black Vultures were everywhere and Scarlet-rumped Tanager, Grey-capped Flycatcher and Masked Tityra were added to my slowly growing trip list.  A highlight in the gardens was seeing a male Summer Tanager and a White-faced Nunbird in a patch of primary forest.

To end the day Lillian and I grabbed a couple of Imperials and sat on the beach watching small groups of Barn Swallows heading north.  We also saw an Osprey moving purposefully northwards, both species familiar enough from home.

11 April 2000

The whole group got the bus from Puerto Viejo south, along the coast to Manzanilla where we would visit the Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Manzanilla.  Our guide here was to be Ricky who not only told us about the wildlife but about the Afro-Caribbean Culture and history in eastern Costa Rica.  In this lowland wet rainforest birds were difficult to see but Ricky was a superb guide, pointing out all three Caribbean colour phases of the Eyelash Viper (Grey-brown, Brown and Yellow).  Birds seen here included Red-capped Manikin, Crested Owl (probably impossible without Ricky), Olive-throated Parakeet, Pale-vented Pigeon, Masked Tityra, Collared Aracari.  Barred Antshrike, Keel-billed and Chestnut-mandibled Toucan, Magnificent Frigate-Bird, Common Black Hawk, Scarlet-rumped Tanager and Black-cowled Oriole.  Other wildlife seen included Mantled Howler Monkey, Two-toed Sloth, Caiman and Black River Turtle.

Tomorrow we would leave the laid back atmosphere of Puerto Viejo de Talamanca and head north to Tortuguero.  It's not on most birding itineraries it is a great place to visit as you see a different, less Latin side to Costa Rica and they really love to play Bob Marley records in bars, I love Bob Marley's music.

12 April 2000

Before we left Puerto Viejo I walked along the road we had taken by bus the previous day.  This was quite productive with new trip birds including Bright-rumped Attilla, White-vented Euphonia, Yellow Warbler, Southern Rough-winged Swallow and White-breasted Woodwren.  When I returned to the Cabinas our minibus was waiting to take us to Moin where we would board the boat to take us to Tortuguero.  First we had to stop in Limon to purchase some clothes for Lillian.

The boat trip took most of the day with most birds and wildlife being seen before lunch.  Non bird highlights included American Crocodile, Mantled Howler Monkey, Two-toed Sloth and Common Caiman.  But the boat trip was very birdy with lots of the expected waterbirds as well as birds which crossed the waterways from one side to the other.  I missed a Squirrel Cuckoo and highlights for me included Royal Tern, as I had seen one in Scotland in 1999, Montezuma Oropendula, Blue Dacnis, Laughing Falcon and a Snail Kite.  The Kite was perched on a bare branch in a roadside tree and was most unexpected.

We arrived at Tortugeuro in the late afternoon and I saw no new birds that day.  We were staying at the Maniti Lodge and had a good evening during which I learnt how to play a strange Canadian version of trumps called "Yewker" (Euchre) and taught my wife how to play poker for toothpicks.

13 April 2000

Up early again to explore the forest around the lodge but I never got past a single tree which was fruiting and was attracting birds out of the forest.  Most prominent were Collared Aracaris and Keel-billed Toucans but there were also a single Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Lineated Woodpeckers, Red-lored Parrots, Olive-throated Parrakeeets, Crested Guans and Slaty-tailed Trogons.  These last were especially welcome as they were my first ever Trogons.  Smaller birds around the lodge included Baltimore, Black-cowled and Streak-backed Orioles; Chestnut-sided Warbler, Ringed Kingfisher, Yellow-bellied Elaenia, Eastern and Tropical Kingbirds and Passerini's (thanks Mike), Golden Hooded and Palm Tanagers.  One of the Eastern Kingbirds was being vicously attacked by a Tropical Kingbird, I can see why they are called Tyrants now

After breakfast we boarded a boat again to take us to another Puerto Viejo, Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui.  Again there was lots of wildlife to be seen but highlights were seeing four species of Kingfishers – Belted, Ringed, Green and Green & Rufous and two species of Tiger-Heron – Bare-throated and Rufescent as well as four Wood Storks.  We had lunch at Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui before heading to Rara Avis.

We took the tractor up to El Plastico arriving just as the rain started.  We had to hike up to Rara Avis through the rain and mud, arriving completely soaked and cold to a welcoming meal of Chicken and Casado (rice and beans).  We were staying in the casitas and Lillian and I were disappointed not to find any of the local fauna sharing with us.  We had two nights here.

14 April 2000

I was up early to bird the lodge grounds and to enjoy the Cinnamon Becards, more Chestnut-sided Warblers, Mealy Parrots, Scarlet-thighed Dacnis, Chestnut-headed Oropendulas, Silver-throated Tanagers and other birds.  A small flycatcher had me stumped but I pinned it down to Zeledon's Tyrannulet.  I also saw my one and only Coati of the trip.  After breakfast we went on an introductory walk then I walked a little way down the road to El Plastico but found birds difficult to find, I did see a Green Hermit feeding at some flowers and a Russet Antshrike skulking in some low bushes.  I could hear a Lattice-tailed Trogon calling in the forest but I was totally unable to see it.

In the afternoon walked one of the trails.  I saw lots of birds on the trail but the only one I could identify was a Scale-crested Pygmy Tyrant.  This tied in with the advice I'd been given by Twan, a staff member at Rara Avis, that I would probably only be able to identify one or two out of every hundred birds I saw in the forest.  Lillian was up ahead on the trail with Andy from our trip and they managed to see a Hog-nosed Skunk.

15 April 2000

After a late night I was up early again.  Again I walked a little way down the road to El Plastico.  Now I found a bird party but unfortunately it was in the canopy.  There were a number of birds I just couldn't get good enough views of.  One bird I was able to watch was a Wood Warbler with a blue back and a bluish washed slightly streaked breast, my first Cerulean Warbler.  This turned out to be the first April record for Rara Avis, they have been recorded in May before.  There were birds which reminded me of African bulbuls, one of which I thought was a Sharpbill while another was a Thrush-like Mannikin.  I also saw a Rufous Piha, Speckled Tanager, Bananaquits, more Chestnut-sided Warblers and a few Swainson's Thrushes.  Even then most of the birds remained unidentifiable.

After lunch we hiked back to El Plastico but on a forest path rather than the road.  On the way down we stopped at a forest stream and I was able to get a look at a White Hawk as flew up stream over the trees.  From El Plastico the tractor took us back into Horquetas.  On the way down I managed to identify my first definite Boat-billed Flycatcher, Long-tailed Tyrant and Grey Hawks.  Our minibus was waiting in Horquetas to take us to La Fortuna, where we arrived just before dusk.  Against my better judgement Lillian persuaded me to sign on for the white water rafting trip down the Rio Toro, before that we would take a boat trip down the Rio Frio to Cano Negro.

We spent the evening in the hot springs watching the lava on Volcan Arenal

16 April 2000

Today we went on a boat trip from Los Chiles to the entrance to the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Cano Negro.  This was an excellent trip, and would probably be even better at another season when the boat could continue into the Refugio.  As it was we saw plenty of wildlife include a flock of Baltimore and Orchard Orioles, Squirrel Cuckoo, 5 species of Kingfisher (Ringed, Amazon, Green, Green and Rufous and American Pygmy), Boat-billed Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Purple Gallinule, Grey-necked Wood-Rail, Nicaraguan Grackle, Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Hog-nosed Bats, Mantled Howler Monkey and White-headed Capuchin.  We stopped and disembarked specially to see a Greater Potoo which has to be one of the coolest birds I have ever seen

When we stopped for lunch I was able to get some land based birding done in the parkland habitat.  Among the first birds seen were Hoffman's Woodpecker and soon I managed to spot Black-headed Trogon, Black-headed Tody Flycatcher, Steel-vented Hummingbird and Blue-black Grassquit.  After lunch we returned to Los Chiles and then on to La Fortuna stopping to admire Roadside Hawks and White-tailed Kites.

17 April 2000

This day was given over to a white water rafting trip down the Rio Toro.  The river was a little low and as a result the rafts got stranded on rocks a few times.  I ended up being the most frequent swimmer as our raft tipped twice and I managed to bounce out a couple of times on my own.  The only birds I remember seeing were Black Phoebes.  Unfortunately, Lillian jarred her elbow on our last tipping and had a sore arm for the remainder of the trip.

18 April 2000

Today we left La Fortuna.  Our journey began with a short boat trip across Laguna Arenal.  As the boat left, Chris spotted an animal in the water and I was able to get the binoculars on it.  It was an otter which a few others managed to see before it dived and did not reappear.  Lillian was unable to go by horseback as planned and we dropped the others off while we continued with the bags to a 4WD taxi which would take us to Monteverde.  A few birds were seen on the boat trip but the only new bird was a pair of Golden Olive Woodpeckers.

The taxi was waiting for us in an area of cattle pasture and I was able to bird while it was being loaded and was able to see a few more open country birds.  The taxi took us to the Hotel Villa Verde where we waited for the others to arrive.  Later Lillian and I went up to the entrance of the famous Cloud Forest Reserve and enjoyed the close views of the hummingbirds at the gallery.  As we sat watching the hummers I saw an Emerald Toucanet in the trees between the gallery and the road.  I am afraid to say that my favourite hummer was big, purple and aggressive, the Violet Sabrewing.

19 April 2000

The next morning we went out with a local guide, Koki, into the Reserve.  Koki was able to show us birds that we could never have hoped to see in the forest.  We heard, but did not see, Three-wattled Bellbird but he was able to show us Orange-bellied Trogon, Black-masked Solitaire, Chestnut-capped Brush Finch, Slate-throated Redstart, Prong-billed Barbet, Black Guan, Mountain Robin and quite a few Resplendant Quetzals.  I really wished that I could have spent more time here and seen some more of the special birds.

In the afternoon we went on the skywalk but apart from a couple of more Quetzals and a Swallow-tailed Kite we all thought this was too busy.  In the late afternoon we returned to the Hummingbird Gallery and on the way up a Brown Jay flew across the road.

21 April 2000

We left Monteverde this morning and started our journey down the Pacific slope towards Quepos.  The infamous Monteverde road lived up to its reputation and we were all feeling a little queasy before long.  We cheered when we reached the tarmac.  On the way down we all noticed the vegetation change from the green highlands to a dry scrubland, slightly reminiscent of some regions of Africa.  We soon passed through this and reached the more verdant Pacific coast.

We stopped at the Rio Tarcoles bridge where I birded while the others photographed the crocodiles.  Nothing new was seen here but I did reacquaint myself with Bare-throated Tiger-Heron and Common Black Hawk.  We arrived in Quepos with a couple of hours before sunset and I went out to see what I could see on the estuary.  Highlights were White Ibises, Brown Boobies and Brown Pelicans offshore, Orange-chinned Parakeets in the palms and a Bat Falcon which attacked the Spotted and Western Sandpipers on the estuary.

22 April 2000

Today was given over to a beach day in the Manuel Antonio National Park but it being Easter we had to wait in line.  I enjoyed my first taste of snorkelling in the tropics, even if the mask did not fit properly.  Before leaving Andy, Kimberley and I went a walk seeing Agouti, Squirrel Monkeys, Two and Three-toed Sloths, Red-crowned Woodpecker and land crabs.

We spent the last hour of daylight at a hotel waiting for Squirrel Monkeys to come into bananas.  As we waited we watched the antics of the Golden-naped Woodpeckers, Palm, Blue-Grey and Scarlet-rumped Tanagers in the trees.  The stream below us had a patient Green and Rufous Kingfisher while above us were migrating Broad-winged Hawks in ones and twos.

23 April 2000

Our last full day in this wonderful country and we had arranged a local guide, Leo, to take four of us into Manuel Antonio National Park.  It was an excellent morning and we saw Crab-eating Racoon as well as my last trip lifers in Fiery-billed Aracari, Barred and Black Hooded Antshrike and Double Toothed Kite.

We got back to Quepos to check out of the hotel and return to San Jose for a final group meal.  The next day Lillian and I began our journey home from San Jose to Miami to London Heathrow on to Edinburgh.

Species List

Lifers are in capitals.
1. LITTLE TINAMOU  Crypturellus souei heard Monteverde 
2. ANHINGA  Anhinga anhinga Common on Moin-Tortuguero, Tortuguero-Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui and on Rio Frio.
3. OLIVACEOUS CORMORANT  Phalacrocorax olivaceus Common on any water. 
4. BROWN BOOBY  Sula leucogaster  Small numbers offshore at Quepos and Manuel Antonio 
5. BROWN PELICAN Pelecanus occidentalis 5 seen Quepos 
6. MAGNIFICENT FRIGATE-BIRD  Fregata magnificens a few seen on Caribbean coast but numerous on Pacific coast. 
7. RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON Tigrisoma lineatum three seen on Tortuguero-Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqu trip and two on Rio Frio. 
8. BARE-THROATED TIGER-HERON Tigrisoma mexicanum one seen on Tortuguero-Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui 
9. Green Heron  Butorides virescens common on wetlands
10. Black-crowned Night-Heron  Nycticorax nycticorax one seen Rio Frio.
11. BOAT-BILLED HERON Cochlearius cochlearius colony of around 20 on Rio Frio plus single seen Manuel Antonio.
12. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Common and widespead.
13. TRICOLORED HERON Egretta tricolor Seen on Caribbean coast and on Tortuguero-Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui trip.
14. SNOWY EGRET Egretta thula common waterside bird
15. LITTLE BLUE HERON Egretta caerulea one seen on Moin-Tortoguero trip; two on Rio Frio.
16. Great Egret  Casmerodius albus a common waterside bird
17. Great Blue Heron  Ardea herodias  Less common than Great Egret but still numerous beside freshwater
18. WHITE IBIS Eudocnimus albus flocks seen over Quepos and offshore from Manuel Antonio
19. WOOD STORK Mycteria americana 4 seen Rio San Juan. 
20. Turkey Vulture  Cathartes aura Abundant and widespread 
21. LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE Cathartes burrovianus  A few seen in Rio Frio area. 
22. BLACK VULTURE Coragyps atratus  Abundant and widespread. 
23. KING VULTURE Sarcoramphus papa One seen on road from Monteverde to the Interamericana 
24. AMERICAN SWALLOW-TAILED KITE Elanoides forficatus  One seen over the Sky Walk at Monteverde. 
25. WHITE-TAILED KITE Elanus leucurus  Common roadside bird 
26. SNAIL KITE Rostrhamus sociabilis  a single seen on Moin-Tortuguero boat trip 
27. DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE Harpagus bidentatus pair seen Manuel Antonio 
28. GRAY HAWK Buteo nitidus One seen in pasture near Rara Avis 
29. ROADSIDE HAWK Buteo magnirostris common roadside bird
30. Broad-winged Hawk  Buteo platypterus  singles seen on two occasions at Manuel Antonio
31. COMMON BLACK HAWK Buetogallus anthracinus  Pair seen over Manzanilla, one seen Tarcoles and one seen Manuel Antonio.
32. WHITE HAWK Leucopternis albicollis one seen Rara Avis
33. Osprey  Pandion haliaetus one seen Puerto Viejo de Talamanca and another on Moin-Tortuguero boat trip.
34. CRESTED CARACARA Polyborus plancus  one seen Rio Frio
35. LAUGHING FALCON Herpotheres cachinnans one perched in bush Moin-Tortuguero boat trip
36. BAT FALCON Falco rufigularis one seen attacking Spotted Sandpipers at Quepos
37. CRESTED GUAN Penelope purprascens pair in fig tree at Tortuguero
38. BLACK GUAN Chamaepetes unicolor Three seen at Monteverde
39. GRAY-NECKED WOOD RAIL  Aramides cajanea one seen Rio Frio
40. PURPLE GALLINULE Porphyrula martinica one seen Rio Frio
41. NORTHERN JACANA Jacana spinosa common waterside bird
42. Least Sandpiper  Calidris minutilla two seen Manuel Antonio
43. Western Sandpiper  Calidris mauri a small flock seen on estuary at Quepos
44. Spotted Sandpiper  Actitis macularia commonest shorebird
45. Ruddy Turnstone  Arenaria interpres seen Moin-Tortuguero and Quepos
46. Royal Tern  Sterna maxima seen Moin-Tortuguero near rivermouths
47. Feral Pigeon  Columba livia San Jose
48. SHORT-BILLED PIGEON Columba nigrirostris the commonest pigeon
49. PALE VENTED PIGEON Columba cayennensis Manzanilla
50. OLIVE-BACKED QUAIL DOVE Geotrygon veraguenensis  Rara Avis
51. RUDDY GROUND DOVE Columbina talpacoti first noted Horquetos
52. COMMON GROUND DOVE Columbina passerina  seen on Monteverde Interamericana road
53. INCA DOVE Columbina inca seen San Jose only
54. WHITE-WINGED DOVE Zenaida asiatica  A few seen on Monteverde Interamericana road
55. GREY-CHESTED DOVE Leptoptila cassinii  Manuel Antonio
56. GRAY-FRONTED DOVE Leptoptila rufaxilla  Rio Frio
57. ORANGE-CHINNED PARRAKEET Brotogeris jugularis  Rio Frio, Quepos and Manuel Antonio
58. CRIMSON-FRONTED PARRAKEET Aratinga finschii Rio Frio,
59. OLIVE-THROATED PARRAKEET Aratinga nana  Manzanilla and Tortuguero
60. BROWN-HOODED PARROT Pionopsitta haematotis  Monteverde
61. WHITE-CROWNED PARROT Pionus senilis  Monteverde
62. RED-LORED PARROT Amazona autumnalis  Seen flying over Rio Toro when in calmer water.
63. MEALY PARROT Amazona farinosa  Rara Avis
64. SQUIRREL CUCKOO  Piaya cayana  Rio Frio
65. GROOVE-BILLED ANIS Crotophaga sulcirostris  Rio Frio and Manuel Antonio
66. RESPLENDANT QUETZAL Pharomachrus mocinno  about ten seen Monteverde
67. SLATY-TAILED TROGON Trogon massena  Pair seen Tortuguero
68. LATTICE TAILED TROGON Trogon clathratus heard calling Rara Avis
69. ORANGE-BELLIED TROGON Trogon aurantiliventris pair with juvenile seen Monteverde
70. BLACK-HEADED TROGON Trogon melanocephalus pair seen Rio Frio
71. VIOLET SABREWING  Campylopterus nehileucurus Monteverde
72. BLUE-THROATED GOLDENTAIL  Hylocharis elicae  Tortuguero
73. LONG-TAILED HERMIT Phaethornis superciliosus Manzanilla
74. GREEN HERMIT Phaethornis guy Monteverde
75. GREEN-BREASTED MANGO  Anthracothorax prevostii  female Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
76. COPPERY-HEADED EMERALD  Elvira cupreiceps Monteverde
77. PURPLE-THROATED MOUNTAIN GEM  Lamprornis calolaema Monteverde
78. GREEN VIOLET-EAR Colibri thalassinus Monteverde
79. MAGENTA THROATED WOODSTAR Calliphlox bryantae Monteverde
80. STEELY VENTED HUMMINGBIRD  Amazilia saucerottei  Rio Frio
81. RUFOUS-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD  Amazilia tzacatl  San Jose and Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
82. STRIPE-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD  Eupherusia eximia Monteverde
83. SCINTILLANT HUMMINGBIRD  Selasphorus scintilla Monteverde
84. GREEN-CROWNED BRILLIANT Heliodoxa jacula Monteverde
85. CROWNED WOODNYMPH  Thalurania colombica  Rara Avis
86. GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT Chaetura cinereiventris  Caribbean coast
87. CRESTED OWL  Lophostrix cristata  pair seen Manzanilla
88. GREATER POTOO Nyctibus grandis one seen Rio Frio
89. GREEN KINGFISHER Chloroceryle americana  Tortuguero- PV de Sarapiqui, Rio Frio
90. AMAZON KINGFISHER Chloroceryle amazona  seen Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Tortuguero and on Rio Frio
91. GREEN & RUFOUS KINGFISHER Chloroceryle inda  Rio Frio and Manuel Antonio
92. PYGMY KINGFISHER Chloroceryle aenea  Rio Frio
93. Belted Kingfisher  Ceryle alcyon Rio San Juan
94. RINGED KINGFISHER Ceryle torquata  Rio San Juan, Rio Frio and Laguna Arenal
95. BLUE-CROWNED MOTMOT Baryphthengus martii  San Jose and Monteverde
96. RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR Galbula ruficauda Tortuguero
97. WHITE-FRONTED NUNBIRD  Monasa morphoeus PV de Talamanca
98. EMERALD TOUCANET Aulacorhynchus prasinus Monteverde
99. FIERY-BILLED ARACARI  Pteroglossus frantzii pair seen at nest Manuel Antonio
100. COLLARED ARACARI  Pteroglossus torquatusi  Manzanilla and Tortuguero
101. KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN Ramphastos sulfuratus  Manzanilla and Tortuguero
102. CHESTNUT MANDIBLED TOUCAN Ramphastos swainsonii  Manzanilla and Rara Avis
103. PRONG-BILLED BARBET Semnornis frantzii  Single Monteverde
104. RED-RUMPED WOODPECKER Venilornis kirkii  PV de Talamanca
105. HOFFMANN'S WOODPECKER Melanerpes hoffmanni  Rio Frio
106. RUFOUS-WINGED WOODPECKER Piculus simplex  PV de Talamanca
107. GOLDEN OLIVE WOODPECKER Piculus rubiginosus  Laguna Arenal
108. BLACK-CHEEKED WOODPECKER Melanerpes pucherani PV de Talamanca and Manzanilla
109. RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER Melanerpes rubricapillus  Manuel Antonio
110. GOLDEN-NAPED WOODPECKER Melanerpes chrysauchen  Manuel Antonio
111. LINEATED WOODPECKER Dryocopus lineatus  pair Tortuguero
112. SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW  Stelgidopteryx ruficollis  uncommon but widespread
113. Northern Rough-winged Swallow  Stelgidopteryx serripennis  small numbers seen migrating with other swallows
114. BLUE & WHITE SWALLOW  Notiochelidon cyanoleuca Common
115. Barn Swallow  Hirundo rustica  large flocks migrating along Caribbean coast
116. Tree Swallow  Tachycineta bicolor large flocks migrating along Caribbean coast
117. MANGROVE SWALLOW  Tachycineta albilinea  Common over water
118. GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN Progne chlaybea  Common in La Fortuna and Los Chiles.
119. SHARPBILL  Oxyruncus cristatus Rara Avis
120. RUFOUS PIHA Lipaugus unirufus  Rara Avis
121. RUFOUS-CHEEKED SPINETAIL  Cranioleuca erythrops Rara Avis
122. STRIPED FOLIAGE GLEANER Hyloctistes subulatus  Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
123. SLATY ANTSHRIKE Thamnophilus punctatus Manzanilla
124. BLACK-HOODED ANTSHRIKE Thamnophilus bridgesii Maunel Antonio
125. BARRED ANTSHRIKE Thamnophilus doliatus Manuel Antonio
126. RUSSETT ANTSHRIKE Thamnistes anabatinus  Rara Avis
127. THRUSH-LIKE MANNIKIN Schiffornis turdinus  Rara Avis
128. RED-CAPPED MANNIKIN Pipra mentalis Manzanilla
129. WHITE-COLLARED MANNIKIN Manacus candei  Rara Avis
130. MASKED TITYRA Tityra semifasciata  PV de Talamanca, Manzanilla and Monteverde
131. CINNAMON BECARD  Pachramphus cinnamomeus  Rara Avis
132. LONG-TAILED TYRANT Colonia colonus Rara Avis
133. BLACK PHOEBE Sayornis nigricans  Rio Toro
134. TROPICAL PEWEE Contopus cinereus  PV de Talamanca, Tortuguero
135. GREATER KISKADEE Pitangus sulphuratus  Common and widespread
136. BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER Megarhynchus pitangua only note Horquetas, overlooked elsewhere?
137. GRAY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER Myiozetes granadensis - Common and widespread
138. SOCIAL FLYCATCHER Myiozetes similis - Common and widespread
139. RUFOUS MOURNER Rhytipterna holerythra  heard Rara Avis
140. Eastern Kingbird  Tyrannus tyrannus  very common migrant on Caribbean
141. TROPICAL KINGBIRD  Tyrannus melancholicus  Common and widespread
142. WHITE RINGED FLYCATCHER Coryphotriccus albovitattus  a few seen on boat trips in Caribbean lowlands.
143. YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA Elaenia flavogaster  Common and widespread.
144. Alder Flycatcher  Empidonax alnorum  only one Empid id'ed was a calling Alder Flicker at PV de Talamanca
145. EYE-RINGED FLATBILL  Rhynchocyclus brevirostris  Rara Avis
146. BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILLA Attila spadiceus  Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
147. COMMON TODY-TYRANT Todirostrum cinereum One seen Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
148. BLACK-HEADED TODY-TYRANT Todirostrum nigriceps  one seen at lunch stop on Rio Frio
149. SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY TYRANT Lophotriccus pileatus one Rara Avis
150. ZELEDON'S TYRANNULET Phyllomyias zeledoni one Rara Avis
151. PLAIN WREN Thryothorus modestus Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
152. RIVERSIDE WREN Thryothorus semibadius Manuel Antonio
153. BLACK-BELLIED WREN Throthrus fascaitioventris Manuel Antonio
154. House Wren  Troglodytes aedon San Jose, Rara Avis, Monteverde
155. OCHRACEOUS WREN Troglodytes ochraceus Monteverde
156. WHITE-BREASTED WOODWREN Herocohina leucosticta  Rara Avis
157. BLACK-FACED SOLITAIRE Myadestes melanops Monteverde
158. SLATY-BACKED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH Cathaurus fuscater Monteverde
159. Swainson's Thrush  Cathaurus ustulatus  San Jose and Monteverde
160. CLAY-COLOURED ROBIN Turdus grayi  Common and widespread
161. MOUNTAIN ROBIN Turdus plebejus Common at Monteverde
162. TROPICAL GNATCATCHER Polioptila plumbea female seen in giant bamboo in Manuel Antonio
163. BROWN JAY  Cyanocorax morio Monteverde
164. House Sparrow  Passer domesticus  San Jose, La Fortuna and Quepos
165. YELLOW-GREEN VIREO  Vireo flavoviridis Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
166. GREEN SHRIKE VIREO  Vireolanius pulchellus  Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
167. Chestnut-sided Warbler  Dendroica pensylvanica San Jose, Rara Avis and Monteverde
168. CERULEAN WARBLER Dendroica cerulea one seen Rara Avis
169. Yellow Warbler  Dendroica petechia  Puerto Viejo de Talamanca and La Fortuna; Mangrove race erithachorides common in Quepos along seafront and river
170. SLATE-THROATED REDSTART Myioborus miniatus Monteverde
171. GRAYISH SALTATOR Saltator coerulescens  San Jose
172. STREAKED SALTATOR Saltator albicollis  San Jose
173. BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR Saltator maximus  Horquetos
174. RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW  Zonotrichia capensis Common in hotel garden in San Jose and at Monteverde
175. BLACK-STRIPED SPARROW  Arremonops conirostris Rara Avis
176. VARIABLE SEEDEATER Sporophila aurita  Common and widespread
177. BLUE SEEDEATER Amaurospiza concolor Monteverde
178. CHESTNUT-CAPPED GROUND-FINCH Atlapetes brunneinucha Monteverde
179. BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT Volatinia jacarina Rio Frio
180. YELLOW-FACED GRASSQUIT Tiaris olivacea  Common at Monteverde
181. BANANAQUIT Coreoba flaveola Common and widespread
182. RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER Cyanerpes cyaneus Puerti Viejo de Talamanca
183. SHINING HONEYCREEPER Cyanerpes lucidus Tortuguero
184. GREEN HONEYCREEPER Chlorophanes spiza  PV de Talamance
185. BLUE DACNIS  Dacnis cayana Tortuguero
186. SCARLET THIGHED DACNIS Dacnis venusta Rara Avis
187. YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA Euphonia luteicapilla Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
188. TAWNY-CROWNED EUPHONIA Euphonia anneae Rara Avis
189. WHITE-VENTED EUPHONIA Euphonia minuta Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
190. SCARLET-RUMPED TANAGER Ramphocelus spp Quepos and Manuel Antonio
191. PASSERINI'S TANAGER Ramphocelus passerinii Common on Caribbean side of the countr
192. WHITE-LINED TANAGER Tachyphonus rufus  Seen Rara Avis and Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
193. WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER Tachyphonus luctuosus Manuel Antonio
194. BLUE-GRAY TANAGER Thraupis episcopus Common and widespread
195. PALM TANAGER Thraupis palmarum Seen Rara Avis, Quepos and Manuel Antonio
196. GOLDEN-HOODED TANAGER Tangara larvata Tortuguero
197. SPECKLED TANAGER Tangara guttata  Rara Avis
198. SILVER-THROATED TANAGER Tangara icterocephala Seen at Rara Avis and Monteverde
199. SUMMER TANAGER Pirangra rubra male seen in Botanic Garden at Puerto Viejo de Talamanca
200. OLIVE TANAGER Chlorothraupis carmioli Rio Frio
201. COMMON BUSH-TANAGER Chlorospingus opthalmicus Hummingbird Gallery, Monteverde
202. EASTERN MEADOWLARK Sturnella magna  In pastures at Monteverde
203. YELLOW-TAILED ORIOLE Icterus mesomelas Tortuguero
204. BLACK-COWLED ORIOLE Icterus dominicensis Manzanilla
205. STREAK-BACKED ORIOLE Icterus pustulatus Tortuguero and Rio Frio
206. Baltimore Oriole  Icterus galbula  Seen at Tortuguero and along Rio Frio
207. ORCHARD ORIOLE Icterus spurius seen in riverside trees along Rio Frio
208. Red-winged Blackbird  Agelaius phoenicus Common roadside bird in Rio Frio region
209. GIANT COWBIRD  Scaphydura oryzivora Seen as road side bird en route from La Fortuna to Los Chiles
210. BRONZED COWBIRD  Molothrus auneus  Seen in pastures at end of the boat trip acroos Lago Arenal
211. NICARAGUAN GRACKLE Quiscalus nicaraguensis Seen in pastures along Rio Frio
212. GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE Quiscalus mexicanus  the most ubiquitous bird seen
213. SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE Cacicus uropygialis  PV de Talamanca
214. CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDULA Psarocolius wagleri  colony beside the lounge at Rara Avis
215. MONTEZUMA OROPENDULA Psarocolius montezuma commonly seen on boat trips

David Kelly
East Lothian

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