Birding the Americas Trip Report and Planning Repository

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14 June - 14 August 2005

by Bev Scott

Chiapas Birding and Sightseeing Trip


Since October 26, 2003 my husband Murray and I have been retired and living in the Yucatan Peninsula, one year in Progreso birding in the general area, a few two and three day trips to places like Celestun, Izamal and Uxmal. Then from November 2004 to May 2005, we lived near Bacalar, Quintana Roo, in a small Ecotourism resort, where I birded almost every day of the five months we spent there. It was in the Bacalar area that I gained my first extensive tropical birding experience. We then moved back to Progreso and started making plans for a 2-month birding and sightseeing trip to Chiapas. Although Murray says he is not a birder, he loves being outdoors, is a good spotter, and is interested in nature photography. We agreed to follow a route that would take us to most of the sites mentioned in Stephen Howell’s “A Bird Finding Guide to Mexico” (book details below).

The pace of the trip was slow. Motivation for moving from place to place was based largely on our enjoyment of the area and the relative costs. Traveling in the rainy season, we anticipated that the rains might either drive us out of an area sooner than planned, or even cause us to abandon the trip altogether. The best birding is from just before dawn to around 10 in the morning. The afternoon heat can be so intense that it drives you indoor or poolside.

Almost every afternoon there is heavy rainfall, sometimes lasting well into the night. Additionally, Murray is not a morning person. We agreed beforehand that we would do pre-dawn starts a maximum of two days a week and later morning starts (7 to 7:30) an additional one or two time a week. The balance of the week I was on my own to walk the areas around our hotel until 8:00 or 8:30 when he would join me.

The strategy I adopted was to concentrate on life birds, especially those listed by Howell as specialties of the Chiapas area, and see what else turned up.  Note - I have never visited Central or South America. My only experience with tropical species was from living in the Yucatan Peninsula for the past 20 months. Before the trip, I made a list of what would likely be readily gettable species. If I could get 100 life birds, I would return to the Yucatan with a respectable list. The trip list below includes all species seen after we crossed the Yucatan state border into Campeche, June 14 until August 14.

The overall species list was a respectable 304 including 2 heard species, Slaty-breasted Tinamou and Ruddy Crake, familiar species from my time in southern Quintana Roo and Yucatan. I managed to meet my target of exactly 100 lifers!

The 100th life species you may question. It was the last new species we saw on our way home. The birds were (Black-headed) Tricolored Munias, Lonchura Malacca, sitting on the top of a low shrub on a side-road off Hwy 186 in Campeche, just outside the Tabasco border. At the time, I expected that they were likely escaped birds. Still, I made field notes and an extensive sketch of these striking and unmistakable black, brown and white finch-like birds. A friend in Merida, Barbara MacKinnon De Montes (compiler of species data for the Yucatan Peninsula for American Birds) helped me to identify them. They were originally caged birds that have been regularly reported in the wild since 1994.

Traveling around

We own our personal vehicle, a comfortable air-conditioned Nissan Altima, which we used for the trip.

Driving to and around Chiapas was very easy.  There is a great, well-maintained highway linking Merida in the east with Campeche City, Campeche, in the west. The distance is only about 200 kilometers or 2 1/2 hours. From there to Palenque, Chiapas is 375 kms. or 5 hours. We chose to stay in Sabancuy, 115 km. south of Campeche so we could get an early start for birding the Usumacinta marshy areas in the morning. From Sabancuy to Palenque would be about 300 km.

If you were planning to bird Chiapas in conjunction with the Yucatan Peninsula, you would likely fly into Cancun or Merida. Car rentals are readily available from either city, but be prepared for an average rate of from $700p (pesos) to $900p per day of rental costs. The highway from Cancun to Merida is a double lane 350 km. toll road in good condition ($210p toll one-way).

The main highways in Chiapas are generally in very good condition, but be prepared for the fact that in the mountainous sections there are almost no guardrails and not too many curbs. The greatest hazards you will encounter are the ubiquitous speed humps or “topes”, which greet you in virtually every town or village.  Most are signed, but quite a few are not, so beware. A good strategy for crossing them is to come to a rolling stop and then slowly cross at a slight diagonal. This will avoid “bottoming out”. There is however, a stretch of monster topes in the area of Motozintla. Try to go around them if you can!

Gas stations are widely available throughout. They are all government-owned Pemex stations, at a cost of $7.50p per liter of regular fuel (during our travel time).

Costs & Money

The local currency is the Mexican Peso (MXP). There are very few places in the Yucatan Peninsula or Chiapas, with the exception of the Cancun to Tulum hotel stretch, where the US Dollar is accepted. Bank drafts and travelers’ cheques are a waste of time as they are accepted only at banks or major hotels, and the line-ups at banks are always very long.  The best method of carrying currency is to use a bankcard to get Mexican currency at ATM’s. Every city and almost every town has a bank with an ATM machine that will dispense pesos. Most major bankcards are accepted.

Credit cards are accepted in some hotels, restaurants, and shops in major cities, although not everywhere, and gas stations take cash only.


The quality of our accommodations was generally good, and in some cases excellent.  We stayed at the following places (all accommodation prices are per room (2 persons), per day unless noted):

Campeche City, Campeche

Hotel Sir Francis Drake, Calle 12 #207 x 63 y 65 Centro, rather expensive at $600p and up, but elegant. Do not eat in the restaurant (previous experience). Recommend booking the Hotel Baluartes, Av. 16 de Diciembre #128 at $400p approx. in advance. On the 4 occasions we’ve been to the city, most hotels are fully booked.

Sabancuy, Campeche

Hotel Sabancuy Plaza is a four-storey hotel that you can see on your right as you cross the bridge at the town’s entrance from the gulf. $200p for small air-con room. Small restaurant on site was always filled with people, food looked good, menu looked reasonable but not in town long enough to eat there. There is another hotel on the other side of town that looks as good or possibly better but we didn’t check it out.


Margarita y Ed’s, El Panchán, Carretera Palenque-Ruinas, 4.4 kms. from town. 916-341-0063, $300p with air-con, $250p without (Lonely Planet’s description of El Panchán and the hotel is dead-on.) “…wonderful place on road to ruins … defy the odds and maintain scrupulously clean rooms in middle of El Panchán jungle. The rustic screened cabañas are also pleasant, and come with reading lights and private bathrooms. ($180p) Free drinking water for all.” Lots of birds on the property. (see notes in itinerary)

Lacanja Chansayab (Bonampak area)

Campiamento Vicente , one of a series of “Campamientos” in the small village of Lacanja Chansayab, 4 kilometers off the highway and 7 km. from the entrance to Bonampak ruins. Three brothers, of the Lacandon indigenous group, each have a combination of cabanas and motel-type rooms. Cabanas are $100p per person with single beds. The bathroom is communal in a separate building, with two sinks, a private room with toilet, and a private room with shower. It looked very clean and well maintained. We took a motel-type room with bathroom and paid $200p per night, comfortable but basic. Vicente provided us with a meal each of the two nights, of chicken, potatoes and vegetables (OK but not great) with delicious hand-made tortillas, and limeade. The price was a hefty $50p each. We also paid a premium price for the items we purchased in the small store in the village, manned by Vincente’s granddaughter. There is nowhere else to shop within 40km. There is also no alcohol or beer available anywhere nearby.

San Cristóbal de Las Casas

Departamentos Mendez – A large house converted into 4 very nice fully equipped apartments, including fireplaces at $1350p per week, negotiate for shorter stay; Calle 28 de Agosto, #19. Call Miguel at 044-967-680-7037 – only 3 blocks from the centre square.

Hotel Arrecife de Coral, Avenida Crescencio Rosas #29, 967-678-2125, five blocks from centre on the north side of the city. Beautiful, modern hotel with large centre courtyard and indoor locked parking. $650p including great, full buffet breakfast for two.

Chiapa de Corzo

Hotel La Ceiba, Avenida Domingo Ruiz #300, 961-616-0773, laceibachiapadé, $650p with air. (OK but overpriced for the condition of the place)

Tuxtla Guttierrez

Hotel Costa Azul Turquesa, Libramiento Sur Ote. #3722 961-611-3485, clean,modern motel-type rooms with air, on south-east side of city only 1km from the State Zoo and 20 minutes from the Sumidero Canyon Park entrance. We paid $450p per night including a buffet breakfast, but they have a 12-hour rate of only $300p.


Hotel Ik-Lumaal, centre of town, one block from central park; clean but very old, $475p including drinking water and enclosed, locked parking in the next block (this is the best place in town!).

Puerto Aristo

Hotel La Cunesa?,Where city entry road ends at the beach turn left and go 800 meters, $400p Get room on top floor for breeze and ocean view.


Hotel and Restaurant San Carlos, Avenida Francisco Sarabia Esq., Con 23a Poniente, (918)643-1246. about two blocks from the highway toward town. A great little place, simple room with bath and A/C, TV. Patricia, the owner is also the cook – great food, reasonable prices. Only 15 minutes from great birding.


Hotel Alicia, (ask for directions – one block off highway, ½ block from large Pemex; very, very old, once obviously very good; kingsize bed, good sheets, tiny TV, noisy A/C, leaky taps. $250p


Hotel International; Av. Central Sur 16, one block from central park 963-632-0110 $360p; a great little hotel all the conveniences and secure parking.

Tziscao (Lagos Montebello area)

Alberque Turistico (Hotel - Ejido Tziscao) peaceful area on great grounds on the lake $120p per person; 6 hotel rooms are very basic but large, bright and clean; there are also 8 A-frame wooden cabins, each with two double beds, full bathroom and sundeck. They are very rustic inside, and are more like camping huts. There are also designated camping spots with cooking areas - $50p per person. There was almost no garbage on this approximate 2 hectare lakeside site, a pleasant surprise in rural Mexico.


Restaurants and Food

Below is a list of restaurants and tips for getting food in the areas we traveled.

The food was generally reasonable to very good.  It’s a good idea to always have a spare bottle or two of water with you. Do not drink tap water. Always wash and then sterilize fruits and vegetables, in particular those that will be eaten raw or unpeeled. Use “Microdyn or Biopur, which can be purchased in any commercial grocery in a major city or town. About 10 drops to a litre of tap water for 15 minutes will do. Generally speaking, anywhere you see a lot of locals buying cooked food or eating in restaurants, the food is likely good and reasonably priced. Note that Mexicans eat their big meal of the day between 1 and 3 pm. This can coincide well with birding as birding is generally the slowest at this time of the day. There is a huge variety of packaged, single serving snack food available in even the smallest corner stores; cookies, breakfast bars, chips, crackers, yogurt, cheese, juices, etc.

Campeche City, Campeche

Too many good restaurants to mention, but our favourite was the Restaurante Marganzo, Calle 8 between Calles 57 and 59, a little bit pricey but the best seafood dishes we’ve had in Mexico.

Sabancuy, Campeche

Reasonable seafood restaurant about 200 meters past the bridge to town on the beach highway. But the restaurant in the hotel we stayed in was popular with the locals.


I think we stayed here so long because of the food (especially Murray) Don Mucho’s in the El Panchan complex kept us going back; 40 to 60 selections, breakfast from 7am open through to 2 in the morning. Everything from traditional to North-American style hamburgers and fries or salad to the best Italian pizzas ever (12 varieties), Calzones, pasta, river trout, salads, vegetarian plates; prices from $25p breakfast, up to only $60p for main meals; all servings were huge. Lots of other restaurants in town of Palenque – but didn’t try them.

Lacanja Chansayab (Bonampak area)

There is only one restaurant in the town at the highway junction between the village and Bonampak ruins. There is no beer or liquor available in the area, so purchase in San Cristobal. Snack food is twice the price of other places we visited! See hotel section for more detail

San Cristóbal de Las Casas

Lots of good restaurants and cafes with really good coffee and pastries – see Lonely planet for a list.

Chiapa de Corzo

See Lonely Planet – average food, average prices.

Tuxtla Guttierrez

Hotel Costa Azul Turquesa, was where we ate all of our meals. Excellent food, good prices $40 - $80pesos in an elegant dining room with a wonderful vista of city and mountains.


Hotel Ik-Lumaal, centre of town Reasonable restaurant off lobby and another about two doors down.

Puerto Aristo

Very difficult to get a good meal here. Lots of beachfront restaurants, but very pricey with so-so quality seafood. There is a small “Cocina Economica” about two blocks West of the main entrance road, not on beach side. You can get good, lower priced meals including chicken and pork here.


Hotel and Restaurant San Carlos, see hotel section above. Also a reasonable restaurant on the highway one block West of the town intersection, north side, which serves good pasta and seafood.


Basically an old rundown town with one saving grace, an authentic Chinese Restaurant (run by a Chinese family) with the best Cantonese food we have ever had! On the main street cater-corner to the railway station (which is the only tourist attraction in the town).


Several nice restaurants around the main square, but our favourite was located two blocks away – Restaurante – Café Ana Iris, very good meals and a great pastry shop.

Tziscao (Lagos Montebello area)

Alberque Turistico (Hotel - Ejido Tziscao) food good, basic and reasonable. Dinners are $45p and breakfasts are $25p. Soft drinks are $8p and beer is $10p.

Political Situation, Safety and Health

Before traveling in Chiapas we read Mexican Newspapers to be sure there were no serious political issues. Chiapas is home to Sub-Commander Marcos and the Zapatistas. In 1999, the Zapatistas took over the city of San Cristóbal de Las Casas. The federal government moved in to route them out. There are currently travel safety advisories on every government website. There still is a very obvious military presence, and you may be stopped and your car and trunk may be inspected. They are looking for drugs or immigrants from Central America. Be polite, step out of the car when asked. But, keep you purse or wallet on you, and watch what they do! On the whole they are very pleasant and just doing their jobs. During our entire time in Chiapas we encountered NO Zapatistas although we were warned by the local and tourist police on several occasions to stay on tourist routes and be sure that we leave our car in high-traffic places.

Health and safety (snakes, mosquitos, malaria (re talks to doctors) – recommend you check with and follow guidelines set out by your government’s travel health website. Medical, dental and hospital care including medications are very inexpensive by North American standards, and the quality of care is generally good.  Most medicine, including prescription products can be purchased over the counter in Mexico at drastically lowered prices. Mosquitoes were generally not a problem, although they were a bit annoying in the early mornings on the trails at Palenque ruins. Although there are many (more than70) species of snakes, we saw only a few, and they were well off the trails. It’s just always a good idea to look where you are stepping. Also watch for fire ants, very tiny ants that can really bite. Just don’t stand on an ant mound, but remember that ant swarms attract birds!


Please remember that we entered Chiapas at the height of the rainy season, which in Chiapas starts the beginning of June and lasts until sometime in September. The weather varied from place to place. In Palenque it was generally very hot and humid, especially in the forested areas.  The weather was more pleasant in the highlands of San Cristobal, Tuxtla, Comitán and Tziscao (Montebello), where the temperatures in the daytime did not reach 28C.  The rain was another matter altogether. In Palenque, we had rain most days but generally at night or in the afternoon for about an hour when you need it to cool down. But the humidity reached almost 100% each day. Tziscao was cloudy and rainy most of the time, three to five hours a day and at times very heavy. We were told that April and May are the hotter, drier months.

A NOTE ABOUT THE WEATHER AT PALENQUE: I would not recommend a strictly birding trip to Palenque at this time of the year. Could be very frustrating for anyone on a tight birding schedule. Palenque gets more rainfall than the rest of the state. Over the past week, it rained an average of 5 daylight hours a day, fortunately mostly in the afternoon. It also rains almost every night, a few nights continuing all night. Trails at times were very muddy and slippery. The upside is that there are virtually no mosquitoes.



Bird Finding Guide to Mexico – Steve N. G. Howell.  Excellent and essential – this book formed the whole basis of the trip, and the site checklists are especially useful.  Just be aware that they represent the accumulated results of many months fieldwork by Howell over a period of 17 years, and so for some sites, especially forest sites, you should not expect to see more than some of the species listed.

National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America
Unless you are very familiar with all of the North American species, including their winter plumages, this, or a similar N. American field guide is essential on a trip to Mexico as it covers many of the migrants not covered by the Mexican field guides.

A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America - Howell and Webb
The standard guide, and very good indeed, but too big to carry about in the field.  Please note that it doesn’t generally illustrate North American species.

Lonely Planet: Mexico - John Noble, et al
"Mexico is an experience that offers a multitude of cultures, cuisine, environments, handicrafts, art and history." This vast country covers an area of almost 2 million square km encompassing mountains, plains, deserts and beaches.." This book give you everything you need to get around in Mexico, except the flora and fauna.


(the Ecotravellers’ Wildlife Guide) Tropical Mexico – Les Beletsky
If you can stand the weight of another book, this is a really useful addition if you are also interested in the identification of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and aquatic life. Although it doesn’t contain all species, this 500pp softcover book has 104 plates, has very good coverage for Chiapas, Oaxaca and the Yucatan Peninsula (only $18.95CAD at time of writing) with some very good tips and locations for viewing wildlife and their natural surroundings.

All of the above books are available from or


We used two different maps. For most driving we used “Guia Roji” (the Red Guide) available at all book stores in Mexico in spiral-bound format. The others are fold-out state maps distributed by “Salomón Huerta Ibarra” (beige cover with navy-blue writing) good for their city map inserts and attractions. These, together with the maps in Howell were more than adequate for finding and getting around most sites. 


I am fortunate to have a husband, who, although not a serious birder, has become very serious about nature photography. He managed to capture photos of many of the species we saw while traveling. You can view these on-line here

If the direct link doesn't work go to scroll down the page and select the “Community” section. Then go to the “Find a member” area with the blank area below and type in “bevscott107”, and click Go. The next page that appears will contain the underlined name bevscott107 . Clicking on this will bring you to our photo albums. There is an album called Birds – Chiapas. There are other albums of the places in Chiapas we visited.


Dates of stays and general areas were as follows:

June 14, 2005

Departure point – Progreso, Yucatan, Mexico

June 14

Campeche City, Campeche and Gulf highway to Sabancuy

June 15

Sabancuy, Campeche and road to Chiapas

June 16-26

Palenque and environ

June 27-28

Lacanja Chansayab and Bonampak area of Chiapas

June 29-July 1

Palenque and environ

July 2-17

San Cristóbal de Las Casas, including Cerro Huitepec and Las Grutas

July 18-19

Chiapa de Corzo, Sumidero Canyon by water, and the environ

July 20-24

Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Zoologico Miguel Alvarez del Toro (state zoo), Sumidero Canyon Park

July 25

Arriaga and the Arriaga foothills

July 26-28

Puerto Arista

July 29-Aug. 1


August 2


August 3-4


August 5-8

Tziscau village, Lagos Montebello National Park and Chincultic Ruins

August 9-10

San Cristobal del Las Casas

August 11-12


August 13

Campeche City, Campeche

Sites Visited

(12.1) El Sumidero (Sumidero Canyon)

Sumidero Canyon Park road and lookout stops
The park gate is advertised and posted as opening at 8am, but the gatekeeper said he opens at 7 for locals to drive up and exercise or bird. If you arrive earlier than this, you can park your car at the entrance and walk in to cover the lower levels. All the miradors were good. Be sure to walk the main road as well as the mirador roads.

Chiapa de Corzo

Zoologico Miguel Alvarez del Toro
This is probably the best zoo in all of Mexico for birders to see up close, in fairly natural surroundings, more than 150 native Mexican species of birds. There are free, but not countable Crested Guans, Great Currasows, and Plain Chachalacas hanging around. There is an interesting area for observing local species, an aviary where you enter the enclosure with the birds. If you are standing quietly in the early morning, Double-striped Thickknee will walk right up to you. The rest of the Zoo is really quite amazing as well, with hundreds of species of Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians and Insects.

(12.2) Arriaga Foothills

Route 195 toward Tuxtla

Footpath on south side of town
This is accessed by taking Avenida Centra Norte north to the end of this cobblestone road leading to a communications tower, and following the well-worn foot path up the mountainside.

(12.3) Puerto Arista

Ponds northeast of town

Road to Boca Cielo

Beach road southeast of hotels

(12.4) Mapastepec Microwave Valley

Microwave tower road

Road to village on the southeast side of the river, southeast of microwave tower hill

(12.5) Union Juarez (NOT VISITED)

(12.6) The Motozintla Road

(12.7) Lagos de Montebello

The village road at Tziscau

The park roads and various lake entry roads

Chincultic Ruins

(12.8) San Cristóbal de las Casas

Town centre including land around the Cathedrals
Especially around the top of the hill of the Templo de San Cristóbal.

Las Grutas (the Caves)
This is no longer as good a site to visit. Howell describes taking a path at the back of the caves that leads steeply up the mountainside. This is no longer possible. Approximately three years ago the military took over most of the countryside in the area. There is now no more than about 8 acres of park to walk around in, all of it groomed. The perimeter is enclosed with a 6-foot high wall of cut timber fencing with only about two inch gaps – impossible to see through, and manned on the other side by a multitude of soldiers wandering around.

Cerro Huitepec (the Pronatura reserve)
Pronatura Nature Reserve is a property taking up half of the mountain, Cerro Huitepec. We heartily recommend the services of birding guide, Javier Mendez. He is 26 years old, and has been an active birder for five years, and has worked for Pronatura in San Cristóbal for 8 years. Besides guiding birders (only $100 pesos for 4 hours per person) he is responsible for monitoring the abundance of Golden-cheeked Warblers that winter here, as well as controlling the activities of the local people who use the walking trails of the Reserve to get to the highway. He also conducts general guided walks through the reserve for the same $100 pesos. (967-678-5000 to reserve with Javier)

(12.9) El Triunfo (NOT VISITED)

(13.1) Palenque

Footpath up to Naranjada village from the Temple of the Jaguars
This trail leading back into the mountains immediately after the Temple of the Inscriptions is usually manned by a guard who will let only locals walk to their village of Naranjo, about 3km up the trail. We talked him into letting us pass, after a few minutes of friendly conversation. You might say that you are going to Naranja (pronounced “naran-ha”. It is not an easy climb! You need to be in relatively good shape.

Footpath toward Templo del Olvidado (not mentioned in Howell)
There is a very good trail easily traversed, even in wet weather. This is the Templo del Olvidado. It starts behind the Washrooms/Ticket purchase building. It is well signed, starting by crossing a shallow creek. It runs at least 3km straight past the Temple sign, and there are also couple of shorter right side trails. This path was very good most times of the day, esp. for Long-tailed Hermit (many of them – listen for their insect-like calls), Little Hermit, my only sighting of Orange-billed Sparrow, Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher and Barred Forest-Falcon.

The Palenque Park road
For birders, there is a minor problem regarding early entry to the ruins area. There is no short way to explain this.
There is a concrete arch at the Palenque Park entrance (not the Ruins entrance) on the road to the Ruins 4.4 kms. from town. This is about 2 kms. from the Ruins themselves. You can walk, drive or take a Combi/Colectivo (small van bus) to get to the Ruins. After 7am and through the day until 5pm, there is usually a staff member waiting to collect a $10p fee for each person who visits the park. There is no barricade or person there before 7am preventing you from entering the Palenque Park.
However, until 8am, until the Ruins are open, about 1 ½ km. past the arch, there is a manned barricade on the road, at the Palenque Museum, preventing some people from proceeding the last ½ kilometer to the Ruins entrance. If you walk or drive your car there before 8am, the guards at the museum will not let you proceed past the barricade. No-one is allowed to walk past the Museum before the 8am opening time. If you are driving, and arrive before 8am, you can park your car at the Museum and bird around the Museum and on the road away from the Ruins.
If however, you want to bird on the Templo del Olvidado trail, the parking lot of the Ruins, or the road at the top of the hill around the Ruins, take the mini-buses or Combis, which are marked “Ruines” ($10p from the park arch, or $20p from Palenque (the town)), which start running around 6am. You can also flag them down anywhere along the park road. The guards let the local Kombis pass the barricade because they are transporting locals to work at the ruins. They never asked us to get out!

 (13.2) San Manuel Road

The forested area at the curve in the highway overlooking the San Manuel Road as described by Howell did not exist at the time of our visit. Most of the area has been cut down and replaced with a mixture of corn fields and small fruiting trees. This seriously impacts the quality of this area as a lookout. The road itself, however is still quite birdy.

(13.2ª) Misol-Ha falls

This very birdy area, and tourist attraction, is only 20 km. from Palenque, 1.5km off Hwy 199 at a well-signed road. Lonely Planet says “…the spectacular waterfall … cascades 35m into a wonderful wide pool surrounded by lush tropical vegetation.” There is a small rustic hotel on site at the falls, as well as a restaurant. An American birder who was staying there said that the birding was good, the accommodations ($200p for 2) were adequate and the restaurant food was very good.

(13.3) La Libertad Road

The road to La Libertad and the town itself

(13.4) Usumacinta Marshes

The side roads

(13.5) Bonampak

The Ruins site
There are a few things you should be aware of if you plan on visiting the ruins. First, as we described above, the accommodations are sparse and basic. You cannot drive your car to the ruins themselves. You have to take a shuttle $70p each, the 9km. road from the parking area to the ruins

Lacanja Chansayab and the path through the forest
Ask Vincente or his brother about the trails that exist around the campamentos.

The ruins

(13.6) Yaxchilán (NOT VISITED)

Only brief details of the sites visited are given, as full details, including maps, are given in the superb "A Bird-finding Guide to Mexico" by Steve Howell.  I have instead detailed those sites not included in Howell’s book that I found to be productive, and updated information concerning a few of the Howell sites.  The numbers given at the beginning and in the daily account, refer to site numbers in Howell's book. Those additional areas not covered by Howell that I found productive are noted as well, referenced with the nearest Howell site number.

Because we spent considerably longer at each location than most readers are likely to, I am not recording all species seen each day at each location but rather target species that either, should be expected, or I had not seen on a previous excursion. There were many days that we were not birding but sightseeing. If your require a more detailed account of species by location you can communicate with me at

Wednesday-Thursday, June 15-16

We left Campeche City mid-morning and took the coastal road through Champotón to Sabancuy, Campeche, a moderate-sized town that sits on a channel about a kilometer from the coast. Along the way we stopped to watch and photograph Laughing Falcons, and to record some of the seabirds and shorebirds present. After checking into a hotel in Sabancuy we retraced our path back over the channel to the coast, had a seafood dinner at a rather expensive restaurant about 100 meters west of the junction. We drove and walked the coastal road for about a ½ hour until dusk. We left early the next morning, but after daybreak and proceeded south-west on Hwy 186 and then 199 to Palenque, arriving in Palenque around 1pm. Highlights included several perched Laughing Falcons along the coastal road, a Black-collared Hawk sitting on a low branch over a creek by the side of the hwy #186 between Sabancuy, Campeche and Palenque, Chiapas. On this road also got a perched Aplomado Falcon. Saw three adult Fork-tailed Flycatchers along the way as well as many Crested Caracaras. Others from the road on the way to Palenque were Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Great Black Hawk, Limpkin, Red-billed Pigeon, Olive-throated [Aztec] Parakeet, Violaceous Trogon, Turquoise-browed Motmot, Keel-billed Toucan, Barred Antshrike, Masked Tityra, Brown and Yucatan Jay, Yellow-green Vireo, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat, Crimson-collared Tanager, Yellow-backed Oriole, Orange Oriole, Black-cowled Oriole and Montezuma Oropendola.


(13.1) Friday, June 17 through Tuesday, June 21

All of our birding over this period was either in and around the grounds of the El Panchan complex, walking the Palenque Park road, or inside the Ruins and adjacent pathways.

On our one trek up the footpath toward the Naranjada village from the Temple of the Jaguars we didn’t see a lot of birds but had great looks at 15 Howler Monkeys in a group. Species of note from the path: Squirrel Cuckoo, Green-breasted Mango, Little Hermit, Black-headed Trogon, Keel-billed Toucan, Ivory-billed Woodcreeper, Northern Bentbill, Red-throated Ant-Tanager.

On the footpath toward Templo del Olvidado two highlights included the sighting of a calling Barred Forest-Falcon and the treat of watching a Black-and-White Owl bathing in a stream early one morning. We had really good looks (with photo) of Golden-hooded Tanagers in front of the Museum building. Both Crimson-collared and Passerini’s (Crimson-rumped) Tanagers were seen daily from the road as well as Yellow-winged Tanager. We watch a Black-cheeked Woodpecker making a nest hole. On another occasion, walking the park road netted Thick-billed Seed-Finch, Buff-throated Saltator and Scaled Pigeon.


(13.1) Saturday, June 18

Highlights: Olive-backed Euphonia, Golden-hooded Tanager, Passserini’s Tanager (Scarlet-rumped), Gray-headed Dove, Golden-crowned Warbler. All birds found around the ruins property.


(13.1) Sunday, June 19

Didn’t officially go birding; housekeeping, laundry etc. but went for a short walk in a development area 1/3 km from the Park entrance toward the town of Palenque. Entrance to road has arches and a small modern office at the road. Highlights: Rufous-breasted Spinetail (4), Variable Seedeater, Rusty Sparrow.


(13.1) Monday, June 20

Highlights: White-breasted Wood-Wren (2), Orange-billed Sparrow(6), Eastern Long-tailed Hermit (at least 8), Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher. All birds were found on the Templo del Olvidado trail.


(13.1) Tuesday, June 21

Lifers: Green Honeycreeper(3) and Stripe-throated Hermit (Little Hermit)(4) both inside and walking around ruins which by the way has a group of 4 Bat Falcons hanging out.


(13) Wednesday-Thursday, June 22-23

Birded the highway between Palenque and (13.2a) Misol-Ha Falls, and the (13.2) San Manuel road, total of only 7 hours, one day from 11:30 to 2, second day 7:30 to 12. Got only two lifers, both on the San Manuel Road, Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Rufous-capped Warbler, plus we both heard the wing snappings of White-collared Manakin but didn’t see it and didn’t count because it would be a lifer. Saw 65 species in total including three Tanagers; Golden-hooded, Passerini’s and Scarlet-rumped as well as a pair of nesting Olive-backed Euphonias at the Misol-Ha Falls.


(13.1) Friday, June 24

Today I was lazy and decided not to stray too far from the room, so only birded on the hotel zone property. From about 8am to 10am, I took a couple of new walkways around the cabañas. Watched a Royal Flycatcher preen and display its beautiful red, yellow and blue crest in full. I did a stake-out in the middle of a huge bunch of flowering plants. It was visited by Long-tailed Hermit, Little Hermit, Green-breasted Mango, Rufous-tailed Hummingbird, White-bellied Emerald and an immature lifer Long-billed Starthroat.


(13.3) Sunday, June 26

Highlights: 4 Double-striped Thicknee and several Short-billed Pigeons on the road to La Libertad (13.3). This road, described in Howell’s book is still dead-on, also added for the State of Chiapas -- Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Aplomado Falcon, Acorn Woodpecker, Ringed Kingfisher and Giant Cowbird


(13.5) Monday-Wednesday, June 27-29

We waited until 8:30 to leave for Bonampak because of heavy rain. On the drive there the weather cleared allowing us the opportunity to stop along the way; highlights: Amazon Kingfisher, Green Honeycreeper, Black-cowled Oriole, When we arrived we stayed at Lacanja Chansayab and then walked the roadway and along a trail that crosses several mountain streams. The following day we drove to the ruins entrance road and took the bus to the ruins themselves (it’s 9 km away and you are not allowed to drive a car). The alternative to the bus is the rental of bicycles, available there. Highlights at the ruins included Collared Aracari, Keel-billed Toucan, Chestnut-colored Woodpecker, Lineated and Pale-billed Wookpeckers, Plain Xenops, Banaquit, Cinnamon Becard, Band-backed Wren, White-breasted Wood-Wren and Black-faced Grosbeak. The following day I drove early in the morning to the same lot and walked for about 2km. up and back the road. Was rewarded with the following species; Stripe-throated Hermit, Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, 4 White-collared Manakins displaying, Dot-winged Antwren, Yellow-olive Flycatcher, Northern Bentbill, Northern Royal-Flycatcher, Stub-tailed Spadebill and Blue-black Grosbeak.


(13.1) Thursday-Friday, June 30-July 1

We stayed another 2 days back at El Panchan with a little birding.


(13.1 to 12.8) Saturday, July 2

Our trip from Palenque to San Cristóbal de las Casas yielded only two new species, Chestnut-Headed Oropendola near Ocosingo, and Unicoloured Jay about 40 km outside of San Cristóbal.


(12.8) Sunday, July 3

We wandered around the city getting our bearings in San Cristóbal. There were a few good birds to see. One lifer was Rufous-collared Sparrow. They are about as common as House Finches are in Ottawa. House Finches are also here, although less numerous, and my first Mexico House Sparrows. They don’t overrun the city as they do in many of our towns and cities in the northeast, but they are the most numerous species in urban San Cristóbal.

But there are a few treats. In the urban centre, others in order of abundance are Great-tailed Grackle, Rock Dove, Barn Swallow, Ridgeway’s Rough-winged Swallow, White-eared Hummingbird, Green-breasted Mango, Cave Swallow and Black-capped Swallow. Next are Stellar’s Jay. Although they are at the edge of the urban areas, in this valley where sound carries, you can hear them from our third floor bedroom. There are also a few Green Parakeets that frequent the local parks, especially at Plaza 31 de Marzo and in front of Templo de San Francisco. I hear and sometimes see them passing by our apartment in the early morning and late afternoon.


(12.8) Monday, July 4

This was primarily a city sightseeing day, but we explored further a field, climbing up a few hills to see the local cathedrals. The white and red, Templo San Cristobal, is set on the top of the steepest hill in the centre of town. There are fewer buildings close to the church, much more vegetation, and some high trees, including pine. There I added the following lifers; Gray Silky-Flycatcher, Black-headed and Black-capped Siskin and Green Violet-ear and also saw my first Spotted Towee for Mexico.


(12,8) Tuesday, July 5

We went with our landlord Miguel and 4 French people on a hike up the Cerro Huitepec, a small mountain described in Howell’s bird-finding guide. We got a late start, about 8:30am. Because Miguel stopped frequently to talk about the various trees, plants and flowers we saw along the path, it was almost 10am by the time we reached the summit and border of the park. At that point we parted company with Miguel and his group. He gave us directions for moving on further up the mountain and for exiting on the other side, at the village of Alcanfores. Up to that point, the only lifer I got was Garnet-throated Hummingbird. We saw many, with their very distinctive looking rufous-coloured wings. Then, on our own, we picked up Mountain Trogon, Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Slate-throated Redstart, Rufous-browed and Crescent-chested Warbler, Tufted Flycatcher, Rufous-browed Wren and Black-throated Jay.


(12.8) Thursday, July 7

We decided to go to another site mentioned in Howell, Las Grutas, the caves on the edge of town. We arrived at about 7am and walked the roadway into the park area, anticipating another good morning’s climb. Immediately we saw lots of Stellar’s Jay, Black-throated Jay and Guatemalan Flicker (Northern Flicker sub-species mexicanoides). We also had a few Yellow-eyed Juncos (sub-species fulvescens). See notes on “Sites visited” above.


(12.8) Wednesday, July 13, 2005

This morning we met with Javier Mendez at the entrance to Pronatura Nature Reserve’s property, part of the mountain, Cerro Huitepec. Murray and I didn’t tell him that we had climbed through their fence on two previous occasions, but only that we had been on the other side of the mountain from the Alcanfores side.

Javier tuned my ears to the frequent calls of Singing Quail, as well as the various calls and songs of the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (already seen). We tallied four lifers, thanks mostly to Javier. When we first arrived Roberto, one of the staff members pointed at a flying Blue-and white Mockingbird that thankfully landed in a tree not far from us so we could get a good look. Then on the trail we had amazingly close looks at a Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch. Then we watched three Spot-crowned Woodcreepers foraging in the trees around us for about 10 minutes. Later a Common Bush-Tanager stopped on a branch at eye level long enough to position and swallow a caterpillar, and for me to get a really good look at it. Later on in the morning we stopped to watch a very large mixed species flock foraging overhead. It included Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Spot-crowned Woodcreepers, Rufous-browed and Band-backed Wrens, Greater Pewee, Tufted Flycatcher, Gray Silky Flycatchers, lots of Crescent-chested and Golden-browed Warblers, a few Slate-throated Redstarts, and two Vireos (possible Plumbeous – ID not certain). We saw surprisingly low number of species in the San Cristóbal area, only 56, but the number of lifers I got with only city birding and a couple of 5 hour trips to Cerro Huitepec was 23. Other notable species seen while in San Cristóbal area include: Green Violet-ear, Magnificent Hummingbird, Acorn Woodpecker, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Hairy Woodpecker, Great Kiskadee, Social Flycatcher, Gray-breasted Martin, Eastern Bluebird, Brown-backed Solitaire, Rufous-collared Robin, Bushtit, Steller's Jay, Unicolored Jay, Olive Warbler, Yellow-eyed Junco, Yellow-backed Oriole and Lesser Goldfinch.


(12.1) Monday-Wednesday, July 18-20

We made our way from San Cristóbal to Chiapa de Corzo and decided to spend a night or two. We took leisurely strolls around town and along the river. We also took a lancha (boat) early Wednesday morning up the Ria Grialva along the Sumidero Canyon. We paid a negotiated rate of $1000 pesos for a private trip.

The boat trip itself was interesting but with few birds, except for a large flock of Green Parakeets that roost under the hwy. bridge about 2 km upriver. We also saw our first Brown Pelicans in Chiapas. Better for birding is to cover the pathways along the rivers and creeks in the town. There is a flock of Orange-fronted Parakeets that move around in the palm trees along the entry road leading to the town, and there were Green Kingfishers and many Streak-backed Orioles in the trees along the river past the boat launch areas.


(12.1) Wednesday-Thursday, July 20-21

We arrived in Tuxtla and found the Tuxtla Zoo about 10 in the morning. Murray came back and joined me after checking into the hotel, only a kilometer away. Because we found the Zoo so interesting, we made a second day of it on Thursday. Countable species seen there were Banded Wren, Berylline Hummingbird and lots of Yellow-winged Caciques.


(12.1) Friday-Sunday, July 22-24

Highlights of our three visits up the main road and to the miradors were the following: Squirrel Cuckoo, Canivet’s Emerald, Berylline Hummingbird, Plain-capped Starthroat, Collared Trogon, Russet-crowned Motmot, Spot-crowned Woodcreeper, Northern Bentbill, Belted Flycatcher, Flammulated Flycatcher, Band-backed Wren, White-throated Magpie-Jay, Fan-tailed Warbler (lots), Rufous-capped Warbler, Red-breasted Chat, Varied Bunting, Streak-backed and Bar-winged Oriole.


(12.2) Monday-Tuesday, July 25-26

Late yesterday afternoon, after arriving in Arriaga, we walked an old stone road, Avenida Central Norte on the north side of Arriaga that leads up to a communications tower and then continues up the mountainside as a small dirt path. There we sighted a few Stripe-headed Sparrows, Russet-crowned Motmots and White-throated Magpie Jays. We briefly spotted a hummingbird that was either a Plain-capped Starthroat or a Long-billed Starthroat. An interesting observation; in the central park this morning, instead of the usual hundreds of Great-tailed Grackles in the park, there were hundreds of Bronzed Cowbirds and hundreds of Gray-breasted Martins on the buildings, wires and in the trees.

After a good night’s sleep in Arriaga we took Highway 195 heading back toward Tuxtla. Target birds were Rosita’s and Orange-breasted Bunting. We stopped at our first opportunity on the right side of the road, cornering a switchback, walked about a hundred meters further up the road and heard some chipping. After only a few minutes searching the sides of the road, first a pair of Rosita’s Bunting flew across the road and perched long enough for us to get good looks. Then a male Orange-breasted Bunting popped up and turned its body in the sunlight before heading away from us. We had one other sighting of a Rosita’s male, perched on a bare branch, singing. On the way back into Arriaga, we stopped to look over a ravine at the back of some soccer fields and spotted a Citreoline Trogon in a tree.


(12.3) Wednesday, July 27

This morning we got up early and headed for a small road listed in Howell just west of Puerta Arista. Once again true to his words, we found the wet areas, ponds and lakes he speaks of. This wasn’t too productive in terms of lifers; only saw one new species, Ruddy-breasted Seedeater. But I was able to add several species to my Chiapas list. The ponds were teeming with waders and shorebirds including Anhinga, Great, Snowy, Reddish and Cattle Egrets, Tri-coloured, Little Blue and Green Herons, Wood Stork, Roseate Spoonbill, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, Northern Bobwhite, Snowy Plover, Marbled Godwit, Lesser Yellowlegs, Whimbrel, Spotted Sandpiper, Red Knot, Gull-billed Tern, Black Skimmer and Red-billed Pigeon.

(12.3) Thursday, July 28, 2005

Today we returned to the same area with ponds. This time we spotted and confirmed a single Mountain Plover. We then travelled the road to Boca Cielo looking for both Giant Wren and Spot-breasted Oriole with success; also recorded Turquoise-browed Motmot, Northern Bobwhite, White-fronted Parrot, Stripe-headed Sparrow, Eastern Meadowlark and Yellow-winged Cacique.


(12.3) Friday, July 29, 2005

Waiting for Murray early in the morning I walked the beach road away from town and was rewarded with 9 individual Lesser Nighthawks sitting on the top of posts and buildings. We then travelled the Pacific coast highway southeast through the Soconusco Coastal Plain on our way to Mapastepec. This is a busy highway – no birding today.


(12.4) Saturday-Tuesday, July 30-August 2

Sunday morning, 31st, in Mapastepec, we got up very early and were at the bottom the mountain road that runs along the east side of the small river on the east side of the microwave tower by 7am. This road proved to be the best birding spot in the area for us. We birded our way up the gravel and mud road following the river. Although we didn’t go right to the end, the locals traveling it, on foot, by truck, bike and horse, told us that it terminates at their village (name forgotten) about 4km from the highway. The views along the way were spectacular. We enjoyed the hike so much that we stayed for 3 nights. We recorded 67 species here and around the town of Mapastepec. Highlights included White-bellied Chachalaca, a flock of 30 Orange-chinned Parakeet, White-fronted Parrot, several flocks of Yellow-naped Parrot, Squirrel Cuckoo, Black Swift, White-collared Swift, Vaux’s Swift, Cinnamon Hummingbird, Long-billed Starthroat, Amazon Kingfisher, Turquoise-browed Motmot, Collared Aracari, Smoky-brown Woodpecker, Golden-olive Woodpecker, Lineated Woodpecker, Rufous-breasted Spinetail, Barred Antshrike, Slate-headed Tody-Tyrant, Common Tody-Flycatcher, Black Phoebe, Rose-throated Becard, Masked Tityra, Giant Wren, Rufous-naped Wren, Banded Wren, Plain Wren, Clay-coloured Robin, White-throated Magpie-Jay and Yellow-winged Tanager.


Tuesday, August 2

<>We travelled the highway to Huixtla – lots of traffic on fast roads with no suitable places to pull off – no birding.

(12.6) Wednesday, August 3

This morning we were up early again and on the road at 7am. The highway we took crossed the mountains heading for the City of Comitan. About 3km from Huixtla the road starts to climb sharply up the mountains, most of the time following a river gorge. We stopped at 4 points mentioned in Howell and got Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift, Blue-tailed Hummingbird and Azure-crowned Hummingbird.

Wed-Thursday, August 3-4

We spent some pure tourist time in the centre of Comitán, seeing almost no birds. We left Comitán on Friday morning to head for Lagos Montebello National Park.


(12.7) Friday-Tuesday, August 5-8

Rain, rain, rain, and more rain! We had only about 5 hours of sunshine in the first three days, and the rest of the time we were socked in with either heavy, low cloud cover or rain, about 24 hours of it! But in all fairness to the area, I left the following general information in this report. The locals told us that July and August always have the heaviest rainfall. We will return another time – the area is spectacular!

The terrain in this area is wonderful. We are in high pine country at an elevation of about 3800 feet, surrounded by cenotes as large as small lakes. There are more than a dozen of these beautiful lakes that are accessible either by car or on foot from nearby parking lots. The lots are all staffed with local police. Some of the parking areas at the lakes have washrooms and food and souvenir kiosks. (To call these vendor huts kiosks is a kindness. The structures are actually dilapidated wooden shacks, but they serve their purpose.) Two of the lake areas have rafts called “Balsas” for rent, made by tying poles of large lightweight wooden timber together. At a few of lake areas you can even get roast chicken, tacos, hot chocolate and beer. Other lakes are almost deserted. Each has its own distinctive charm.

Our first afternoon here we walked from our complex about a kilometer and a half along a road that runs along the edge of Lake Tziscau through the edge of the village and up the road to the Guatemala border. Here we added Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow, Brown-capped Vireo and Cinnamon-bellied Flower Piercer to the list.

On the road leading in to Lagos Montebello, the largest of the lakes, while we were looking for a Resplendant Quetzal, that the local ticket taker, said had appeared every morning between 7 and 9, we spotted Band-tailed Pigeons, Northern Flicker, Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Pine Flycatcher, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush, Bushtit, Unicolored Jay, Grace’s Warbler, Golden-crowned Warbler, Rufous-capped Warbler, Common Bush-Tanager, Flame-colored Tanager, Yellow-winged Tanager and White-naped Brush-Finch. Unfortunately the Quetzal never showed itself.

During another foray along the park roads we encountered a soaring flock of 12 Swallow-tailed Kites, some even calling to each other. We were also fortunate to see a White-breasted Hawk (“striatus” split from Sharp-shinned Hawk).


(12.7) Wednesday, August 9

The 180 kilometer drive from Lagos Montebellos National Park to San Cristóbal de las Casas was relaxing and pleasant. The highway took us through huge valley plains and rolling mountains.

Our first stop was the Mayan ruins of Chinkultic, a few kilometers outside of the park. The ruins are set in the rural countryside on the side of a mountain. Only 5 structures are exposed. The area has been well groomed giving it a park-like atmosphere. There were several flowering trees and shrubs, and a creek meanders though the area. This combination was an obvious attraction for birds. Here we had several species including Dusky-capped Flycatcher, Barred Antshrike, Boat-billed Flycatcher, Barn Swallow, Spot-breasted Wren, Plain Wren, House Wren, Clay-colored Robin, Brown-capped Vireo, Slate-throated Redstart, Black-and-White Warbler, American Redstart, Blue-gray Tanager, Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow and Lesser Goldfinch.

Between Comitan and San Cristóbal we spotted both a White-tailed Hawk and another Aplomado Falcon.


(12.8) Wednesday-Thursday, August 9-10

We spent two final days in San Cristóbal de las Casas with no real birding but did see 2 Least Grebes in a pond on the edge of town.


(13.4) Thursday-Saturday, August 11-13

We spent a few days at Palenque before moving out of the state to Campeche City, Campeche. Our final species for the trip were a Purple Gallinule and 3 Tri-colored Munia (Lonchura Malacca) on the Balancan side road of Hwy 186 N. of Tabasco border.

Species List

Taxonomy is largely based on "A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America" by Howell and Webb (1995), with one or two subsequent changes.

Please note – ‘C’ indicates a common species; the absence number means 1 individual only was seen. Numbers of each species seen are understated in many cases, especially regarding the commoner species – I’m not always as diligent at recording numbers as I should be.

The letter 'h' indicates the bird was heard only.

Slaty-breasted Tinamou

Crypturellus boucardi


Palenque ruins trail

Least Grebe

Tachybaptus dominicus

2 Comitan-Palenque


Pied-billed Grebe

Podilymbus podiceps

Comitan-Montebello hwy.


Brown Pelican

Pelecanus occidentalis

C in coastal areas and 8 Sumidero Canyon


Double-crested Cormorant

Phalacrocorax auritus

300 on coastal road


Neotropic Cormorant

Phalacrocorax brasilianus




Anhinga anhinga

2 Puerto Arista


Magnificent Frigatebird

Fregata magnificens

C in coastal areas


Great Blue Heron

Ardea herodias

1 Sumidero Canyon from boat


Great Egret

Ardea alba



Reddish Egret

Egretta rufescens

2 Puerto Arista


Tricolored Heron

Egretta tricolor

2 Puerto Arista


Little Blue Heron

Egretta caerulea

2 Puerto Arista


Snowy Egret

Egretta thula



Cattle Egret

Bubulcus ibis



Green Heron

Butorides virescens



Black-crowned Night-Heron

Nycticorax nycticorax

Sumidero Canyon

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Yellow-crowned Night-Heron

Nyctanassa violacea

Sumidero Canyon and coastal lagoons

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Bare-throated Tiger-Heron

Tigrisoma mexicanum

1/4 km before park entrance

Palenque area

Wood Stork

Mycteria americana

7 Puerto Arista


White Ibis

Eudocimus albus

30 wet areas


Roseate Spoonbill

Platalea ajaja

12 Puerto Arista


Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

Dendrocygna autumnalis

C wet areas


Black Vulture

Coragyps atratus



Turkey Vulture

Cathartes aura



Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture

Cathartes burrovianus

2 Campeche and Palenque marshy areas



Pandion haliaetus

3 Campeche coast and 1 Comitan-Montebello hwy


Gray-headed Kite

Leptodon cayanensis



Swallow-tailed Kite

Elanoides forficatus

12 Montebello National Park at high elevation


White-tailed Kite

Elanus leucurus

1 road to Palenque ruins, 1 Hwy near Bonampak


Snail Kite

Rostrhamus sociabilis

Sumidero Canyon

Tuxtla Gutierrez

White-breasted [Sharp-shinned] Hawk

Accipiter striatus



Great Black-Hawk

Buteogallus urubitinga

C on coastal areas, 2 at La Libertad village


Black-collared Hawk

Busarellus nigricollis

Hwy from Sabancuy to Palenque


Gray Hawk

Asturina nitida



Roadside Hawk

Buteo magnirostris



Short-tailed Hawk

Buteo brachyurus

Mapastepec Microwave area - perched


White-tailed Hawk

Buteo albicaudatus

Comitan-Palenque and


Red-tailed Hawk

Buteo jamaicensis

Comitan-Montebello hwy.


Crested Caracara

Caracara cheriway



Laughing Falcon


Herpetotheres cachinnans


6 along coastal and inland Hwys, Campeche and Palenque


Collared Forest-Falcon

Micrastur semitorquatus

Templo del Olvidado path, Palenque Ruins

<>Palenque area

Aplomado Falcon

Falco femoralis

1 imm. just south of Sabancuy, Campeche; 1 adult on road to La Libertad

Bat Falcon

Falco rufigularis

C (4 at Palenque ruins)

Palenque area

Plain Chachalaca

Ortalis vetula

C interior


White-bellied Chachalaca

Ortalis leucogastra

Mapastepec Microwave area


Great Curassow

Crax rubra

Sumidero Canyon

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Northern Bobwhite

Colinus virginianus

Puerta Arista



Aramus guarauna



Ruddy Crake

Laterallus ruber


Palenque area

Purple Gallinule

Porphyrio martinica

Palenque to Tabasco hwy


American Coot

Fulica americana



Northern Jacana

Jacana spinosa



Black-necked Stilt

Himantopus mexicanus

4 Puerto Arista


Double-striped Thick-knee

Burhinus bistriatus

2 adults with 3 young, road to La Libertad

Palenque area

Black-bellied Plover

Pluvialis squatarola



Snowy Plover

Charadrius alexandrinus

Puerto Arista


Collared Plover

Charadrius collaris

Puerta Arista in ponds 1 km from town


Marbled Godwit

Limosa fedoa

8 Puerto Arista



Numenius phaeopus

Puerto Arista


Lesser Yellowlegs

Tringa flavipes

4 Puerto Arista


Spotted Sandpiper

Actitis macularia

Puerto Arista



Catoptrophorus semipalmatus

C Puerto Arista


Ruddy Turnstone

Arenaria interpres



Red Knot

Calidris canutus

2 Puerto Arista


Least Sandpiper

Calidris minutilla

4 Puerto Arista


Laughing Gull

Larus atricilla

C on coastal areas


Gull-billed Tern

Sterna nilotica

8 Puerto Arista


Caspian Tern

Sterna caspia

2 Puerto Arista


Sandwich Tern

Sterna sandvicensis



Royal Tern

Sterna maxima



Black Skimmer

Rynchops niger

8 Coastal Hwy, Campeche; 2 Puerto Arista, Chiapas

Rock Dove

Columba livia



Scaled Pigeon

Columba speciosa

Palenque Park road


Band-tailed Pigeon

Columba fasciata



Red-billed Pigeon

Columba flavirostris



Short-billed Pigeon

Columba nigrirostris

road to La Libertad

Palenque area

White-winged Dove

Zenaida asiatica



Common Ground-Dove

Columbina passerina



Ruddy Ground-Dove

Columbina talpacoti



Inca Dove

Columbina inca

C central, west and south


Blue Ground-Dove

Claravis pretiosa



White-tipped Dove

Leptotila verreauxi

8 uncommon both Chiapas and


Gray-headed Dove

Leptotila plumbeiceps



Green Parakeet

Aratinga holochlora

5 San Cristobal; 15 under bridge from water Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas

Olive-throated Parakeet

Aratinga nana

C Campeche and Palenque area


Orange-fronted Parakeet

Aratinga canicularis

2 Chiapas de Corzo


Orange-chinned Parakeet

Brotogeris jugularis

14 Mapastepec Microwave area


White-crowned Parrot

Pionus senilis

4 ruins


White-fronted Parrot

Amazona albifrons



Red-lored Parrot

Amazona autumnalis



Yellow-naped Parrot

Amazona auropalliata

30 Mapastepec Microwave area


Squirrel Cuckoo

Piaya cayana

occasional - 12 total


Groove-billed Ani

Crotophaga sulcirostris



Lesser Roadrunner

Geococcyx velox

Sumidero Canyon

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Black-and-white Owl

Ciccaba nigrolineata

Templo del Olvidado path


Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl

Glaucidium brasilianum


Palenque and south

Lesser Nighthawk

Chordeiles acutipennis

9 Puerta Arista on beach road, roosting everywhere


Black Swift

Cypseloides niger

Mapastepec Microwave area


White-collared Swift

Streptoprocne zonaris

 Palenque area and Mapastepec Microwave area


Vaux's Swift

Chaetura vauxi



Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift

Panyptila cayennensis



Eastern Long-tailed Hermit

Phaethornis superciliosus

C especially around Palenque


Stripe-throated Hermit

Phaethornis striigularis

7 at Palenque and Bonampak


Green Violet-ear

Colibri thalassinus

1 at Bonampak and 1 in San Cristobal city


Green-breasted Mango

Anthracothorax prevostii



Canivet's Emerald

Chlorostilbon canivetii

1 Palenque, 1/f Sumidero Canyon road

Tuxtla Gutierrez

White-eared Hummingbird

Hylocharis leucotis

3 indiv. (one at Cerro Huixtepec)

San Cristobal DLC

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird

Amazilia tzacatl

C Campeche and Palenque area


Cinnamon Hummingbird

Amazilia rutila


1 Mapastepec Microwave area, C Campeche


White-bellied Emerald

Agyrtria candida

6 - Bonampak, Palenque, Tuxtla


Azure-crowned Hummingbird

Agyrtria cyanocephala

6 Montebello, 1 along Comitan-Montebello road


Blue-tailed Hummingbird

Saucerottia cyanura

Comitan-Montebello road


Berylline Hummingbird

Saucerottia beryllina

1 Zoomat, 1 Sumidero Canyon

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Garnet-throated Hummingbird

Lamprolaima rhami

2 Cerro Huixtapec

San Cristobal DLC

Magnificent Hummingbird

Eugenes fulgens

centre of city

San Cristobal DLC

Plain-capped Starthroat

Heliomaster constantii

Sumidero Canyon road

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Long-billed Starthroat

Heliomaster longirostris

Mapastepec Microwave area


Black-headed Trogon

Trogon melanocephalus



Citreoline Trogon

Trogon citreolus



Violaceous Trogon

Trogon violaceus

1/m Palenque, 1 Comitan-Palenque road


Mountain Trogon

Trogon mexicanus

6 Cerro Huixtapec, 1 from Comitan-Montebello hwy.


Collared Trogon

Trogon collaris

/m Sumidero Canyon

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Ringed Kingfisher

Ceryle torquata

2 Puerto Arista, 1 along the road to La Libertad


Amazon Kingfisher

Chloroceryle amazona

near village on way to Bonampak, 1 Mapastepec Microwave road


Green Kingfisher

Chloroceryle americana



American Pygmy Kingfisher

Chloroceryle aenea

stream beside the ticket window,

Palenque ruins

Russet-crowned Motmot

Momotus mexicanus

Sumidero Canyon road

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Blue-crowned Motmot

Momotus momota

C central Chiapas and Campeche


Turquoise-browed Motmot

Eumomota superciliosa

C on Chiapas coast


Rufous-tailed Jacamar

Galbula ruficauda

on San Manuel Road

Palenque area

Collared Aracari

Pteroglossus torquatus

2 Bonampak, 3 Palenque ruins, 1 Mapastepec Microwave area


Keel-billed Toucan

Ramphastos sulfuratus

C at least 20 seen


Acorn Woodpecker

Melanerpes formicivorus



Black-cheeked Woodpecker

Melanerpes pucherani

2 Palenque ruins, 4 Bonampak,

Palenque Ruins

Golden-fronted Woodpecker

Melanerpes aurifrons



Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Sphyrapicus varius

/i Cerro Huitepec

San Cristobal DLC

Hairy Woodpecker

Picoides villosus

5 (sanctorum sub-species)

San Cristobal DLC

Smoky-brown Woodpecker

Veniliornis fumigatus

1 Bonampak, 1 Mapastepec Microwave area, 1 Palenque Park road

Golden-olive Woodpecker

Piculus rubiginosus



Northern Flicker

Colaptes auratus

20 (mexicanoides sub-species)

San Cristobal area

Chestnut-colored Woodpecker

Celeus castaneus

2 Bonampak, 4 along Templo Olvidado path at

Palenque Ruins

Lineated Woodpecker

Dryocopus lineatus

2 Palenque area, 1 Bonampak, 1 Mapastepec road


Pale-billed Woodpecker

Campephilus guatemalensis

1 Palenque, 1 Bonampak


Rufous-breasted Spinetail

Synallaxis erythrothorax

4 along road 1/4km. before Palenque park entrance, 2 Mapastepec Microwave path

Plain Xenops

Xenops minutus



Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner

Automolus ochrolaemus



Tawny-winged Woodcreeper

Dendrocincla anabatina

1 Templo Olvidado path, 2 Bonampak


Wedge-billed Woodcreeper

Glyphorynchus spirurus

on Lancandon trail near Bonampak, parking lot Palenque ruins

Strong-billed Woodcreeper

Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus

Cerro Huixtapec and Montebello


Ivory-billed Woodcreeper

Xiphorhynchus flavigaster

C in Palenque and Bonampak area


Spot-crowned Woodcreeper

Lepidocolaptes affinis

5 Cerro Huitepec and 3 Sumidero Canyon


Barred Antshrike

Thamnophilus doliatus

C 20+


Dot-winged Antwren

Microrhopias quixensis

2 (pair)


White-collared Manakin

Manacus candei



Greenish Elaenia

Myiopagis viridicata

C in wooded areas Palenque and Bonampak


Yellow-bellied Elaenia

Elaenia flavogaster



Sepia-capped Flycatcher

Leptopogon amaurocephalus



Northern Bentbill

Oncostoma cinereigulare

1 Templo Olvidado path, 2 Bonampak, 1 on a Sumidero Canyon path


Slate-headed Tody-Tyrant

Poecilotriccus sylvia

2 Palenque park, 1 along road to La Libertad, 1 Bonampak, 2 Mapastepec Microwave area

Common Tody-Flycatcher

Todirostrum cinereum

Mapastepec Microwave area


Yellow-olive Flycatcher

Tolmomyias sulphurescens

6 Palenque and Bonampak areas


Stub-tailed Spadebill

Platyrinchus cancrominus



Northern Royal-Flycatcher

Onychorhynchus mexicanus


5Palenque ruins and park road trails, 1 Bonampak


Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher

Myiobius sulphureipygius

Templo Olvidado path


Belted Flycatcher

Xenotriccus callizonus

Sumidero Canyon road

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Tufted Flycatcher

Mitrephanes phaeocercus

4 Cerro Huixtapec

San Cristobal DLC

Greater Pewee

Contopus pertinax

4 at San Cristobal, 2 Mapastepec Micro area, 1 Comitan Palenque road

Pine Flycatcher

Empidonax affinis



Black Phoebe

Sayornis nigricans

Mapastepec Microwave area


Vermilion Flycatcher

Pyrocephalus rubinus

C low open areas of Chiapas and Campeche


Bright-rumped Attila

Attila spadiceus


Palenque Ruins

Dusky-capped Flycatcher

Myiarchus tuberculifer



Brown-crested Flycatcher

Myiarchus tyrannulus

C central Chiapas and Campeche


Flammulated Flycatcher

Deltarhynchus flammulatus

Sumidero Canyon road

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Great Kiskadee

Pitangus sulphuratus



Boat-billed Flycatcher

Megarynchus pitangua

C (listen for call)


Social Flycatcher

Myiozetetes similis



Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher

Myiodynastes luteiventris

C summer


Tropical Kingbird

Tyrannus melancholicus

C (need song or call)


Couch's Kingbird

Tyrannus couchii

Palenque, 1 road to La Lbertad, 2 Bonampak

Palenque area

Fork-tailed Flycatcher

Tyrannus savana

3 along Hyw from Sabancuy to Palenque, 1 on road to La Libertad from Palenque

Cinnamon Becard

Pachyramphus cinnamomeus

singing at Bonampak ruins


Rose-throated Becard

Pachyramphus aglaiae

1 Bonampak, 2 Mapastepec Micro area


Masked Tityra

Tityra semifasciata



Gray-breasted Martin

Progne chalybea

6 road to La Libertad, 8+ Bonampak, 2 San Cristobal, 8 Puerto Arista, 12 Mapastepec Micro area

Mangrove Swallow

Tachycineta albilinea

12 Tuxtla area, 30 Puerto Arista


Black-capped Swallow

Notiochelidon pileata

15 on hill at Templo San Cristobal, San Cristobal, 8 Comitan-Montebello hwy

Ridgway's [Northern] Rough-winged Swallow

Stelgidopteryx serripennis ridgwayi

C inland; Palenque area, San Cristobal, Tuxtla, Comitan-Palenque area, Campeche

Cave Swallow

Petrochelidon fulva

Campeche, San Cristobal, Sumidero Canyon


Barn Swallow

Hirundo rustica

6 SanCristobal, 2 Comitan-Palenque hwy.

San Cristobal DLC

Gray Silky-flycatcher

Ptilogonys cinereus

4 on hill at Templo San Cristobal, 50+ on Cerro Huitepec

San Cristobal DLC

Band-backed Wren

Campylorhynchus zonatus

3 at nest at Bonampak ruins, 2 Cerro Huitepec, 4 Sumidero Canyon rod

Giant Wren

Campylorhynchus chiapensis

3 Puerta Arista, 2 Mapastepec Micro area


Rufous-naped Wren

Campylorhynchus rufinucha

2 Mapastepec Microwave area


Spot-breasted Wren

Thryothorus maculipectus

C (learn songs)


Banded Wren

Thryothorus pleurostictus

3 Zoomat-Tuxtla, 2 Sumidero Canyon, 1 Mapastepec Micro area

Plain Wren

Thryothorus modestus

2 Mapastepec Microwave area, 1 Comitan-Montebello hwy


House Wren

Troglodytes aedon



Rufous-browed Wren

Troglodytes rufociliatus

3 Cerro Huixtapec, 1 Comitan-Montebello hwy


White-bellied Wren

Uropsila leucogastra

Comitan-Palenque hwy


White-breasted Wood-Wren

Henicorhina leucosticta

2 Palenque, 2 Bonampak, 1 Tuxtla Gutierrez


Gray Catbird

Dumetella carolinensis

1 only

Palenque area

Tropical Mockingbird

Mimus gilvus



Blue-and-white Mockingbird

Melanotis hypoleucus

Cerro Huitepec

San Cristobal DLC

Eastern Bluebird

Sialia sialis

4 base of Cerro Huitepec , 6 along Comitan-Montebello hwy

Brown-backed Solitaire

Myadestes occidentalis

6 Cerro Huixtapec

San Cristobal DLC

Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush

Catharus aurantiirostris

Montebello Park


Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush

Catharus frantzii

2 saw moving through hillside of mountain

San Cristobal DLC

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus



Clay-colored Robin

Turdus grayi



Rufous-collared Robin

Turdus rufitorques

6 Cerro Huitepec

San Cristobal DLC

Long-billed Gnatwren

Ramphocaenus melanurus



Blue-gray Gnatcatcher

Polioptila caerulea

8 Campeche, Palenque, Comitan



Psaltriparus minimus

30 Cerro Huixtapec, 4 San Cristobal, 20 Cerro Huitepec, 4 Sumidero Canyon

Steller's Jay (coronata)

Cyanocitta stelleri

6 San Cristobal, 3 Cerro Huitepec


White-throated Magpie-Jay

Calocitta formosa

4 Sumidero Canyon, 2 Puerto Arista, 2 Mapastepec Micro area

Green Jay

Cyanocorax yncas

4 Zoomat-Tuxtla, 3 Sumidero Canyon


Brown Jay

Cyanocorax morio

C Palenque Bonampak areas


Yucatan Jay

Cyanocorax yucatanicus

along hwy


Black-throated Jay

Cyanolyca pumilo

8 Cerro Huixtapec

San Cristobal DLC

Unicolored Jay

Aphelocoma unicolor

4 San Cristobal, 2 Cerro Huixtapec, 6 Montebello Park

Tri-colored Munia

Lonchura malacca

3 on Balancan sideroad of Hwy 186 N. of Tabasco border


Hutton's Vireo

Vireo huttoni

Comitan-Palenque hwy


Brown-capped Vireo

Vireo leucophrys

2 Comitan-Montebello hwy


Yellow-green Vireo

Vireo flavoviridis

Several sightings Palenque, Bonampak, 2 at Sumidero Canyon

Lesser Greenlet

Hylophilus decurtatus

8 Palenque area


Rufous-browed Peppershrike

Cyclarhis gujanensis

Sumidero Canyon road and Comitan-Palenque hwy


Olive Warbler

Peucedramus taeniatus

3 Cerro Huitepec

San Cristobal DLC

Crescent-chested Warbler

Parula superciliosa

7 Cerro Huitepec

San Cristobal DLC

Grace's Warbler

Dendroica graciae

5 Comitan-Montebello


Black-and-white Warbler

Mniotilta varia



Northern Waterthrush

Seiurus noveboracensis

in creek at El Panchan


Gray-crowned Yellowthroat

Geothlypis poliocephala



Slate-throated Redstart

Myioborus miniatus

9 Cerro Huixtapec, 1 Montebello Park

San Cristobal DLC

Fan-tailed Warbler

Euthlypis lachrymosa

10 Sumidero Canyon road

Tuxtla Gutierrez

Golden-crowned Warbler

Basileuterus culicivorus

trails at Palenque ruins, on Comitan-Montebello hwy

Rufous-capped Warbler

Basileuterus rufifrons

2 Palenque area, 1 Bonampak, 4 Sumidero Canyon


Golden-browed Warbler

Basileuterus belli

2 Cerro Huixtapec

San Cristobal DLC

Red-breasted Chat

Granatellus venustus

Sumidero Canyon road

Tuxtla Gutierrez


Coereba flaveola



Common Bush-Tanager

Chlorospingus ophthalmicus

Cerro Huitepec

San Cristobal DLC

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager

Habia rubica

8 uncommon

Palenque Bonampak areas

Red-throated Ant-Tanager

Habia fuscicauda


Palenque Bonampak areas

Flame-colored Tanager

Piranga bidentata

2 Comitan-Montebello


Crimson-collared Tanager

Ramphocelus sanguinolentus

8 sightings at Palenque Park road and ruins, 4 Bonampak2 Montebello area

Passerini's Tanager

Ramphocelus passerinii

14 Palenque and Bonampak areas


Blue-gray Tanager

Thraupis episcopus

16 Palenque and Bonampak, 2 Tuxtla


Yellow-winged Tanager

Thraupis abbas

16 monstly on fruiting and flowering trees, esp. Palenque Park road


Scrub Euphonia

Thraupis abbas



Yellow-throated Euphonia

Euphonia hirundinacea

C Palenque and Tuxtla


Olive-backed Euphonia

Euphonia gouldi

4 Palenque ruins, 2 Misol-Ha


Golden-hooded Tanager

Tangara larvata

2 Palenque ruins Museum, 4 Bonampak


Green Honeycreeper

Chlorophanes spiza

2 /m/f, 6 Bonampak


Red-legged Honeycreeper

Cyanerpes cyaneus

20 Palenque ruins and 6 Bonampak


Blue-black Grassquit

Volatinia jacarina



Variable Seedeater

Sporophila corvina

15 roads around Palenque and Bonampak


White-collared Seedeater

Sporophila torqueola



Ruddy-breasted Seedeater

Sporophila minuta

8 Puerto Arista, 6 Mapastepec area


Thick-billed Seed-Finch

Oryzoborus funereus

6 palenque and Bonampak areas 4 road to La Libertad


Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer

Diglossa baritula

Tziscao and Comitan


White-naped Brush-Finch

Atlapetes albinucha



Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch

Buarremon brunneinucha

Cerro Huitepec

San Cristobal DLC

Orange-billed Sparrow

Arremon aurantiirostris

only on Templo del Olvidado path


Olive Sparrow

Arremonops rufivirgatus

various, central Chiapas and


Green-backed Sparrow

Arremonops chloronotus

various, central Chiapas


Prevost's Ground-Sparrow

Melozone biarcuatum

Tziscao, Comitan, Montebello


Spotted Towhee

Pipilo maculatus

on hill at Templo San Cristobal

San Cristobal DLC

Stripe-headed Sparrow

Aimophila ruficauda

3 Puerto Arista


Rusty Sparrow

Aimophila rufescens

road to ruins

Palenque area

Rufous-collared Sparrow

Zonotrichia capensis


San Cristobal DLC

Yellow-eyed Junco

Junco phaeonotus

8 fulvescens at Las Grutas,

San Cristobal DLC

Grayish Saltator

Saltator coerulescens



Buff-throated Saltator

Saltator maximus

7 Palenque, 2 Bonampak


Black-headed Saltator

Saltator atriceps

12 Palenque, 3 Bonampak


Black-faced Grosbeak

Caryothraustes poliogaster

in tree at Bonampak ruins


Blue Bunting

Cyanocompsa parellina


Palenque area

Blue-black Grosbeak

Cyanocompsa cyanoides

4 Palenque ruins, 2 Bonampak


Varied Bunting

Passerina versicolor

/f Sumidero Canyon (photo)


Rose-bellied Bunting

Passerina rositae

2 Arriaga


Orange-breasted Bunting

Passerina leclancherii

/m Arriaga


Red-winged Blackbird

Agelaius phoeniceus



Eastern Meadowlark

Sturnella magna

12 grassy lowland areas Campeche and Chiapas


Melodious Blackbird

Dives dives



Great-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus mexicanus



Bronzed Cowbird

Molothrus aeneus

Several sightings, 150+ roosting in centre of Arriaga


Giant Cowbird

Molothrus oryzivorus

2 road to La Libertad

Palenque area

Yellow-backed Oriole

Icterus chrysater

2 Campeche and 2 San Cristobal


Orange Oriole

Icterus auratus



Spot-breasted Oriole

Icterus pectoralis

2 Puerta Arista, 1 Mapastepec Microwave area


Altamira Oriole

Icterus gularis

3 Mapastepec Microwave area


Streak-backed Oriole

Icterus pustulatus

6 Sumidero Canyon road


Black-cowled Oriole

Icterus prosthemelas

coastal hwy of Campeche; Bonampak, Chiapas


Bar-winged Oriole

Icterus maculialatus

7 Sumidero Canyon road


Yellow-billed Cacique

Amblycercus holosericeus



Yellow-winged Cacique

Cacicus melanicterus

10 Zoomat, 3 Puerto Arista, 1 Mapastepec Micro area,


Chestnut-headed Oropendola

Psarocolius wagleri

hwy north of city of

San Cristobal DLC

Montezuma Oropendola

Gymnostinops montezuma

8 Palenque area, 6 at 8 nests at Bonampak ruins


House Finch

Carpodacus mexicanus

20+ Cerro Huixtapec and town

San Cristobal DLC

Black-capped Siskin

Carduelis atriceps

4 on hill at Templo San Cristobal


Black-headed Siskin

Carduelis notata

4 with Blac-capped above

San Cristobal DLC

Lesser Goldfinch

Carduelis psaltria

7 on hill at Templo San Cristobal, 8 Sumidero Canyon road at top


House Sparrow

Passer domesticus

1000+ San Cristobal, lots Tuxtla


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