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20 - 28 March 1998

by Francis Toldi and Peter Metropulos

The Mexican state of Oaxaca is an ideal destination for a birding trip. Not only are there a large number of bird species--including many Mexican endemics--but the other features of the area make it a delightful place to visit.

Trip reports are available for this area. I ran a request for information on Birdchat (reproduced on Mex-bird) which yielded a number of very helpful reports. Edwards, "Finding Birds in Mexico" has some useful, though somewhat dated, information on birds and habitats in Oaxaca. Howell & Webb, "Guide to the Birds of Mexico" range maps and species distribution notes are also very helpful. Finally, when Steve Howell's birdfinding guide to Mexico is published (which it should be in the near future), it will make trip planning and preparation considerably easier, for Oaxaca and the rest of Mexico!

The whole region of this trip is well covered in the map titled "Mexico: South Coast", International Travel Maps #227. The best street map for Oaxaca City (with a decent state map on the back) is a map titled "Oaxaca", part of the Serie Mapas de Mexico, #19. We bought our copy for a few dollars in the Mexico City airport. They are also available at the Oaxaca airport.

These notes consist of a daily narrative noting locations, bird highlights and trip impressions, then an annotated list of species seen. Latin names appear only in the annotated list.

Friday, March 20, 1998.

Travel day, San Francisco-Mexico City-Oaxaca. I love the descent into Mexico, flying within spitting distance of wooded, volcanic peaks. Only one bird showed itself in our 2 hour layover--ROCK DOVE, of course (thereby winning the "first bird" award for the trip). Late afternoon arrival to Oaxaca. The fields around the airport seemed fairly birdy, but we were too intent on business (car rental, get the hotel, groceries, etc.) to spend much time looking. Rented a VW Bug from Budget--a good, solid, simple, inexpensive, durable car. It blends in well with local transportation, doesn't break down easily, and works well for two, at least. Disadvantages: no A/C, no radio, and a small trunk (bring your stuff in duffles if you rent a VW). Stayed at Hotel Golondrina in Oaxaca (moderately priced, in town but well off the often noisy--but delightfully lively--Zocalo).

Parking can be a problem. We were advised by multiple sources not to park on the street at night, and few parking lots open sufficiently early. Most parking lots--even hotel lots--open at 8:00 am, or possibly 7:30. We found a 24 hour lot not far from the Zocalo on Av. Hidalgo at Armenta y Lopez. If you stay in an out-of-town hotel you won't have that problem, but, well, you'll be out of town in one of Mexico's more interesting cities.

Saturday, March 21, 1998.

It took a half hour or so to roust the attendant at the parking lot, but we made it up to "Garbage Gulch" (thorn scrub barranca on Highway 175, between Km Post 205 and 206) before the sun was hitting the low scrub. A walk well up into the main barranca produced a decent number of birds, most notably including two stunners: SLATY VIREO (in the oaks just below the first of the pines; no tape necessary, superb views of the gorgeous bird; the field guides don't do it justice!) and BLUE-HOODED EUPHONIA (further down toward the road). Don't let the unsavory appearance of the roadside here deter you. Not far up the barranca there is no garbage, just nice dry thorn forest, with oaks a bit higher up.

A little further up Highway 175 was another area, much more aesthetically pleasing, and seemingly much birdier. Look for an empty structure with educational slogans written all over it on the right hand (south) side of the road, 2.6 Km below the town of El Estudiante. Follow the path across the bridge over the creek, and follow the birds where they lead you. A moist (but not flowing) draw on a side trail a few hundred yards along the path was particularly good. Birds seen here included BOUCARD'S WREN, AUDUBON'S ("DICKEY'S") ORIOLE, BLACK-VENTED ORIOLE, OCELLATED THRASHER (brief view only, here), GOLDEN VIREO, OAXACA SPARROW (also a very brief look: seems to be a skulker).

From 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. we birded higher up on the mountain, at around 2700 meters. At the small settlement of La Cumbre (Km post 192) we located someone with a key to the gate, paid our 60 Peso fee, and worked our way up the dirt road up the Cerro San Felipe. Since it was mid-day the bird activity came in distinct waves. One really good feeding flock was in the oaks about 2 Km up the dirt road. Another good area was walking down the first significant side road to the left off the main dirt road, about 3 Km in from the gate. All roads were bumpy, but easy to manage in our VW. Continuing past this turnoff took us into more pure stands of pine, with fewer birds. We went as far as the (logging?) encampment about 7 Km in. The habitat seemed like it might be better further on, but we focussed our efforts in the oak forest back toward the gate. Highlights here included DWARF JAY (well seen in the oaks about 0.5 Km down the above-mentioned side road), MEXICAN CHICKADEE, CINNAMON-BELLIED FLOWERPIERCER, GRAY-BARRED WREN, MOUNTAIN TROGON (heard only), RUDDY-CAPPED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH (none that I got good look at were Russets), AZTEC THRUSH (Peter only--I couldn't get on it fast enough), BROWN-BACKED SOLITAIRE, OLIVE WARBLER, CRESCENT-CHESTED WARBLER, GOLDEN-BROWED WARBLER, RED WARBLER, RUFOUS-CAPPED BRUSH-FINCH, COLLARED TOWHEE, BLUE-HOODED EUPHONIA (can"t get tired of that one!). It was also interesting seeing and hearing the local STELLER"S JAY (coronata), which is quite different from the subspecies I see at home.

We spent the evening and night back in Oaxaca. Anyone who goes to this area and just eats crackers and power bars must be a bit crackers! The local cuisine is top notch--cheap, good food is available (especially the mid-day "comida corrida"), and if you can pay a bit more (say, a total of $5-10 each, per meal), you can get really outstanding food. Yeah, even the chapulines are OK, but a bit salty for my taste.

Sunday, March 22, 1998.

We spent the morning (7-11am) birding and sightseeing at the ruins of Monte Alban. The ruins opened at 8:00, so at first we just birded in the scrub below the visitor's center outside the ruins proper. The thicket around and alongside the black hose/sewage outflow line is particularly good for birds. In that area alone we found DUSKY HUMMINGBIRD, PILEATED FLYCATCHER (pretty easy to find once we learned its song and calls), DWARF VIREO (Peter only, this time; I got convincing looks on a later visit), SLATY VIREO (again, no tape necessary), GOLDEN VIREO and many other residents and migrants. WHITE-THROATED TOWHEE is abundant everywhere in the ruins (and throughout the Oaxaca valley, generally).

Another good area for birds is the scrub-filled gully below the maintenance station (to the left of the entrance to the ruins). In this area we found more DUSKY HUMMINGBIRDs, a surprising pair of ELEGANT TROGON, LESSER ROADRUNNER, GRAY SILKY, BLACK-VENTED ORIOLE, and, of course, more towhees.

The ruins themselves are extraordinary, not to be missed. It's well worth having a detailed guidebook that explains the various buildings and the culture to which they belonged. In the ruins themselves the main birds seem to be CANYON and ROCK WRENS, and BLACK-CHINNED SPARROWS (all in basic plumage, which I was surprised to realize I had never seen before!).

In the mid-day heat we drove on to the ruins of Mitla--not a particularly birdy place, but a nice little town with interesting ruins. We checked into a hotel there (Hotel Zapoteca--clean and simple, fairly quiet), visited the ruins, and--after a tasty comida corrida at La Sorpresa--headed back to Yagul. The ruins there are also interesting, but not as grand as Monte Alban or as ornate as Mitla. The site is quite impressive, however, right up against the steep mountains, with lush agricultural land spreading out underneath. The birds were impressive, with the best vantage being just south of the parking lot, looking down into a small draw. Among the great birds here were GRAY-BREASTED WOODPECKER (our only ones of the trip!), DUSKY HUMMINGBIRD, a strange looking SUMMER TANAGER with a much larger than normal bill and BRIDLED SPARROW (much prettier than in the field guides).

We ended the day with a long walk along a dirt road/path that took off south from the Yagul entrance road, just past the tipico restaurant (can't remember the name). The road winds its way into fields that have been cultivated and irrigated for millenia. Many birds here were interesting for the trip, including LEAST FLYCATCHER, SAY'S PHOEBE, MARSH WREN and COMMON YELLOWTHROAT.

Monday, March 23, 1998.

From first light until about 9am we again backtracked, this time to the reservoir and dry scrub above the village of Teotitlan del Valle. Teotitlan is one of the centers for the justly famous weavings of the Oaxaca area. When we went through there were few shops open, but I'm sure it is a remarkable sight when all the stalls are open. The water birds on the reservoir were not particularly rare, but were a welcome sight after all this dry country birding. In the scrub above the road we found a good array of birds including WEST MEXICAN CHACHALACA, GRAY SILKY (seemed a bit low), DWARF VIREO (finally a good look at a singing bird for me; with their little chatter note it's easy to pass off as RUBY-CROWNED KINGLETS, which were also present here and elsewhere on our trip), BRIDLED SPARROW and OAXACA SPARROW (again, a very quiet, shy bird). A row of red-flowering Coral Bean Trees near the reservoir yielded DUSKY and BERRYLINE HUMMINGBIRDS. We saw nary a Beautiful Hummingbird on this trip; perhaps they are all gone by this time, or it was too dry (this last sentence provides a good argument in favor of the capitalization of common bird names!).

Then we made the 3 « hour drive to Tehuantepec on a good, winding road. A few trucks slowed things down from time to time, but on the whole it was pretty easy, and very scenic. We didn't stop for birds, but did see ORANGE-BREASTED BUNTING, YELLOW-WINGED CACIQUE and STREAK-BACKED ORIOLE along the way.

We checked into the very comfortable Hotel Donaji in Tehuantepec, a town that we immediately fell in love with. It is a lot less touristy than Oaxaca, and has a very lively downtown. Women in traditional attire (long colorful skirts, embroidered tops, hair often braided with colorful ribbons) are all over. We ate in a terrific seafood restaurant (Restaurant Escaru/Mariscos Rafa)--not cheap by Mexican standards (say $8-10 each, with drinks), but unbeatable setting and very good food. If you are lucky you might even get a top-notch Marimba concert while you eat.

Then we zipped out to the coast at Bahia La Ventosa beyond Salina Cruz. The estuary and surrounding mudflats had large numbers of shorebirds, herons and seabirds. Among the most interesting were REDDISH EGRET, SANDWICH TERN and LEAST TERN. It was also nice to practice distinguishing between the FRANKLIN'S and LAUGHING GULLS. Back in Tehuantepec, at dusk thousands of BRONZED COWBIRDS roost in the trees in the middle of the Plaza Mayor, while the PURPLE and GRAY-BREASTED MARTINS tuck themselves into the gazebo for the night.

Tuesday, March 24, 1998.

Up early again, for a couple of hours in the thorn scrub 10 Km back up Highway 190 toward Oaxaca. We couldn't find a Sumichrast's Sparrow to save our souls. Better luck next time. The birds were very active, but only until about 8 am when the activity dramatically decreased. Highlights were DOUBLEDAY'S HUMMINGBIRD, WHITE-LORED GNATCATCHER, ORANGE-BREASTED BUNTING and an interesting STREAK-BACKED ORIOLE. The back of the oriole was fairly dark--one could say it was a dark back with orange streaks rather than an orange back with dark streaks. I hope Al Jaramillo's book on blackbirds and orioles covers these various subspecies in more detail.

We continued south with detour along the dirt road running by the canal mentioned in Eric Salzman's trip notes. Due to luck, skill, or time of day, we still missed the Sumichrast's Sparrows, while picking up a number of nice birds for the trip. A large migrating group of SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHERS was certainly a welcome sight. Also present were TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRD and ALTAMIRA ORIOLE.

A little after noon we stopped briefly in the hills above San Pedro Tepanatepec along Highway 190 just short of the Chiapas border. Despite the heat, annoying flies and heavy truck traffic we successfully located ROSITA'S BUNTING, but in the upper canopy of trees, not down in the weeds with the abundant INDIGO BUNTINGS. Many other birds were in this very birdy area, including ORANGE-FRONTED PARAKEET, GREEN-FRONTED HUMMINGBIRD (Peter only), BANDED WREN, BARRED ANTSHRIKE (heard) and MASKED TITYRA (heard). I suspect that a morning stop here would produce an impressive list of birds.

We turned west and south, driving the straight, dry, hot stretch out to Arriaga, Tonala, and then the greener, more welcoming passage out to Puerto Arista, in Chiapas. This was lovely habitat, with overgrown hedgerows and fences, wet pastures, fragments of lowland wet forest, and mudflats/mangroves. The town itself is a beach resort, primarily for vacationing Mexicans. We were there midweek, not on a holiday, and practically had the place to ourselves. Prices are always a little higher in resort towns, but we found comfortable lodging and decent food. Sitting in shorts and T-shirt in a palm-thatched palapa with a cold drink, watching the crashing surf is not something I seem to tire of easily. While so ensconced it was interesting to see a small pod of Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins slowly sounding and swimming south, just off the breakers. That night, in the same location, the geckos barked and scampered and froze their way along the palapa walls.

A late afternoon birding stroll out on the mudflats northeast of town turned up a swarm of shorebirds, herons and seabirds, including ROSEATE SPOONBILL, SANDWICH TERN, AMERICAN GOLDEN PLOVER and WILSON'S PLOVER. We were surprised to see (and hear) two MELODIOUS BLACKBIRDS, well out of the range illustrated in Howell & Webb. Upon reflection, I suppose it is inevitable given this species dramatic range expansion in recent years.

Wednesday, March 25, 1998.

After a very pleasant morning in Puerto Arista we put in a long and tiring driving day. From dawn until about 8 a.m. we birded along the fence rows at the junction of the Puerto Arista/Tonala road and the turnoff to Boca del Cielo. GIANT WRENS were very vocal and conspicuous. No tape or other assistance is necessary to see them at this time. Also in the immediate vicinity was a large flock of RUDDY-BREASTED SEEDEATERS and a very strange-looking partially albinistic TURKEY VULTURE hunched over in a tree that had us thinking it was something else for quite a while. A side road 0.5 Km south of Colonia 20 de Noviembre was also great for birds and very scenic. Here we found FERRUGINOUS PYGMY OWL (easily seen, still calling when we left at 8am), NORTHERN BOBWHITE (but more closely resembling what Howell illustrates as graysoni, the central Mexican subspecies, with a lot of white on the face), WHITE-FRONTED PARROT, PACIFIC PARAKEET, and more MELODIOUS BLACKBIRDS (3 this time).

Along Highway 200, perhaps 2 Km south of the northern exit for Tonala an APLOMADO FALCON cruised across the road in front of the car. Peter saw this unexpected species quite well (and is well-acquainted with it from Belize). My lifer Aplomado will have to wait: I was too busy driving on the busy expressway (no shoulder), watching out for the traffic, to get a good look or pull over. Also in the area were huge kettles of SWAINSON'S HAWK, probably heading on north.

We broke up the long drive with a lunch at our favorite restaurant in Tehuantepec, then headed back over the mountains to Oaxaca. This time we stayed in the Hotel Posada los Arcos, a motel 10 Km east of town along Highway 190 right near the Highway 175 turnoff. You get a lot more for your money when you stay out of town, but, of course, it is not as picturesque. If you stay there BE SURE to ask for a quiet room.

Thursday, March 26, 1998.

Travel fatigue was beginning to set in. The alarm went off at the same time, but it FELT a lot earlier! We drove as fast as was reasonably possible over Highway 175 toward Valle Nacional. After the town of Guelatao (birthplace of Benito Juarez) the road deteriorated considerably, and all the pot-holes made for slow, frustrating driving. By the time we made it to Km 102--our prime morning destination--it was 8:00 a.m. on a beautiful, sunny, somewhat breezy day: Great weather for touring, miserable for birding. The birds quickly became quiet, shy, and ultimately, invisible. A few specialties of the region showed themselves, for which we were grateful: BUMBLEBEE HUMMINGBIRD (well-named, not just for its size, but also for the bee-like hum it makes while zitting about), EMERALD TOUCANET, SLATE-COLORED and BROWN-BACKED SOLITAIRE (the former heard only) and the lovely BLUE-CROWNED CHOLORPHONIA. A little further down we got good looks at an AZURE-CROWNED HUMMINGBIRD.

This area presents a bit of a logistical puzzle, at least in "good" weather when the birds quit their activity early. The drive from Oaxaca takes about 3 hours to Km 102 (2 « if you adopt a "damn the potholes, full speed ahead" approach--not recommended); from Tuxtepec it is about 2 hours. If camping isn't an option, you either have to leave extremely early (say, 4:00 a.m.) or be content to miss some birds.

With the birds largely absent, we pushed on ahead of schedule to Tuxtepec, where we took a room at the Hotel Hacienda (a very comfortable "business traveler" hotel). After restoring ourselves with the usual comida corrida we headed off for some late afternoon birding (until dark) in the direction of the Miguel de la Madrid reservoir. The habitat was mostly agricultural, with patches of lowland wet forest on the nearby hills, and some tantalizing limestone cliffs in the distance. Bird highlights were LITTLE TINAMOU (heard), THICKET TINAMOU (heard), DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE, COLLARED FOREST FALCON, KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (heard), AZTEC PARAKEET and YELLOW-THROATED EUPHONIA.

Dinner was at Mariscos Rula (I think that was the name), about a block and a half from the hotel. Yet another in our seemingly endless series of good dining experiences, with a very friendly staff, including a young waiter who had a great time exercising his high school English.

Friday, March 27, 1998.

We got up as early as we could bear it, and quickly made our way back to the 70 Km marker on Highway 175 above Valle Nacional. We birded the cloud forest between Km 70 and 90 (about 1500-2400 meters) between 7 and 10 a.m., then the higher humid pine/oak between Km 90 and 105 until about noon. Although the weather was the same as the day before, we had much better luck with the birds. Perhaps we were there a bit earlier, perhaps we had learned how to work the area better. In any case, we did see quite a nice group of birds, not the least of which were BARRED PARAKEET (2 flying by just over the tree tops; a surprise), GARNET-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (working a flowering tree well within the lower canopy, just below the obvious bus shelter by the road), BUMBLEBEE HUMMINGBIRD, UNICOLORED JAY (heard all morning frustratingly out of view, then finally well seen on a logging road near Km 100), SLATE-THROATED SOLITAIRE (actually saw one this time!), YELLOW-WINGED TANAGER, WHITE-NAPED BRUSH FINCH, RUSTY SPARROW (didn't realize they got up into the cloud forest).

Yet another tasty, cheap comida corrida, this one in Guelatao (yes, we did a lot of eating on this trip!), then back to Oaxaca (again at Los Arcos--I had had enough of busy downtown driving).

Saturday, March 28, 1998.

We spent one last early morning out at Monte Alban, basically seeing the same set of birds (minus the roadrunner and trogon). I finally got a good look at a DWARF VIREO, and Peter successfully tracked down an OCELLATED THRASHER on the far southern side of the ruins. Some odd, sluggish, dark swifts proved to be CHESTNUT-COLLARED SWIFTS.

Then we went back into town and played conventional tourist: shopping, sightseeing and, yes, eating. Don't miss the ex-Convento Santo Domingo (I'm not usually drawn to the massively ornate, but this burst of molten gold is really splendid), the Tamayo Museum (a fascinating and artistically exhibited collection of pre-Columbian art), or the Central Market. The afternoon flights to Mexico and then home were uneventful, as one would hope.


All names and list order follow Howell, A Checklist of the Birds of Mexico (Golden Gate Audubon Society, 1996).

"PJM only means definitively seen or heard only by Peter Metropulos
"FT only" means the same, but by Francis Toldi

Location abbreviations, dates (all described in more detail in the Trip Report narrative; all in state of Oaxaca unless marked otherwise):

--Oaxaca = city of Oaxaca, NOT including Monte Alban (3/20, 21)
--G.Gulch = "Garbage Gulch" barranca along Highway 175 (3/21)
--Estudiante = area along Highway 170 below El Estudiante, NOT including "Garbage Gulch" (3/21)
--Cerro = Cerro San Felipe, ridge above La Cumbre, off Highway 175 (3/21)
--Alban = ruins of Monte Alban and immediately adjacent area (3/22, 28)
--Yagul = ruins and surrounding agricultural fields (3/22)
--Teotitlan = reservoir and scrub above Teotitlan del Valle (3/23)
--La Ventosa = La Ventosa lagoon near Salina Cruz on Pacific Coast (3/23)
--Tehuantepec = scrub 10 Km north of Tehuantepec on Highway 190 (3/24)
--Canal = dirt road alongside canal near Juchitan (3/24)
--Tepanatepec = area alongside Highway 190, just before Chiapas border, approximately 10 Km from San Pedro
    Tepanatepec (3/24)
--Arista = Puerto Arista, Chiapas, and vicinity (3/24, 25)
--V.Nacional = humid pine/oak and cloud forest along Highway 175 above town of Valle Nacional (3/26, 27)
--Tuxtepec = city of Tuxtepec and nearby Miguel de la Madrid reservoir (3/26)

* * * * *

--Little Tinamou (Crypturellus soui) - Tuxtepec, heard only, at dusk
--Thicket Tinamou (Crypturellus cinnamomeus) - Tuxtepec, heard only, calling in late afternoon and at dusk
--Least Grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus) - large clusters of 15-20 birds each at Teotitlan, singles/pairs Roadside Highway 190 in Oaxaca and Chiapas at various locations
--Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) - 1 only at Teotitlan
--American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) - Ventosa, Arista
--Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) - Ventosa, Arista
--Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) - Ventosa, Arista, Tuxtepec
--Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga) - 1 only, Roadside pond Hwy 190 Chiapas
--Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) - Ventosa, Arista
--Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) - Teotitlan, Tuxtepec
--Great Egret (Egretta alba) - Teotitlan, Arista, Tuxtepec
--Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) - large group in river in Tehuantepec city, Arista
--Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea) - Oaxaca, Teotitlan, Ventosa, Arista
--Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor) - Ventosa, Roadside ponds along Highway 190 in Oaxaca and Chiapas
--Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens) - 3 at Ventosa, including some very bizarre, gangly immatures (huge legs)
--Cattle Egret (Bubuicus ibis) - throughout all areas except highland forests
--Green Heron (Butorides virescens) - Canal, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas
--White Ibis (Eudocimus albus) - Ventosa
--Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja) - 8 in Arista
--Black-bellied Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor) - Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas, Tuxtepec
--Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) - Teotitlan, Arista, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas
--Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) - Ventosa, Arista
--Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) - Teotitlan
--Black Vulture (Coragyps atatus) - throughout, except strangely absent from Valley of Oaxaca
--Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) - throughout
--Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) - along the river in Tehuantepec city
--White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) - Yagul, Ventosa, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca
--Double-toothed Kite (Harpagus bidentatus) - 1 sitting by roadside outside Tuxtepec
--Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca
--Sharp-shinend Hawk (Accipiter striatus) - Yagul, Teotitlan, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca
--Coopers Hawk (Accipter cooperi) - 1 sitting on path at Yagul that we could almost pick up it was so close and slow to fly, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca
--Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca, Canal, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas, Tuxtepec
--Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) - two huge kettles, each with over 200 birds along Hwy 190 near Tonala, Chiapas
--Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) - Oaxaca, Cerro, Yagul, Roadside Oaxaca and Chiapas
--Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus) - Oaxaca, Yagul, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca, Arista
--Collared Forest-Falcon (Micrastur semitorquatus) - 1 flying across road in front of car near lowland forest fragment outside Tuxtepec (FT only)
--American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) - throughout lowlands and Valley of Oaxaca
--Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) - 1 flew across road 100' in front of car, in wet lowland Pacific fragmented forest/agricultural land, approx. 2 Km south of north exit to Tonala off Hwy 190; seen well by PJM who is familiar with species from Belize
--West Mexican Chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) - Teotitlan, Tehuantepec
--Spotted Wood-Quail (Odontophorus guttatus) - V.Nacional, heard only at Km 70 (FT only)
--Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) - pair seen at Arista, considerable white on head, seemingly more like "central Mexican" (graysoni), rather than the dark-headed form (coyolcos); perhaps it was pectoralis (described, but not illustrated, in Howell), crossing over the isthmus from the Gulf slope
--Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) - Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas
--American Coot (Fulica americana) - Teotitlan, Ventosa, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca and Chiapas, Arista, Tuxtepec
--Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) - Ventosa, Arista
--American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominicus) - 1 flying over mudflats at Arista
--Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) - Ventosa, Arista, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas
--American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) - Arista
--Northern Jacana (Jacana spinosa) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca and Chiapas
--Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca) - Arista
--Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) - Ventosa, Arista
--Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria) - 1 at a small pond by the road into Arista
--Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) - Ventosa, Arista
--Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) - Teotitlan, Ventosa
--Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) - Ventosa, Arista
--Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) - Ventosa
--Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa) - Ventosa, Arista
--Sanderling (Calidris alba) - Arista (on outer beach)
--Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) - Arista
--Dowitcher species (Limnodromus sp.) - Arista, too far off to make out which species
--Wilson's Phalarope (Steganopus tricolor) - 30+ birds in mangrove-lined mudflats at Arista
--Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla) - Ventosa, Arista
--Franklin's Gull (Larus pipixcan) - Ventosa, Arista, Roadside Chiapas, overlooked at first among more common Laughing Gulls
--Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica) - Arista
--Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) - river in Tehauntepec city, Ventosa, Arista
--Royal Tern (Sterna maxima) - Ventosa, Arista
--Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis) - Ventosa, Arista, in smaller numbers than other terns
--Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) - a single individual roosting with Sandwich Terns at Ventosa
--Black Skimmer (Rhychops niger) - Ventosa
--Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) - common in urban areas throughout
--Red-billed Pigeon (Columba flavirostris) - Tuxtepec, V.Nacional lower elevation
--Short-billed Pigeon (Columba nigrirostris) - heard at V.Nacional upper elevations, probably seen flying over in same location
--White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica) - G.Gulch, Teotitlan, Roadside Oaxaca and Chiapas, Arista, V.Nacional, Monte Alban
--Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) - Yagul, Monte Alban
--Inca Dove (Columbina inca) - common in all but the highest elevations
--Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina) - Monte Alban, Ventosa, Roadside Oaxaca and Chiapas
--Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti) - Roadside Oaxaca and Chiapas, Canal, Arista, V.Nacional
--White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) - G.Gulch, Cerro, Tepanatepec, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas, Arista, V.Nacional
--Pacific Parakeet (Aratinga holochlora strenua) - small flock in fruiting trees at Arista; Clements says this is a split from Green Parakeet A.h.holochlora, Howell says maybe--only the AOC knows for sure
--Aztec Parakeet (Aratinga astec) - small flock flying over in vicinity of Tuxtepec
--Orange-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga canicularis) - Tepanatepec
--White-fronted Parakeet (Amazona albigrons) - fairly common among fruiting trees in same area as Green Parakeet, Arista
--Lesser Roadrunner (Geoccocyx velox) - 1 in draw below maintenance station at Monte Alban was a bit of a surprise
--Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris) - Monte Alban, Canal, Arista, Tuxtepec
--Barn Owl (Tyto alba) - one silently flying down the street in downtown Tuxtepec was a nice sight
--Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl - very vocal and easy to see in Arista, another calling at Tuxtepec
--Lesser Nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennis) - Arista, Tuxtepec
--Chestnut-collared Swift (Cypseloides rutilus) - Some very dark, sluggishly-flying swifts turned out to be these, at Monte Alban
--White-collared Swift (Streptoprocne zonaris) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca, Tuxtepec
--White-throated Swift (Aeronautes saxatalis) - Cerro
--Dusky Hummingbird (Cynanthus sordidus) - A very common hummer in the Oaxaca Valley, with large numbers seen at Alban, Yagul, Teotitlan
--Doubleday's (Broad-billed) Hummingbird (Cyanthus (latirostris) doubledayi) - easy to find but very local, at Tehuantepec; a Howell split
--White-eared Hummingbird (Basilinna leucotis) - Cerro, V.Nacional; in the highlands sometimes it seems like "if you can see it, it must be a White-eared"
--Azure-crowned Hummer (Amazila cyanocephala) - A pair near Km 70 at V.Nacional, the male chirping endlessly from a hidden perch
--Berryline Hummingbird (Amazilia beryllina) - Teotitlan
--Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (Amazilia tzacatl) - Tuxtepec
--Cinnamon Hummingbird (Amazilia rutlia) - Arista
--Green-fronted Hummingbird (Amazilia viridifrons) - a quick view at Tepanatepec (PJM only)
--Garnet-throated Hummingbird (Lamprolaima rhami) - Finally found this gorgeous hummer high up on V.Nacional; we missed it entirely on the first day, but on the second day spent more time searching the flowering shrubs within the lower canopy where the bird proved to be; this one near an obvious bus shelter in the high Km 90's
--Magnificent Hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens) - V.Nacional higher elevation
--Bumblebee Hummingbird (Selasphorus heloisa) - very common in V.Nacional, upper elevations; the key (at this time of year, anyway) is the insect-like whine made by the bird as it zips around the flowery slopes
--Collared Trogon (Trogon collaris) - Heard and possibly seen at V.Nacional upper elevation; we saw a female that could have been this or a Mountain Trogon in humid pine/oak forest near Km 106; numerous calling trogons were probably collaris on the descent into Valle Nacional
--Mountain Trogon (Trogon mexicanus) - heard calling on Cerro
--Elegant Trogon (Trogon elegans) - A pair at Alban in the gulch below the maintenance station, another at Tehuantepec
--Russet-crowned Motmot (Momotus mexicanus) - 2 at Arista
--Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata) - Tuxtepec
--Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) - Arista
--Emerald Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus) - by range, probably A.p.prasinus; heard all over the place at V.Nacional, primarily upper elevations, never seen well
--Keel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) - heard at Tuxtepec
--Grey-breasted Woodpecker (Centurus hypopolius) - surprisingly, a family group at Yagul were the only ones seen on the trip
--Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Centurus aurifrons) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca, Arista
--Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius) - a female at the Garnet-throated Hummingbird spot high up on V.Nacional was unexpected
--Ladder-backed Woodpecker (Picoides scalaris) - Alban, Teotitlan
--Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) - Cerro
--Ivory-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus flavigaster) - heard only at Tuxtepec
--Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus) - heard only at Tepanatepec, Arista
--Northern Beardless Tyrannulet (Camptostoma imberbe) - heard only at Tehuantepec
--Pileated Flycatcher (Xenotricus mexicanus) - Alban, initially seemed absent, but once we learned the song and call notes proved to be more common than we had previously believed
--Greater Pewee (Contopus pertinax) - G.Gulch, Cerro, Teotitlan
--Western Pewee (Wood-Pewee) (Contopus sordidulus) - G.Gulch, Estudiante, Teotitlan, Tehuantepec
--Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax trailii) - Estudiante, Yagul
--Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) - Yagul, in agricultural area below the ruins
--Hammond's Flycatcher (Empidonax hammondi) - Tehuantepec
--Dusky Flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri) - The most common empid, noted at G.Gulch, Yagul, Teotitlan, Tehuantepec, Alban
--Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans) - Teotitlan, Tuxtepec
--Say's Phoebe (Sayornis saya) - 1 at the edge of its range in the agricultural fields below Yagul
--Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) - Oaxaca, Estudiante, Yagul, Teotitlan, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca, Alban
--Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer) - G.Gulch, Teotitlan
--Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) - Alban, Tehuantepec; fortunately both this and the next species were vocalizing quite a bit
--Nutting's Flycatcher (Myiarchus nuttingi) - G.Gulch, Estudiante, Alban, Tehuantepec, Arista
--Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) - Yagul, Ventosa, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca and Chiapas, Arista, Tuxtepec
--Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitanga) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca, Arista
--Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similes) - Arista, Tuxtepec
--Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) - Oaxaca, Canal, Roadside Hwy 190 oaxaca and Chiapas, V.Nacional lower elevation
--Cassin's Kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans) - Oaxaca, Yagul, Teotitlan
--Thick-billed Kingbird (Tyrannus crassirostris) - Arista
--Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus) - Canal, Arista, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas
--Rose-throated Becard (Pachyramphus aglaiae hypophaeus) - Cerro
--Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata) - heard only at Tepanatepec
--Purple Martin (Progne subis) - hundreds roosting in gazebo at Plaza Mayor in Tehuantepec city
--Gray-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea) - some roosting in Tehuantepec, Roadside Chiapas
--Mangrove Swallow (Tachycineta albilinea) - Ventosa, Tuxtepec
--Violet-green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) - Cerro, Alban, Teotitlan, Roadside Chiapas, V.Nacional
--Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) - G.Gulch, Estudiante, Alban, Teotitlan, Tuxtepec; I suppose that many (all?) of the Tuxtepec birds could have been ridgwayi, but, frankly, I couldn't tell the diference (shoot me, now)
--Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) - Cerro, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca in Chiapas
--Steller's Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri coronata) - Cerro and V.Nacional; nice to see the coronata subspecies, with their rounded crest and diferent voice
--White-throated Magpie-Jay (Calocitta formosa) - Tehuantepec scrub, Tepanatepec, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas, Arista
--Brown Jay (Cyanocorax morio) - Tuxtepec, V.Nacional lower elevation
--Dwarf Jay (Cyanolyca nana) - 1 well seen « Km down side dirt road, which branches off about 3Km from the gate at Hwy 175; in the vicinity of more vocal Grey-barred Wrens, but not directly associating with them
--Western Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma californica) - Teotitlan, V.Nacional (in the dry valley between the La Cumbre Summit and the final summit at Km 102)
--Unicolored Jay (Aphelocoma unicolor) - heard repeatedly along V.Nacional upper elevations, but wouldn't show itself; finally a good look on a logging road that takes off to the south at around Km 101
--Northern Raven (Corax corax) - Cerro, Yagul
--Mexican Chickadee (Parus sclateri) - Cerro
--Bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus) - Primarily black-eared form on the Cerro, grey headed form at Alban and Teotitlan
--Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) - Cerro
--Grey-barred Wren (Campylorhynchus megalopterus) - Cerro, noisy and garrulus as always
--Giant Wren (Campylorhynchus chiapensis) - numerous individuals, many showing pre-nesting behavior, very conspicuous and noisy from dawn until at least 8 am; no tape necessary to see this bird at this time of year anyway; seen most easily within first few hundred meters down road to Boca del Cielo off the Tonala/Arista road
-- Rufous-naped Wren (Campylorhynchus rufinucha) - Tehuantepec
--Boucard's Wren (Campylorhynchus jocosus) - Estudiante, Teotitlan
--Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus) - along with the next one, THE common bird at Alban
--Canyon Wren (Catherpes mexicanus) - G. Gulch, Alban, Yagul
--Banded Wren (Thryothorus pleurostictus) - Tepanatepec, active and noisy well into the afternoon
--Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii) - Estudiante, G.Gulch, Yagul, Teotitlan
--Northern House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) - Alban; "Brown-throated" (T.a. brunneicollis) at V.Nacional, medium elevation; some consider these separate species
--Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris) - 1 singing away in reeds in agricultural area below Yagul
--Grey-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) - V.Nacional, high elevation
--Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) - G.Gulch, Estudiante, Alban, Teotitlan, V.Nacional; more common than expected, making Dwarf Vireo observations a bit tricky; with a good look there was no problem (Dwarf Vireo has shorter tail, much stubbier aspect, white lore, black above white wingbars), but that was often not the case; also, Dwarf Vireo has a little chatter call that is somewhat similar to the kinglet
--Blue-grey Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) - G. Gulch, Alban, Yagul, Teotitlan, V.Nacional
--White-lored Gnatcatcher (Polioptila albiloris) - Tehuantepec; male in alternate plumage, with its black cap and no white lore, threw us for a loop at first
--Brown-backed Solitaire (Myadestes occidentalis) - many heard, a few seen on Cerro and V.Nacional, higher elevation
--Slate-colored Solitaire (Myadestes unicolor) - many heard, one brief look on V.Nacional higher elevations
--Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii) - Cerro, V.Nacional higher elevation; I tried hard to make one of the various catharus thrushes we saw into a Russet, but they were all convincingly Ruddy's!
--Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus) - Alban, Teotitlan (PJM only)
--Clay-colored Thrush (Robin) - Arista, V.Nacional lower elevation
--White-throated Thrush (Robin) (Turdus assimilis) - V. Nacional near Km 100
--American Robin (Turdus m. migrotorius) - Alban (PJM only)
--Aztec Thrush (Zoothera pinicola) - 1 in flock on Cerro in oaks approx. 2« Km from gate at Hwy 175 (PJM only)
--Blue Mockingbird (Melanotis caerulescens) - Estudiante, Alban, Teotitlan
--Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) - Oaxaca, Alban, Teotitlan
--Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus gilvus) - Canal
--Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre) - pair in the dry valley on Hwy 175 between Cerro and V.Nacional (FT only)
--Ocellated Thrasher (Toxostoma ocellatum) - 1 brief but convincing glimpse deep in a thicket at Estudiante (FT only), 1 well seen and studied on the far southwest side of the ruins at Alban (PJM only)
--Grey Silky-Flycatcher (Ptilogonys cinereus) - Surprisingly widespread in oaxaca valley, including Estudiante, G.Gulch, Cerro, Teotitlan, V.Nacional
--Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) - Teotitlan, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas
--Slaty Vireo (Vireo brevipennis) - a pair was « Km or so up the barranca in the oaks (just below the first of the pines) at G.Gulch, an individual in the small clearing along the black plastic pipe sewage outflow below the visitors center at Alban; in both cases the birds were easy to see and no tape was necessary to call them in
--Bell's Vireo (Vireo belli) - Tehuantepec
--Dwarf Vireo )Vireo nelsoni) - in the same sewage line thicket at Alban, a singing but largely invisible bird at Teotitlan; see comments under Ruby-crowned Kinglet
--Blue-headed [Solitary] Vireo (Vireo solitarius) - Teotitlan
--Plumbeous [Solitary] Vireo (Vireo plumbeus) - G.Gulch, Estudiante, Cerro
--Hutton's Vireo (Vireo huttoni) - Cerro, Alban
--Golden Vireo (Vireo hypochryseus) - in the sewage line thicket at Alban, Estudiante
--Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus) - Teotitlan, V.Nacional
--Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata) - all medium and high elevation areas
--Nashville Warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla) - Cerro, Tehuantepec, V.Nacional
--Virginia's Warbler (Vermivora virginiae) - Alban
--Crescent-chested Warbler (Vermivora [Parula] superciliosa) - Cerro
--Northern Paula (Parula americana) - Tuxtepec
--Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi) - Oaxaca
--Yellow Warbler (Dendroica p. petechia) - Ventosa, Tehuantepec, Arista, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas; no mangove
--Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) - Tehuantepec, Tuxtepec
--Yellow-rumped [Audubon's] Warbler (Dendroica coronata auduboni) - G.Gulch, Cerro, Yagul, Teotitlan
--Black-throated Grey Warbler (Dendroica nigrescens) - G.Gulch, Alban
--Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi) - Cerro
--Hermit Warbler (Dendroica occidentalis) - Cerro
--Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens) - V.Nacional, lower elevation
--Black-and-White Warbler (Mniotilta varia) - V.Nacional higher elevation
--MacGillivray's Warbler (Oporornis tolmiei) - G.Gulch, Estudiante, Cerro, Alban, Yagul, Teotitlan
--Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) - agricultural fields below Yagul, Arista, Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas, Tuxtepec
--Grey-crowned Yellowthroat (Chamaethlypis poliocephala) - Roadside Hwy 190 Chiapas
--Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) - Estudiante, Cerro, Alban, V.Nacional
--Red Warbler (Ergaticus r. ruber) - Cerro, V.Nacional higher elevations; it'll never be "just another Red Warbler")
--Slate-throated Whitestart (Redstart) (Myioborus miniatus) - Cerro, V.Nacional higher elevation
--Rufous-capped Warbler (Basileuterus rufifrons) - seemingly everywhere, truly abundant; all locations except Tehuantepec south
--Golden-browed Warbler (Basileuterus belli) - Cerro
--Olive Warbler (Peucedramus taeniatus) - Cerro (PJM only)
--Blue-crowned Cholorphonia (Chlorophonia occipitalis) - V.Nacional higher elevation
--Yellowthroated Euphonia (Euphonia hirundinacea) - Tuxtepec
--Blue-hooded Euphonia (Euphonia elegantissima) - another candidate for the all-time beautiful list; appropriate latin name; long admired at G.Gulch, Cerro
--Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra) - odd individual with large yellow bill at Yagul, regular one at Tuxtepec
--Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) - Arista
--Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocepahlus) - Estudiante, Teotitlan
--Blue Bunting (Cyanocompsa parellina) - Yagul
--Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea) - Teotitlan, Tuxtepec
--Rosita's (Rose-bellied) Bunting (Passerina rositae) - found well up in canopy at Tepanatepec, not down with the Indigos where expected
--Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) - Yagul, Tepanatepec, Tuxtepec, Alban; most molting into alternate
--Orange-breasted Bunting (Passerina leclancherii) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca, Tehuantepec, Canal; still my favorite passerina sp.
--Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) - Arista
--White-naped Brushfinch (Atlapetes albinucha) - V.Nacional
--Rufous-capped Brushfinch (Atlapetes pileatus) - Cerro
--Collared Towhee (Pipilo ocai) - Cerro
--Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus) - Cerro, Alban
--White-throated Towhee (Pipilo albicollis) - abundant at all locations in the Oaxaca Valley, and in the dry region between Cerro and V.Nacional along Hwy 175
--Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina) - Arista, V.Nacional lower elevations, Tuxtepec
--White-collared Seedeater (Sporophila torqueola morelleti). Tuxtepec
--Ruddy-breasted Seedeater (Sporophila minuta) - a large flock at Arista, a few starting to molt into alternate plumage
--Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer (Diglossa baritula) - Cerro, V.Nacional
--Bridled Sparrow (Aimophila mystacalis) - Yagul, Teotitlan; easier to find this handsome sparrow than the Oaxaca Sparrow
--Stripe-headed Sparrow (Aimophila ruficauda) - Arista, Tehuantepec, Tepanatepec
--Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps) - G.Gulch
--Oaxaca Sparrow (A.notosticta) - Estudiante, Teotitlan; always a skulker for us; not easy to get a good look at
--Rusty Sparrow (Aimophila rufescens) - V.Nacional at Km 70; didn't realize they got that high up on the mountain
--Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina) - Oaxaca, Alban, Yagul, Teotitlan
--Black-chinned Sparrow (Spizella atrogularis) - Alban
--Lark Sparrow (Chodestes graccacus) - Canal
--Savannah Sparrow (Ammodramus s. sandwichensis) - a single individual on the ruins at Alban
--Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) - G.Gulch, Estudiante, Yagul, Alban, V.Nacional; present in some atypical spots (e.g. dry scrub), by our experience with the species in the norte
--Yellow-eyed (Mexican) Junco (Junco p. Phaeonotus) - Cerro, V.Nacional
--Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius p. phoeniceus) - Arista
--Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella m. magna) - Alban
--Melodious Blackbird (Dives dives) - at least 5 in two locations at Arista; apparently this species has continued its spread into the Pacific lowlands; also present in more expected Tuxtepec and V.Nacional lower elevation locations
--Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) - everywhere but the highest elevations
--Bronzed (Red-eyed) Cowbird (Molothrus aeneus) - Yagul, Tehuantepec city and nearby scrub, Arista, Alban
--Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) - 1 noted at Tehuantepec, sure could have been more
--Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius) - Arista
--Black-vented Oriole (Icterus wagleri) - Estudiante, Alban, Teotitlan
--Audubon's "Dickey's" Oriole (Icterus graduaccauda dickeyae) - 1 at Estudiante, another looked just like it seems a bit too high of an altitude on Cerro (so then what the heck was that one anyway?)
--Streak-backed Oriole (Icterus pustulatus) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca, Tehuantepec, including one individual that showed characteristics of the more southern forms (darker back), probably I.p.formosus
--Altamira Oriole (Icterus gularis) - Canal, Arista
--Scott's Oriole (Icterus parisorum) - Alban
--Yellow-winged Cacique (Cacicus melanicterus) - Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca and Chiapas
--House Finch (Carpocacus mexicanus) - Oaxaca, Estudiante, Yagul, Teotitlan, Roadside Hwy 190 Oaxaca
--Lesser Goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria) - G.Gulch, Estudiante, Alban, Teotitlan, Tehuantepec
--House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) - Oaxaca, Roadside Hwy 170 Oaxaca and Chiapas in towns, Alban

Total: 262 Species

MAMMALS: We are always a bit more tentative in our mammal identifications, especially since we didn't have a mammal guide with us and made the identifications back home. Nevertheless, there is a reasonable likelihood that the following identifications are accurate.

--Mexican Deer Mouse (Peromyscus mexicanus) - in brushy fence line above Teotitlan, Oaxaca
--Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata) - at Monte Alban (PJM only)
--Bat sp. - various, including one large bat in a palm at Puerto Arista (fruit bat?)
--Red-bellied Squirrel (Sciurus aureogaster) - fairly common on the Cerro San Felipe
--Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops gilli) - small pod offshore lolling and sounding past the breakers near some shrimp boats off Puerto Arista

Francis Toldi
701 Walnut Ave.
Burlingame, CA 94010