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24 September - 20 October 2000

by John van der Woude

We made a private 5-week birding trip to Bolivia including side trips to northern Chile and Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The side trip to Chile was more or less forced by the social-political troubles in Bolivia resulting in many roadblocks, and the extra trip to Argentina was a planned stopover on our way back home. So this was a trip from ocean to ocean, and from steaming lowlands to freezing highlands. The report is in three parts: this one about Bolivia and two short separate reports of the side trips to Chile and Argentina.

We first had a successful week of birding from the chaco woodlands of Santa Cruz through the semi-arid valley of Comarapa up to the Siberia cloud forest above it. Then we could not proceed to Cochabamba because of the roadblocks so we went back to Sta. Cruz and on to the tropical lowlands in the Beni province: the partly wooded savannas of Trinidad and the tropical rainforest remains at Riberalta. By now the situation in the highlands had cleared enough and we flew on to La Paz.

After a visit to the high Cumbre pass and the steep forested Yungas valleys below it, we still wanted to visit the region around Cochabamba (highlands and East Andes slope forests), but here the last roadblocks still persisted. So instead we took the side trip to nearby northernmost Chile, which we did not regret at all. There we had a lot of good birds in the short distance from the coast of the Atacama desert to the splendid intact puna grasslands below the snow-clad volcanoes at Lauca national park. The 5-day stopover at Buenos Aires did we use to go along the coastal marshes and pampas, from the city down to Punta Rasa at the open ocean. We regarded this region as the southern end of the same savanna belt as we visited in eastern Bolivia.

Some of the highlights of this exciting birding trip to three countries were Red-fronted and Blue-throated Macaw, Greater and Lesser Rhea, Andean and Puna Flamingo, Giant Coot and Giant Wood-rail, a breeding colony of Andean Avocet, our first condors and our first albatrosses, Red-tailed Comet and Peruvian Sheartail, the enormous Toco Toucan, Bolivian and White-throated Earthcreeper, Straight-billed and Curve-billed Reedhaunter, Yungas Manakin and Sulphur-bellied Tyrant-manakin, our first monjitas (White-rumped and White), White-eared Solitaire and Andean Slaty-thrush, Moustached and Grey-bellied Flowerpiercer, and many more. Of course we missed several species, partly due to the roadblocks preventing us to visit the Cochabamba region. Apart from the roadblocks (that we easily avoided) and some time needed to get used to the high altitude of La Paz, we had no troubles and we enjoyed the diversity of cultures.


Sunday 24 September 2000: afternoon arrival Santa Cruz Bolivia (from Amsterdam via Madrid and Buenos Aires) and short evening visit to Lomas de Arena

Mon. 25: morning Lomas de Arena, afternoon on to Samaipata

Tue. 26: Samaipata and surroundings

Wed. 27: Cuevas valley, and on to Tambo (Comarapa)

Thu. 28: Siberia cloud forest

Fri. 29: surroundings Comarapa

Sat. 30: Siberia cloud forest

Sun. 1 October: behind Tambo, and back to Santa Cruz

Mon. 2: botanical garden (forest) of Sta. Cruz (morning only)

Tue. 3: flight to Cochabamba, visit to Laguna Alalay, and flight to Trinidad

Wed. 4: surroundings Trinidad

Thu. 5 and Fri. 6: excursion to Blue-throated Macaw site N of Trinidad

Sat. 7: morning visit to river near Trinidad, and flight on to Riberalta, with short late afternoon visit to Hamburgo

Sun. 8: Antofagasta and Hamburgo (morning only) near Riberalta

Mon. 9: Siete Julio near Riberalta

Tue. 10: Lago Tumichucua near Riberalta

Wed. 11: flight to La Paz, via Trinidad and Cochabamba

Thu. 12: via Cumbre pass down to Sud Yungas (Puente Villa)

Fri. 13: Apa Apa forest reserve near Chulumani, and valley behind Pte. Villa

Sat. 14: slowly back to La Paz

Sun. 15: flight to Arica in North Chile, and on to Putre

Mon. 16: Putre and Lauca N.P.

Tue. 17: Lauca N.P.

Wed. 18: slowly back to Arica, afternoon Azapa valley and seabirds

Thu. 19: morning seabirds and Azapa valley, then flight back to La Paz and visit to Titicaca lake

Fri. 20: early flight to Santa Cruz, birding in surroundings airport, flight on to Buenos Aires

Part 2. Logistics and sites

Note 1: the two-letter abbreviations behind the main site names refer to the column headings for (sub-)sites in the species list.
Note 2: some sites have been measured with a handheld GPS (Global Positioning System). The locations ('waypoints') are indicated as WP01 etc. in the text below and explained with coordinates in a separate text (see index page).

Santa Cruz (LA, JB)

This second-largest town of Bolivia is recommended as a low starting point in order to get used to the higher altitude later on. Sta. Cruz is in the eastern lowlands and from here the classical birding trip goes up to Cochabamba along the old (but good) road and then either on to La Paz, or back to Sta. Cruz along the new road. (But, as explained in part 1, we did not do the latter leg).

We rented a Suzuki four wheel-drive car (the usual option in Bolivia) at A.Barron's rent-a-car for 400 USD a week. We had e-mailed with them ( ) and we were picked up at the airport. The car was good although the tyres could have been better. On one of the last days we had a flat tyre and it was beyond repair then so we had to use the spare tyre instead and buy another spare tyre (second-hand). Note that there is also another company with nearly the same name: Barron's rent-a-car (his brother), as well as a branch of Localiza. But we were happy with this car and the service, esp. the possibility of e-mailing beforehand (all in Spanish however).

We had a good hotel in town, the Asturias, phone (591) 3 33 9611, fax 35 0897. Hotel prices in Santa Cruz (as well as Trinidad, the other lowland town) are higher than in the other parts of Bolivia, even higher than in La Paz. This hotel was 400 Bs for a spacious room (don't take the smaller ones for a bit less) and a swimming pool in a large inner courtyard with some trees. Taxis were everywhere and not expensive.

There are three main birding sites near Santa Cruz:

1. Lomas de Arena. This is a regional nature park with large sand dunes (hence the name) but also some nice open chaco woods and even a small stream and some ponds. Here we got several of our first lowland species like Red-winged Tinamou and Guira Cuckoo but also a few duck species that we did not have later on in Bolivia. It is a lovely and quiet area (except in the weekends I think). To reach this area take the long road indicated on the map, and 50 m before the end (a gate) go left on a dirt road an then after another 50 or 100 m go right again. Then follow this as straight as possible until you see the barrier of the park where you have to pay something and can drive on through the various habitats. These roads are definitely 4WD (to our western standards; taxi's here drive anywhere…). This is LA in the species list.

2. Jardin Botanico, the botanical garden, is more a forest than a garden. And a good forest! I think we had the best chaco woods of the trip right here. See the map how to get here, it is on the right, just after a fly-over across a railway. There is long and stately fence and a large gate which was open and seemed to be open mostly (if it is closed go to the house on the left corner and ask there to be let in). The first part has open lawns with a pond also, and then you follow the broad tracks along the left-hand border fence through the woods, all the way for maybe 2 km until you reach the backside where you see open fields beyond the fence. Here we turned right along that backside and then back again along the other side and fence of this elongated reserve. Hot here! Bring sufficient drinking water. We had nice chaco species, several of which we did not see later on. We had good views of several Arrowhead Piculets, Straight-billed Woodcreeper, Brown-crested Flycatcher, White-backed Fire-eye, and others. See column JB in the species list (part 4 of this report).

3. The airport fields and near surroundings was good for some savanna species such as Red-legged Seriema. The airport is about 20 km north of Sta. Cruz. There are some dirt roads to the left before the terminal building, and we had the seriema on the grazed grasslands outside the airport, some 5 km to the North along the main road.

Rio Pirai (PI)

At 47 km from the last big roundabout of the town of Sta. Cruz, or 22 km after a village called San Jose, is a large bridge across the Pirai River. We drove the track left before the river for about 1 km and had some nice additional species of the chaco woodland and transitional habitats, as you get here gradually into the lower reaches of the large dry Andes valley here, the so-called Valles. Spot-backed Puffbird is one of these species. Look for PI in the list, for other species.


Along the 'old' road up from Sta. Cruz to Cochabamba, right after the village of Angostura the road goes through a nice gorge where Golden-collared Macaw is often seen but we had no luck. We were probably too late but it was also very crowded as we were there on a special holiday, with lots of colorful dressed people in the riverbed. We only stayed half an hour here.

Cuevas valley (CU)

About 20 km before Samaipata and 100 m before the big sign 'Cuevas 100 km' (100 km from Sta. Cruz) is a side road to the left that leads through a splendid valley to a village called Bellavista (as another sign says at the main road). The habitat is open mountainous with at first steep cliffs (should hold Golden-collared Macaw in Nov./Dec., according to a few locals), and gradually more wooded moist subtropical further on. This seems to me to be a moist subtropical refuge inside the drier Valle region. I had not heard about it but we got this tip from the owner of our lodge in Samaipata (see below). We drove this dirt road for about 7 km. At the cliffs we got good swifts (Ashy-tailed and White-tipped) and the rest of the valley is just a good chance of getting into subtropical woods. See CU in the species list.

Samaipata (SA)

In this small town we had a wonderful birder-friendly lodge (cabañas), La Vispera, at the left backside of town, bordering the hills. A Dutch couple owns it for many years now and they have a large shaded garden for growing several plants, a/o kitchen and medicinal herbs for which people come from the wide surroundings, esp. Sta. Cruz. Other farmers around have gradually adopted their biological practice, and their approach is very matter-of-factly. Their e-mail address is and phone nr is (591) 9446082. Pieter is a keen conservationist too and gives good advice on where to go birding (like the Cuevas valley described above). He knows Amboro National Park also, from long trekkings, and can act as a guide there, or provide you local guides for this and other destinations. See their info at

Their garden and the bushes below it and above it have many of the Valle specialties like Narrow-billed Woodcreeper and Spot-backed Puffbird, and also several Golden-billed Saltator. Another good spot was when driving (walking is possible too) from town up to the chapel on the hilltop or rather in a pass, visible from below, with the best birding just before leaving the town. There, a small artificial watercourse attracted warbling-finches etc. Up on the hill we did not see many birds. So I think that just walking around the backside border of this cozy town or rather village will produce most species (backside as seen from the main road). But if you stay a bit longer you could explore more habitats in the surroundings, and even into Amboro NP of course.

Sjoerd Mayer stayed a full week at the lodge and several recordings on his Bolivia CD-ROM are from this place. Many of the species here can also be seen at Comarapa/Tambo. The famous 'pipeline-track' did we explore shortly in the afternoon, but we were not very lucky there. It starts at a short (100 m) dead-end side road to the right, which can be found just before you enter the village from the direction of Sta. Cruz.

Tambo/Comarapa (CO, SI)

At the upper end of the large semi-arid valley along the old road from Sta. Cruz to Cochabamba is the simple village of Comarapa and some 15 km before that (or just 1 km after the hamlet of San Isidro, and behind a sports field to the right) is the Tambo Mission School. This is for children of development-aid workers and missionaries in Bolivia and even South Peru. You can stay there in one of their guestrooms (with shared bathrooms) for 10 dollar per person. We arranged this beforehand by e-mail with one of the teachers, Lenna Gill: Also possible is just It is a peaceful place, with quiet nights.

You can have meals in the dining hall but all at sharply fixed hours, so we also ate at Comarapa at some days, because this fitted better in our birding. In Comarapa, restaurant Paraiso is the best according to the people of Tambo, and we did not even try the rest. Hotel/restaurant Paraiso has a friendly owner and the meals were simple but good (and very cheap). They recently built new rooms with private bath (the older rooms have shared bathrooms). These are in the premises behind the restaurant, where we chatted a while with a Turquoise-fronted Parrot. On our last visit to the restaurant we asked for a quick look at the rooms and these are really worthwhile, and probably very cheap as well.

This region is a semi-arid habitat at about 1500 m so not too hot, and in fact pleasant year-round (a reason for establishing the school here). But there are two other habitats nearby as well: lush river valleys, and the Siberia cloud forest on the mountain ridge above Comarapa.

The river valleys are famous for the Red-fronted Macaw, a Bolivian endemic and an endangered species. In fear of the possibility of macaw pet trade I won't publicly describe here where exactly we found the species (thanks to other birders, esp. Patricia) but you can personally e-mail me for more information.

The Siberia cloud forest is a wonderful area. As there was virtually no traffic because of the roadblocks further on towards Cochabamba, we had the main road through the forest all to ourselves. Of the three best spots one was right at the beginning, where you see a small pond to the right. A tiny trail leads up into the forest from a small plot of lawn-like grass. Inside the forest we had a/o Bar-bellied Woodpecker, brush-finches, fruiteaters. A second good spot was at the pass-like area (forested as well) several kms further on, before a lonely barrack on the left and just before a side road to the right (the only or first clear side road to the right; it goes to Kuahari). Here we had our first ever Condors.

But best of all was that side road down to the right. This eventually would lead to subtropical forest but that's a long way. We stayed in the cloud forest zone along this side road and had White-eared Solitaire (seen after 1 hour trying, at WP01), Plumbeous Tyrant, Rufous-faced Antpitta at 15 meters but not seen (also at WP01). As always in cloud forests, be here early, as the bird activity slows down by mid morning. But we mostly remain as long as possible and you'll pick up new things later on the day as well.

Around Tambo itself there are many interesting species of the semi-arid area and also some common species in the arable fields behind the school. We could freely wander around on the private tracks in these fields. Right opposite the school entrance we had our first White-tipped Plantcutter and several more were at the bushes bordering those arable fields at the back. For the semi-arid specialties we had our best luck along the side road to the right after 5 km when going from Tambo to Comarapa, and just along the first km of this side road: Bolivian Earthcreeper, White-fronted Woodpecker (both at WP02), Stripe-crowned Spinetail, Streak-fronted Thornbird and others.

In the species list the sites are indicates together as CO (of Comarapa), and separately SI for the Siberia cloud forest.

Laguna Alalay at Cochabamba (AL)

On our flight from Sta. Cruz to Trinidad in the Beni lowlands, we had a stop of 4 hours in Cochabamba and took a taxi to drive around the laguna Alalay, a well-known birding site at the border of the city. This was for 2 hours, 40 pesos. At the city-side of the lake many young men aimlessly wandered around and we were glad to have the taxi nearby when we made short walks from the road to the lake border. On the opposite side of the lake it was much quieter and seemingly safer. In general we don't like birding in city parks in these countries, and the city-side of this lake is just like that, so you probably keep better to the other side. We had a good introduction to the high altitude wetland species, although most if not all of them would we see later near La Paz and at Lauca NP in Chile. In several of the small trees around the lake White-tipped Plantcutters were singing.

Trinidad (TD)

This lively town in the lowlands of the Beni province has good birding habitats in the immediate surroundings, and is the starting point for trips to see the endemic and rare Blue-throated Macaw. We were advised to do some birding near Trinidad first and then taking a short trip to the macaw only, to minimize the costs. As we had to arrange a trip for only the two of us it would inevitably be more expensive per person than with a group. After arrival in the afternoon we headed to the tour offices which are all three in the same street (see map). Moxos tours was far too expensive (and 3 days were the standard there), and at Paraiso travels ( says the card) Liliam, the lady who does the tours to the macaw, was not present. Her colleagues did not know how to help us (faxing beforehand had not given a response either), and so we ended up at the more modest looking Amazonia Holliday, phone/fax 46 22806 or phone 46 25732. Here the owner, Lito (Carlos Ruiz), understood us very well and he tailored a trip of just two days for us. This for US$150 pp., including all meals, lodging, a guide and a driver with his car. Read on to see how this worked out, but we did see the macaws indeed.

Our hotel in Trinidad was the Gran Moxos first, but we found the service so bad that we changed the next morning to Mi Residencia I (Uno). The latter was better, with a more professional staff, but both are definitely overpriced at US$68, so it may be better to look at alternatives if you can take some time for it. Probably Mi Residencia II (fax 46 22464) is better value for money but this is further from the plaza. Please mind that for Mi Residencia the prices in the hotel listing on were far below the real prices (less than half), but the manager of Mi R Uno did not seem to bother much when I pointed this out to him. Never mind, there are more hotels here and reportedly a new one at the road to the airport, near the TAM-office.

The plaza and side streets were good for anything from booking a flight to having a haircut (because it's so hot here). The best and prettiest place to eat and drink (with beer bottles in coolers) was La Casona, with a shaded street terrace overlooking the plaza. Although the kitchen was a bit slow (to the fast South American standards), the food was good.

We found the taxi driver who had brought us from the airport to the city careful and keen enough to ask him to take us out the next morning and later in the afternoon again. The morning drive was to the nearby Laguna Suarez and then slowly on for some 4 km more. Trinidad is already a bit more Amazonian than the lowlands around Santa Cruz so we had several new trip ticks. This is a partly wooded savanna area with many pools.

On this trip to the laguna and beyond we had both cardinals (Yellow-billed and Red-crested), Rufous Cachalote, Rufescent Tiger-Heron, Toco Toucan, Blue-and-yellow Macaw, Buff-necked Ibis, Great Antshrike and the like. The same morning we also did another road, the one going South to something like Sachojera, and on this 8 km or so drive we added Jabiru a/o. We were back in town at the end of the morning and only went on for another drive late in the afternoon because of the heat these days (was better the next day).

We drove the 5 km or so from the airport to the river, where the village Loma Suarez is idyllically situated in a more moist and more wooded area. On this slow drive we added species like Blue-throated Piping-Guan, Spix Guan, White-bellied Seedeater, Undulated Tinamou and Band-tailed Nighthawk. In the species list the birds of this day are lumped with those of the next days further North to the macaws under the code TR (Trinidad), as there is not a big difference in habitat except that further north everything is even more spacious. But believe me that the direct surroundings of Trinidad are good birding so there is no need to do all the birding here on the expensive trip to the Blue-throated Macaw.

Our 2-day trip straight North from Trinidad to that 'barbazul' (Blue-throated Macaw) was a rather weird but impressive one and with success. The car was a normal taxi with airco because of the dust roads where you don't like to open your windows. A normal taxi was possible on these roads in this season indeed, but the car had suspension problems so in the end we had to walk a few kms on a small field road (picking up our only Buff-breasted Sandpipers of the trip) before reaching the place where we would stay the night, a ranch at an exquisite location in a wide river bend with several river dolphins. This was not the official place where we had to stay the night but the car would not allow us to go on. But this ranch was a necessary step in the itinerary as from here you can reach a forest island with the barbazul.

We walked on (in far less heat than the day before, luckily), first still with our guide but when we reached another, smaller farm he arranged to have us guided for the last 2 kms by one of the children so that he could help fixing the car, which had electrical problems now as well. So there we walked with a 7-year old girl, who had no problem finding the forest island as it stands out from far in this open savanna. We first thought somehow that we had to wait on the macaws as if this was a night roost only, but after 10 minutes we discovered a pair of this absolute wish-list species Blue-throated Macaw, sitting on a palm front at the edge of the forest island. They were feeding each other palm nuts, and were preening each other.

We witnessed this from a safe distance for another 10 minutes before they disappeared into the forest, and we realized how lucky we had been to see them so well. At the farm we understood that there were just two couples of this barbazul here (lots of Blue-and-yellow screaming around though). On our last leg back to the lodge we were given a horse ride, our first ever.

The next morning the driver had to wait for help of a mechanic from the city who would arrive by motorbike later on. So we took our time and wandered around the ranch, or in fact mostly sat at that absolutely wonderful spot in the river bend, on a small concrete plateau right in front of the lodge. The show of river dolphins, macaws (Blue-and-yellow), cayman, wood-rails (Grey-necked), Sunbittern and kingfishers amidst a choir of antbirds, spinetails, doves and others was something that we will never forget. A Green Kingfisher was having troubles a long time with a too big fish, and this was watched most of the time by his bigger nephew Ringed Kingfisher…

With the car fixed in 2 minutes, we had an easy drive back to Trinidad, although slowly (good!) in order to spare the suspension. All in all we had a good trip, mainly thanks to the skill of our guide who could improvise so well. He normally does long trips with fishermen or even small expeditions. His name is Johnny Zambrano Fernandez and he is well known in Trinidad, as just Johnny. He can be reached at but more regularly at his phone number (591) 46 20431 or cellular 01796573.

Apart from the barbazul we also ticked Golden-collared Macaw on this trip. This was at a small but clear woodland plot with a farm well before the hamlet-with-restaurants San Pedro (which is WP10). At that woodland we also had a piculet (I am still sorting out this).

Another good spot was a small wet pasture to the left just before the access road left to Estancia Betlehem, with several storks, herons and ibises, and Orinoco Goose. At another spot (WP03) where we had breakfast the first day, we ticked two monjita species (White-rumped and White), and had a group of four Toco Toucans displaying well. This was in an open savanna with scattered palms.

At WP09 the road crosses a small river, this may be worthwhile to check a bit longer. We saw a river dolphin and Anhinga. The more North you get along this road the opener the scenery becomes and here we had Greater Rhea which were camouflaged by the slightly similar termite hills that are all around.

Riberalta (RI)

From Trinidad to the North of Bolivia the scenery gradually changes into Amazonian rain forest, and this whole transition from mainly savanna with gallery forests to mainly rainforest can be excellently seen during the flight from Trinidad to Riberalta. The small rubber-boom town of Riberalta has a laid-back atmosphere, not the least because there are very few cars, and normal traffic is done by motorbike. So after installing ourselves in the aptly named hotel Colonial (not expensive, but to be paid in cash like everything here except your flight, and there were no ATM cash withdrawals) we walked the 50 m to the plaza where we were assigned in no time to two motorbike taxi drivers by somebody from the hotel. He arranged a rate of 10 pesos per hour each, and the two friendly guys (William and Dennis) remained our drivers for the coming days (mornings and some late afternoons).

At the same corner of the plaza is the best restaurant, Tom's, with a shaded terrace overlooking the plaza. The road around the ample plaza was one big softly buzzing motorbike parade in the evenings, and the sport for us was to find out the maximum number of passengers on one motorbike (5!), and how many rounds somebody would make. I kept my eye on a lone girl on a rented motorbike but she came not further than 8 rounds or so before catching up with friends and taking a side road. From another guest who worked here we heard that the maximum she had ever counted for one motorbike was 62 rounds. This is a funny and quiet town and we saw no other tourists here.

Hamburgo is the name of a cluster of clay ovens at the border of the town, near the river, and it is here that Sjoerd Mayer discovered the Masked Antpitta as a new species split from Spotted Antpitta. This is in the low moist forest to the right of the road towards the river, and we clearly heard it singing here (some 2 or 3 together; we had brought one of Sjoerd's recordings) but we never saw them. But we are seldom lucky with antpittas. Sjoerd wrote me later that he mostly saw antpittas by chance and not when they were singing. Black-spotted Bare-eye was one of the birds we did see here, and a funny sight was the gathering of a hundred or so Fork-tailed Flycatchers at a roost in the reeds behind the forest.

Antofagasta is a hamlet deep into the forested zone to the left of the road from Riberalta to Guayamerin. Here, but even more near the hamlet Siete Julio to the right of the sand road to Antofagasta, we had great moments of Amazonian birding, with Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher, Paradise Jacamar, White-necked Puffbird, Scaly-breasted Woodpecker, Bare-necked Fruitcrow, Screaming Piha and many others. Although the forest was nowhere really unbroken for more than a mile or so there were many good spots. See the map for the location of this 7 Julio.

Before passing by this hamlet you cross a small river and in the low bushes along the river (to the right after crossing the bridge) we had Sulphur-bellied Tyrant-Manakin, and an Ihering's antwren. This species was not yet on the most recent list for Bolivia but presumed by Ridgely and Tudor to occur here in this corner of Bolivia, and we later learned that ours would be the second observation for Bolivia, and the first for Beni. The first one for Bolivia was in Pando.

Lago Tumichucua is along the road from Riberalta towards the Andes, and we were strongly advised by several people in Riberalta to visit that scenic site as well. The lake is attractive indeed, and the more so the forested island in it. We hired a dugout canoe for the four of us (the drivers and we) and made a slow tour along that island and walked a bit onto the island. The birding seemed slow but in fact we added a few species to the list, like White-eyed Attila (singing incessantly on the island), Horned Screamer (so we had both screamers now) and Osprey. On the way back to Riberalta we visited some open woods just before the large checkpoint at the outermost border of the town, and we got a nice lowland-tanager flock.

La Paz (CT, YU)

We had to stay in La Paz three times and although it is an impressive city, at 3600 m and the even bigger twin-town El Alto at 4000 m, we did not really like it. Just too crammed and messy, and an appalling contrast between rich and poor on every street. I also suffered a bit from the altitude. We first had the recommended hotel Rosario and this is in the very lively Illampu street with many Indians, but the other nights we had hotel Libertador in Potosi street (actually the continuation of it called Obispo Cardenas). This one we preferred – it is less touristy and more comfortable, and it felt very safe also. The room was 52 USD, their fax is 318924, phones 313434, 310059, 317192). The restaurant of Libertador is recommended but we found it rather dull and expensive, but good enough when you are tired of the trip or the city).

Another recommended restaurant was the authentic Casa del Corregidor at Murillo Street but here we found the service bad, and it was too cold there. In contrast, a logistical highlight was Imbex rent-a-car at Av. Montes, where we got a good car, a Suzuki Gran Vitara again, but with good tyres now. We had not made a reservation but it was all arranged smoothly on the spot. We used it for a 3-day trip across the high pass called Cumbre and then down into the Yungas, the subtropical to temperate moist forest zone on the East Andes slope. Imbex' e-mail address at La Paz is or (what I used) , fax (591) 2 379884, phone 316895. They do have one other office, at Sucre, but not in Sta. Cruz, but they said they cooperate sometimes with one car rental company in Sta. Cruz. One-way rental is very expensive here, so maybe this cooperation is an opportunity and you could explicitly ask for it.

To find your way out of La Paz to the Cumbre, which is the direction of Choroni, we used the city map provided by Imbex, and the location of Imbex made it easy as well. They are on the main road through the center (Av. Montes) but just so (at the corner of Av. Pucurani) that you can avoid driving through the center when heading for the Cumbre. The weather at the pass (Cumbre) can be miserable but we had sunny weather after a light snowfall on the previous day. We tried birding on several places along this main road further down at the other side of the pass but the altitude made us go slow. The best place was above the gas station of Cotapata, at about 3240 m, at WP20.

Here in the low elfin forest we had many good tanagers and the like (see list). You find this by driving or walking up left of the gas station, then keeping left at a fork, and at the next fork, where you cannot drive on any further, the birding was good to the left (short dead-end trail) and to the right. This one is a long trail going over a saddle and gradually getting into denser temperate forest. We only had 30 minutes birding along this trail but the vegetation looks very promising. That second fork still is only 150 m or so from the gas station. The main road is asphalted now till nearly Cotapata and we did not go further than Cotapata because we had to take the side road to Chulumani (right after Unduavi).

At Unduavi is a military checkpoint that is much more serious that the ones we had had anywhere before in Bolivia (where you always could drive on after slowing down a bit). We were followed by a police car and forced to stop, and we were seriously reprimanded for driving on. So please just do stop at the open barrier and take your time to find out in which of the small barracks you have to go to show your papers.

The drive down to Chulumani is wonderful. This into the Sud Yungas (YU). Steep slopes with good forests, at least there where people cannot yet easily get into them. This dirt road is not busy (a bit more so at weekends) and we could easily stop on many places to do some roadside birding in the half-open forest habitat, e.g. at WP19 (at 3200 m) and WP18 (at 1800 m). The road starts at about 3000 m in upper temperate forest and we ended the day at the hotel Tamampaya just before the hamlet called Puente Villa, at about 1300 m in subtropical forest.

This hotel (phone 79 6099; postbox 3-12356, at La Paz I suppose) is really worthwhile although I did not yet hear about it from other birders. But they do receive birding tour groups, the manager told us. It is located at the other side of the river than where the road goes (you cross the river on a one-way bridge), and the main building with the open air restaurant and the chalet-type rooms are situated in a beautiful green setting with many different trees and good views up hill. We did not bird so much here as it deserved, but got two typical foothill species on their grounds: Slaty Gnateater and Plain Antvireo.

At the backside of Puente Villa village (which is still an hour or so before Chulumani) a track goes up through a narrow lush stream valley. After about 500 m the track along the stream merges into a trail, and then after some time steep rock faces hang above the trail. This is a site for Andean Cock-of-the-Rock as we had been told at the hotel. At the spot a local farmer walking by reconfirmed this. They would be mostly just before the narrow wooden bridge leading to a trail on the other side of the stream (see photo in the other part of this report).

We spent about four morning hours in the upper reaches of the Apa Apa forest reserve, about which we had only read in the Footprint Bolivia Handbook, but at the hotel they pointed this out as the best birding spot in the surroundings. We had a shortcut through Huancane village to the upper backside of this reserve but normally you enter via a longer road from Chulumani, and then you will have wardens at the lower part of the reserve to guide you, I think. For the upper reaches of this reserve some rare species like Scimitar-winged Piha and Chestnut-crested Cotinga are mentioned.

The shortcut to the upper part is mentioned in the Bolivia Handbook: 'from Huancane follow the high trail to the right which leads around the hillside to the upper parts of the Apa Apa forest'. The 'trail' is actually a difficult but practicable 4WD track. We did not have those rare species but had a whole series of Yungas Manakin, amongst others, and we were really impressed by the quality of this yungas forest, in a sort of transitional zone between the subtropical and the temperate zone.
From Huancane to Chulumani it is some 10 minutes and here you finally have a place with gasoline, telephone (at the plaza), fruit stalls etc.

Another attractive excursion from La Paz is Lake Titicaca of course. We had one spare afternoon when coming back from our side trip to Chile, and went to the lake with the same taxi driver as we had from the airport to the hotel. Our main target was the Titicaca Flightless Grebe of course, also prosaically called Short-winged Grebe. We found this at WP25 at 'Snack Mirador Chua', a bit after the village Shankajawira, and when driving slowly back again also at WP26 at another establishment likewise called Mirador. For the rest this trip was our only acquaintance with the tough life on the cold but fairly populated Bolivian altiplano, and as such as impressive as the lake with its incredible far horizon.

Part 3 - GPS-waypoints

List of waypoints measured by GPS on a trip to Bolivia, N Chile and Buenos Aires province Argentina in Sept/October 2000.

See the reports at for info about the waypoints. Generally they were taken at good birding sites.

Waypoints of sites with vulnerable macaw species have been left out.

S17°49.8641' means 17 degrees and 49 minutes plus 8641 tenthousands of a minute South.

WP01 = S17°49.8641',W064°42.8642'

WP02 = S17°58.7237',W064°28.5090'

WP03 = S14°23.7082',W064°52.3273'

WP09 = S14°12.3560',W064°56.5051'

WP10 = S14°20.0972',W064°54.1217'

WP11 = S10°55.6218',W065°57.8787'

WP12 = S10°55.8606',W065°54.7424'

WP13 = S10°55.6685',W065°55.2600'

WP14 = S10°55.5890',W065°56.5008'

WP15 = S11°00.0227',W066°02.3130'

WP16 = S11°00.1434',W066°03.0317'

WP17 = S11°00.2634',W066°03.0591'

WP18 = S16°21.4738',W067°46.1129'

WP19 = S16°18.7042',W067°54.1843'

WP20 = S16°17.1734',W067°51.0162'

WP21 = S18°18.1287',W069°35.6761'

WP22 = S18°22.7532',W069°38.3662'

WP23 = S18°26.5232',W069°45.5805'

WP24 = S18°27.5014',W069°47.0312'

WP25 = S16°11.5115',W068°45.2704'

WP26 = S16°12.8810',W068°40.7340'

WP27 = S35°01.6290',W057°31.0587'

WP28 = S36°23.4803',W056°48.7289'

WP29 = S36°23.7989',W056°48.9941'

WP30 = S36°26.9075',W056°57.3285'

WP31 = S36°28.6826',W056°59.2165'

WP32 = S36°29.3324',W057°00.2491'

WP33 = S36°29.7756',W057°00.9305'

WP34 = S36°23.1442',W056°43.6508'

Part 4. Species list

This list of bird species observed on the 5-week trip includes the species for the side trips to North Chile and Buenos Aires province (Argentina). These two areas are indicated with EC (extra Chile) and EA (extra Argentina) in the two columns to the right. See the separate reports for more details about these two areas.

Explanation of columns:
zo: life zone in Bolivia according to Remsen (1989) - see further explanation at bottom of list
&: endemic species for Bolivia
*: lifer species for us
LA: Lomas de Arena near Sta. Cruz
PI: Rio Pirai at foot of Andes above Sta. Cruz
SA: Samaipata, low-elevation Andes on ' old road' from Sta. Cruz to Cochabamba
CU: Cuevas valley near Samaipata
CO: Comarapa (semi-arid and others), at end of Valle from Samaipata upwards
SI: Siberia cloud forest, well above Comarapa
JB: Jardin Botanico, mostly chaco forest, near Sta. Cruz
VV: Viru Viru airport near Sta. Cruz
TD: Trinidad surroundings, in eastern savanna lowlands (Beni province)
RI: Riberalta surroundings, in northeastern rainforest lowlands (Beni province)
AL: Laguna Alalay at Cochabamba city (2500 m altitude)
CT: Cumbre pass of La Paz and temperate shrubby forest behind it
YU: Yungas down to Chulumani

EC: extra species in North Chile
EA: extra species in Buenos Aires province (Argentina)

zo  &                                   *LA PI SA CU CO SI JB VV TD RI AL CT YU    EC EA

A                        Little Tinamou                          TD RI

USA                       Brown Tinamou *                                    YU

L                     Undulated Tinamou                          TD RI

N                  Small-billed Tinamou *         CU    SI

N                       Tataupa Tinamou *      SA                TD

NV                   Red-winged Tinamou *LA                   VV

P                        Ornate Tinamou *                                          EC

N                     Brushland Tinamou *                     VV

                        Spotted Nothura *                                             EA

N                 White-bellied Nothura *LA?

N                          Greater Rhea *                        TD

P                           Lesser Rhea                                            EC

PN                   White-tufted Grebe                                AL

P     Short-winged (Titicaca Fll) Grebe *                                 CT

N                     Pied-billed Grebe                                               EA

                            Great Grebe                                               EA

P                         Silvery Grebe                                            EC

                       Humboldt Penguin                                            EC

                 Black-browed Albatross *                                             EA

                            Cape Petrel                                            EC

                   White-chinned Petrel *                                             EA

                       Sooty Shearwater                                            EC

                        Manx Shearwater *                                             EA

                  Wilson's Storm-petrel                                               EA

                         Peruvian Booby                                            EC

W      Neotropic (Olivaceous) Cormorant                          TD RI AL    YU

                       Guanay Cormorant                                            EC

                   Red-legged Cormorant                                            EC

L                               Anhinga                          TD

             Peruvian (Chilean) Pelican                                            EC

N                       Whistling Heron *LA                JB VV TD

L                           Snowy Egret  LA                      TD    AL

A                          Capped Heron                          TD

L            Cocoi (White-necked) Heron                          TD

L                     Great White Egret                          TD

L                          Cattle Egret  LA          CO          TD

L                Striated (Green) Heron                          TD RI

NP            Black-crowned Night-heron                          TD       CT

L                 Rufescent Tiger-heron                          TD

N                 Stripe-backed Bittern *                                             EA

L                            Wood Stork                          TD

N                         Maguari Stork                          TD

L                                Jabiru                          TD

N          Whispering (Bare-faced) Ibis                          TD

N                      White-faced Ibis                                               EA

P                             Puna Ibis                                            EC

N                        Plumbeous Ibis *                        TD

N                      Buff-necked Ibis                          TD

L                            Green Ibis                          TD

N                     Roseate Spoonbill                          TD                   EA

P                      Chilean Flamingo                                            EC

P                       Andean Flamingo *                                          EC

P                Puna (James') Flamingo *                                          EC

A                       Horned Screamer                             RI

N                     Southern Screamer *                        TD

N                Fulvous Whistling-duck                                               EA

N            White-faced Whistling-duck  LA

PV                           Ruddy Duck                                AL

        Lake Duck [Argentine Blue-bill] *                                             EA

                      Black-necked Swan *                                             EA

                         Coscoroba Swan *                                             EA

P                          Andean Goose *                                 CT

L                         Orinoco Goose                          TD

NV                            Comb Duck *LA          CO

N                        Brazilian Teal *                                             EA

               Chiloe (Southern) Wigeon *                                             EA

PV        Speckled (Yellow-billed) Teal                                            EC

P                          Crested Duck *                                          EC

P         Yellow-billed (Brown) Pintail                                               EA

                              Puna Teal                                AL

P                           Silver Teal *                              AL CT

PV                        Cinnamon Teal                                AL

N                          Red Shoveler *                                             EA

N        Rosy-billed Pochard [Rosybill] *LA

N                     Black-headed Duck *                                             EA

L                American Black Vulture  LA PI SA          JB    TD RI

W                        Turkey Vulture  LA PI SA CU CO    JB    TD

A         Greater Yellow-headed Vulture                             RI

PV                        Andean Condor *            CO SI

L                          King Vulture                          TD RI

LU         American Swallow-tailed Kite                 SI          RI

NV           White-tailed (Bl.Sh.) Kite                                               EA

N                            Snail Kite                          TD

L                        Plumbeous Kite     PI                      RI       YU

N                   Long-winged Harrier                             RI

P                     Cinereous Harrier                                               EA

TSN                 Plain-breasted Hawk                                               EA

L                      Great Black-hawk  LA                      TD          YU

N                         Savannah Hawk                          TD

N                          Harris' Hawk                                               EA

A                   Black-collared Hawk                          TD

VP          Black-chested Buzzard-eagle           CU

A                             Grey Hawk                             RI

LV                        Roadside Hawk  LA PI    CU CO SI JB    TD

N                     White-tailed Hawk     PI                   TD

VP                      Red-backed Hawk *            CO    JB?

P                  Puna (Variable) Hawk                                            EC

A                                Osprey                             RI

P                     Mountain Caracara                 SI

N                      Crested Caracara  LA PI SA          JB    TD

L                Yellow-headed Caracara  LA                      TD

                      Chimango Caracara *                                             EA

USA                Barred Forest-falcon                 SI

W                      American Kestrel        SA                TD

PN                      Aplomado Falcon  LA

L                            Bat Falcon                          TD RI

L                   Speckled Chachalaca                          TD          YU

H                           Andean Guan                 SI                   YU

A                           Spix's Guan                          TD

A             Blue-throated Piping-guan                          TD

U            Rufous-breasted Wood-quail                                      YU

A                    Rufous-sided Crake                                               EA

L                 Grey-necked Wood-rail                    JB    TD

                        Giant Wood-rail *                                             EA

VP                       Plumbeous Rail                                               EA

NP                       Common Moorhen                    JB          AL CT

N                Spot-flanked Gallinule *                                             EA

N                     White-winged Coot *                                             EA

PV                          Andean Coot                                AL CT

                      Red-gartered Coot *                                             EA

                       Red-fronted Coot *                                             EA

P                            Giant Coot *                                          EC

A                            Sunbittern                          TD

N                               Limpkin                          TD

N                    Red-legged Seriema *                     VV

L                        Wattled Jacana  LA                JB

                 American Oystercatcher                                               EA

                 Blackish Oystercatcher                                            EC

                     Black-necked Stilt                                               EA

P                         Andean Avocet *                                          EC

LP           Lesser (Am.) Golden Plover                                               EA

              Grey (Bl.-bellied) Plover                                               EA

                            Puna Plover *                                          EC

N                      Southern Lapwing  LA                   VV TD

P                        Andean Lapwing *                                 CT

NP                 South American Snipe *                                             EA

                             Puna Snipe *                                          EC

PN                     Hudsonian Godwit *                                             EA

            Hudsonian Curlew (Whimbrel)                                            EC

LP                     Upland Sandpiper                          TD

LP                   Greater Yellowlegs                                            EC

LP                    Lesser Yellowlegs                    JB

L                    Solitary Sandpiper  LA                      TD

L                     Spotted Sandpiper                    JB       RI

                        Ruddy Turnstone                                            EC

L                White-rumped Sandpiper                                            EC

PV                    Baird's Sandpiper                                            EC

LPV                  Pectoral Sandpiper                                            EC

L               Buff-breasted Sandpiper                                               EA

P               Grey-breasted Seedsnipe                                            EC

                          Pomarine Skua                                               EA

                            Arctic Skua                                               EA

                       Band-tailed Gull                                            EC

                           Olrog's Gull                                               EA

                              Grey Gull                                            EC

                              Kelp Gull                                            EC

             Grey-headed (-hooded) Gull                                               EA

                      Brown-hooded Gull                                               EA

PV                          Andean Gull                                AL

P                       Franklin's Gull                                            EC

                           Elegant Tern                                            EC

                           Cayenne Tern                                               EA

                    South American Tern                                            EC

                     Snowy-crowned Tern *                                             EA

A                    Yellow-billed Tern                             RI

A                     Large-billed Tern                          TD

                              Inca Tern                                            EC

A                         Black Skimmer                                               EA

N                       Picazuro Pigeon *LA                      TD

TS                   Band-tailed Pigeon                 SI                   YU

L                    Pale-vented Pigeon                          TD

UA                     Plumbeous Pigeon                                      YU

W                            Eared Dove        SA                TD    AL

                      White-winged Dove                                            EC

                            Scaled Dove                          TD

N            Plain-breasted Ground-dove  LA PI       CO    JB    TD

L                     Ruddy Ground-dove                          TD RI

W                     Picui Ground-dove *                        TD

VP               Bare-faced Ground-dove                                AL

P            Golden-spotted Ground-dove                                            EC

LV                    White-tipped Dove        SA       SI

SU      White-faced (Large-tailed) Dove *      SA

A                     Grey-fronted Dove                          TD

A                      Ruddy Quail-dove                                      YU

L                 Blue-and-yellow Macaw                          TD

N   &               Blue-throated Macaw *                        TD

A                   Red-and-green Macaw                          TD

V   &                 Red-fronted Macaw              CO

A                Chestnut-fronted Macaw                          TD RI

N                 Golden-collared Macaw *                        TD

N                 Blue-crowned Parakeet *LA    SA    CO    JB

V                       Mitred Parakeet        SA CU CO SI

A                 Dusky-headed Parakeet                          TD RI

N                Peach-fronted Parakeet *LA                      TD

NU               Green-cheeked Parakeet *         CU                         YU

NV                        Monk Parakeet *                                             EA

PT                      Andean Parakeet                                   CT

                  Blue-winged Parrotlet  LA                JB VV TD

LV            Yellow-chevroned Parakeet *LA PI       CO    JB VV TD RI

A                    Blue-headed Parrot                          TD

US                    Red-billed Parrot                                      YU

N                   Scaly-headed Parrot *LA?

LV   Turquoise-fronted (Blue-fr) Parrot *         CU CO

A      Yellow-crowned (Y-headed) Parrot                          TD RI

L                  Orange-winged Parrot                          TD

H                    Scaly-naped Parrot        SA?

A                          Mealy Parrot                             RI

LU                      Squirrel Cuckoo           CU       JB       RI

A                  Black-bellied Cuckoo                             RI

A                               Hoatzin                          TD

A                           Greater Ani                          TD

L                     Smooth-billed Ani  LA PI             JB    TD RI

                      Groove-billed Ani                                            EC

NV                         Guira Cuckoo *LA    SA          JB    TD

L                        Striped Cuckoo                          TD RI

L                  Tropical Screech-owl                                      YU

PVN                    Great Horned Owl                          TD

L                 Ferruginous Pygmy-owl                          TD

                     Peruvian Pygmy-Owl *                                          EC

NP                        Burrowing Owl  LA                   VV

N                      Lesser Nighthawk                                            EC

N                 Band-tailed Nighthawk                          TD RI

L                              Pauraque                          TD RI

LV              Scissor-tailed Nightjar *            CO

H               Chestnut-collared Swift                 SI

L                  White-collared Swift  LA       CU                         YU

A                     Pale-rumped Swift *                           RI

A                    Short-tailed Swift                             RI

N                     Ashy-tailed Swift *         CU

S                    White-tipped Swift           CU

V                          Andean Swift                                            EC

                 Fork-tailed Palm-swift                             RI

A                Pale-tailed Barbthroat *                           RI

                            hermit spec                                      YU

AU                   Long-tailed Hermit                          TD

F                       Planalto Hermit *   PI    CU

N            Swallow-tailed Hummingbird *                        TD

S                      Green Violet-ear                                      YU

A                  Black-throated Mango     PI !

N            Glittering-bellied Emerald *            CO

LU                Fork-tailed Woodnymph                                      YU

A                White-chinned Sapphire                          TD

N         Gilded Sapphire (Hummingbird) *         CU

             White-throated Hummingbird                                               EA

N             White-tailed Goldenthroat     PI

V             White-bellied Hummingbird *      SA    CO                      YU

V                     Giant Hummingbird                 SI

PT  &              Black-hooded Sunbeam *                                 CT

PT                   Great Sapphirewing *                                 CT

TS                        Collared Inca                                      YU

TP         Violet-throated Starfrontlet                 SI             AL

V              Green-tailed Trainbearer              CO

V                      Red-tailed Comet *            CO

TP                     Tyrian Metaltail                 SI                CT

SU                    Long-tailed Sylph                                      YU

                      Oasis Hummingbird *                                          EC

                     Peruvian Sheartail *                                          EC

U                       Crested Quetzal                 SI

S                 Golden-headed Quetzal                                      YU

A                   Black-tailed Trogon                          TD RI

A                   White-tailed Trogon                             RI

SU                        Masked Trogon                 SI                   YU

LU                  Blue-crowned Trogon     PI                   TD

A                     Violaceous Trogon                             RI

LV                    Ringed Kingfisher              CO          TD

L                     Amazon Kingfisher                          TD RI

L                      Green Kingfisher                          TD RI

A           Green-and-rufous Kingfisher                             RI

L                   Blue-crowned Motmot                    JB    TD RI       YU

L                 Rufous-tailed Jacamar                          TD

A                      Paradise Jacamar                             RI

A                 White-necked Puffbird                             RI

NV                 Spot-backed Puffbird *   PI SA    CO

L                 Black-fronted Nunbird                    JB    TD RI

A                 White-fronted Nunbird                             RI

A                          Swallow-wing                             RI

A                  Black-spotted Barbet                             RI

S                  Blue-banded Toucanet *                                    YU

A                Chestnut-eared Aracari                          TD

A                       Cuvier's Toucan                             RI

N                           Toco Toucan *                        TD

AU                    Arrowhead Piculet *                  JB

A               Rufous-breasted Piculet *                        TD

N                      White Woodpecker *                        TD

A              Yellow-tufted Woodpecker                    JB

V              White-fronted Woodpecker *            CO

N                  Checkered Woodpecker *            CO

LU                    Little Woodpecker                          TD

A              Spot-breasted Woodpecker                             RI

                Green-barred Woodpecker *                                             EA

PT                       Andean Flicker                                   CT

N                         Campo Flicker *LA                   VV TD

A             Scaly-breasted Woodpecker                             RI

N               Pale-crested Woodpecker *                        TD

A              Rufous-headed Woodpecker

L                   Lineated Woodpecker           CU                         YU

L            Crimson-crested Woodpecker           CU                RI

LV               Olivaceous Woodcreeper                             RI

SF            Strong-billed Woodcreeper                                      YU

LU             Black-banded Woodcreeper                 SI       TD

A           Straight-billed Woodcreeper                    JB       RI

A                   Striped Woodcreeper *                           RI

A             Buff-throated Woodcreeper                             RI

NV            Narrow-billed Woodcreeper *      SA    CO

H    Spot-crowned (Montane) Woodcreeper                 SI                   YU

L                 Red-billed Scythebill                          TD

P                            Puna Miner *                                          EC

V   &             Bolivian Earthcreeper *            CO

P          Straight-billed Earthcreeper *                                          EC

V                     Rock Earthcreeper *                                          EC

P           Scale-throated Earthcreeper *                                          EC

            White-throated Earthcreeper *                                          EC

P           Plain-breasted Earthcreeper *                                          EC

PT                 Bar-winged Cinclodes                                            EC

                 White-winged Cinclodes                                            EC

NV                       Rufous Hornero *LA PI SA    CO    JB    TD

                   Tufted Tit-spinetail *                                             EA

                 Streaked Tit-spinetail                                            EC

PT  &        Black-throated Thistletail *                                 CT

NV              Sooty-fronted Spinetail *      SA                TD

HPT                   Azara's Spinetail                 SI                CT YU

                       Chicli Spinetail *                                             EA

L               Plain-crowned Spinetail                    JB

NV              Ochre-cheeked Spinetail *      SA

V              Stripe-crowned Spinetail *            CO

    &         Iquico (Maquis) Canastero *                                 CT

P                 Cordilleran Canastero *                                          EC

VPT               Dark-winged Canastero *                                          EC

                     Hudson's Canastero *                                             EA

VP             Streak-fronted Thornbird *            CO

             Freckle-breasted Thornbird *                                             EA

              Bay-capped Wren-spinetail *                                             EA

                     Wren-like Rushbird                                               EA

               Curve-billed Reedhaunter *                                             EA

            Straight-billed Reedhaunter *                                             EA

                      Firewood-gatherer *                                             EA

TS                   Pearled Treerunner                                   CT

N                      Rufous Cachalote *                        TD

A    Striped Woodhaunter [Striped Foliag                            RI

US                   Striped Treehunter *                                    YU

L                       Great Antshrike                          TD

L                      Barred Antshrike                          TD

F     Chestnut-backed (Lined) Antshrike *   PI       CO

A                   Amazonian Antshrike                             RI

W                    Variable Antshrike *      SA

SV              Rufous-capped Antshrike *               SI

A                 Spot-winged Antshrike                             RI

UF                       Plain Antvireo                                      YU

A            Amazonian Streaked Antwren                             RI

                      Ihering's Antwren *                           RI

A                          Grey Antbird                          TD

A                      Blackish Antbird *                        TD?

UN                White-backed Fire-eye                    JB

A                      Warbling Antbird                             RI

A                      Silvered Antbird                          TD

A                Black-spotted Bare-eye                             RI

TS                Rufous-faced Antpitta *               SI

                        Masked Antpitta *                           RI

U                       Slaty Gnateater *                                    YU

        Gray (from Unicolored) Tapaculo *               SI

(P)                   Diademed Tapaculo *                                 CT

U                Swallow-tailed Cotinga *            CO

PT                  Red-crested Cotinga                 SI                CT

               White-tipped Plantcutter *            CO                AL

TS                    Barred Fruiteater                 SI

A                        Screaming Piha                             RI

A                 Bare-necked Fruitcrow                             RI

A                    Red-headed Manakin                             RI

U                        Yungas Manakin *                                    YU

A        Sulphur-bellied Tyrant-manakin *                           RI

H              Streak-necked Flycatcher                                      YU

TSP             Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet *               SI

LV        Southern Beardless Tyrannulet                                      YU

LV            Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet *LA          CO

NV             Chaco Suiriri Flycatcher *LA          CO

TSP               White-crested Elaenia                 SI                CT

LV                 Small-billed Elaenia *      SA

S                         Slaty Elaenia *            CO

TSP           White-throated Tyrannulet                 SI                   YU

N                      Sooty Tyrannulet *                                             EA

V                Greater Wagtail-tyrant *            CO

PTV                   Tufted Tit-tyrant                                   CT

P             Many-coloured Rush-tyrant *                                             EA

                      Warbling Doradito *                                             EA

LV              Yellow-olive Flycatcher           CU

LV             Bran-coloured Flycatcher                                               EA

                    Cinnamon Flycatcher                 SI                   YU

V                      Cliff Flycatcher              CO                      YU

SU       Smoke-coloured (Greater) Pewee              CO                      YU

UF                         Black Phoebe           CU                         YU

L                 Vermillion Flycatcher  LA                JB    TD

PT          Rufous-breasted Chat-tyrant                 SI

VPT             D'orbigny's Chat-tyrant                                   CT

PT             White-browed Chat-tyrant                                            EC

N                  White-rumped Monjita *                        TD

N                         White Monjita *                        TD

P            Rufous-naped Ground-tyrant *                                          EC

P                    Puna Ground-tyrant *                                 CT

P               Cinereous Ground-tyrant *                                          EC

P           White-fronted Ground-tyrant *                                          EC

P                        Andean Negrito *                                          EC

U                         Andean Tyrant *               SI

W             White-winged Black-tyrant                 SI

N                     Spectacled Tyrant *                                             EA

L             Black-backed Water-tyrant                          TD

L             White-headed Marsh-tyrant                          TD

LV                 Yellow-browed Tyrant *                                             EA

N                         Cattle Tyrant  LA                      TD

A                       Cinnamon Attila                             RI

A       Dull-capped (White-eyed) Attila                             RI

LV                     Rufous Casiornis *                  JB                YU

AUS             Dusky-capped Flycatcher        SA       SI                   YU

L                 Swainson's Flycatcher *                  JB

LV             Brown-crested Flycatcher        SA    CO    JB

LV                    Tropical Kingbird  LA PI                   TD

L                Fork-tailed Flycatcher  LA                   VV TD RI

L                      Eastern Kingbird                          TD

LV                Variegated Flycatcher                                      YU

               Crowned Slaty-flycatcher *                  JB

L                Boat-billed Flycatcher                    JB    TD

LV                  Streaked Flycatcher     PI                      RI

A             Rusty-margined Flycatcher                          TD          YU

L                    Piratic Flycatcher                             RI       YU

L                       Lesser Kiskadee                          TD

LV                       Great Kiskadee  LA PI SA    CO    JB

AU     Thrushlike Schiffornis [Manakin]                             RI

S                         Barred Becard *               SI

L                   White-winged Becard                          TD

LU                       Crested Becard *               SI

A                   Black-tailed Tityra                          TD

AU                        Masked Tityra                             RI       YU

A                  White-winged Swallow                          TD RI

N                  White-rumped Swallow *                                             EA

L                  Brown-chested Martin *                              AL

LV                        Purple Martin                 SI

L                  Grey-breasted Martin                          TD RI

W                Blue-and-white Swallow        SA                            YU

T                   Pale-footed Swallow                 SI

W            Sand Martin (Bank Swallow)              CO

PT                       Andean Swallow                                   CT

W                          Barn Swallow                          TD

P                      Correndera Pipit *                                             EA

L               Black-capped Donacobius                          TD

L                      Thrush-like Wren                    JB

                             Grass Wren                                               EA

L                    Fawn-breasted Wren *                  JB    TD

W                            House Wren        SA etc.

ST                        Mountain Wren                                      YU

N              Chalk-browed Mockingbird *LA

N              White-banded Mockingbird *LA                      TD

SU                     Andean Solitaire                                      YU

US                White-eared Solitaire *               SI

VPT                    Chiguanco Thrush              CO

PT                         Great Thrush                 SI                CT

UF                  Andean Slaty-thrush *               SI

NV                Rufous-bellied Thrush *      SA    CO

LV                Creamy-bellied Thrush *      SA          JB

A                   Black-billed Thrush                             RI

UA                  White-necked Thrush           CU                         YU

NV                   Masked Gnatcatcher *            CO

N                          Purplish Jay *      SA          JB    TD          YU

NV                    Plush-crested Jay *   PI             JB    TD

U                             Green Jay                                      YU

ov                        House Sparrow              CO etc

LV           Rufous-browed Peppershrike        SA

V                         Hooded Siskin        SA    CO

PT                         Black Siskin *                                 CT

P                  Yellow-rumped Siskin                                            EC

NUV                     Tropical Parula     PI SA CU CO                      YU

NV                  Masked Yellowthroat                          TD

U               Slate-throated Redstart                                      YU

VU                Brown-capped Redstart *            CO

TS                  Spectacled Redstart                 SI                CT

TS                      Citrine Warbler                                   CT

FN               Golden-crowned Warbler           CU             TD

A                    Rose-breasted Chat *                           RI

FU                           Bananaquit              CO

VPT                  Cinereous Conebill                                            EC

T                  Blue-backed Conebill                                   CT

SU                  Common Bush-tanager           CU    SI                   YU

T             Orange-browed Hemispingus *                                 CT

T             Three-striped Hemispingus *                                 CT

HPT             Rust-and-yellow Tanager *                                    YU

L                         Guira Tanager *                        TD

S                         Slaty Tanager *                                    YU

A                 Flame-crested Tanager                             RI

LUV                     Hepatic Tanager        SA    CO

AU                Silver-beaked Tanager           CU       JB    TD

NV                       Sayaca Tanager *LA PI SA    CO    JB    TD

A                          Palm Tanager                                      YU

H                   Blue-capped Tanager                 SI                   YU

V               Blue-and-yellow Tanager        SA CO                         YU

T               Hooded Mountain-tanager                                   CT

T      Scarlet-bellied Mountain-tanager                                   CT

SU         Blue-winged Mountain-tanager                 SI

UVF               Fawn-breasted Tanager        SA

VL             Purple-throated Euphonia              CO    JB    TD

A                 Thick-billed Euphonia                                      YU

V       Golden-rumped (Blue-h) Euphonia        SA

US              Saffron-crowned Tanager                                      YU

A         Masked (Blackbanded) Tanager *                           RI

A                    Black-faced Dacnis *                           RI

A                           Blue Dacnis                             RI       YU?

A               Red-legged Honeycreeper                             RI

A                       Swallow Tanager        SA

W               Rufous-collared Sparrow     PI SA etc

A                 Yellow-browed Sparrow                          TD

HPT            Rufous-naped Brush-finch                 SI                CT

H             Stripe-headed Brush-finch        SA       SI

N                  Red-crested Cardinal *                        TD

N                Yellow-billed Cardinal *   PI

NV      Red Pileated-finch (Red-crest.) *      SA

PT            Black-hooded Sierra-finch *                                          EC

                  Peruvian Sierra-finch *                                 CT

V                 Mourning Sierra-finch *                                          EC

P                Plumbeous Sierra-finch                                   CT

P             Ash-breasted Sierra-finch                                            EC

V                    Grey-crested Finch *      SA    CO

N                Long-tailed Reed-finch *                                             EA

P              White-winged Diuca-finch *                                 CT

                   Slender-billed Finch *                                          EC

VPT         Rufous-sided Warbling-finch *            CO

(T)   Black-and-chestnut Warbling-finch *      SA

        Black-and-rufous Warbling-finch *                                             EA

V                 Ringed Warbling-finch *      SA

VL          Black-capped Warbling-finch *      SA    CO

P            Bright-rumped Yellow-finch                                   CT

VP                Greenish Yellow-finch                                            EC

VP                        Saffron Finch        SA    CO       VV

                 Grassland Yellow-finch  LA

NVP                   Great Pampa-finch *                     VV TD

L                  Blue-black Grassquit        SA             VV

LV            Double-collared Seedeater                             RI

L               White-bellied Seedeater *                        TD

N               Tawny-bellied Seedeater *                        TD

A            Chestnut-bellied Seedeater                             RI

            Chestnut-throated Seedeater *                                          EC

VPT               Band-tailed Seedeater                 SI

P              Plain-coloured Seedeater                                   CT

PT            Moustached Flower-piercer *                                 CT

          Black-throated Flower-piercer *                                 CT

PTV &       Grey-bellied Flower-piercer *                                 CT

TS                Masked Flower-piercer                 SI                   YU

HV                Black-backed Grosbeak     PI       CO

L                      Greyish Saltator                          TD

VPT              Golden-billed Saltator        SA    CO

VN                 Ultramarine Grosbeak        SA    CO

                     Crested Oropendola           CU       JB       RI

US               Dusky-green Oropendola *                                    YU

A              Russet-backed Oropendola                                      YU

TS                     Mountain Cacique                                   CT

L              Solitary (Black) Cacique *                        TD

L                              Troupial                          TD

P               Yellow-winged Blackbird                                AL CT

N                White-browed Blackbird *LA

                    Peruvian Meadowlark                                            EC

                 Brown-yellow Marshbird *                                             EA

N              Scarlet-headed Blackbird *                        TD

N                       Chopi Blackbird *LA                JB

VN                   Bay-winged Cowbird *            CO          TD

LV                        Shiny Cowbird  LA    SA

Explanation of first column, with life zone indications from Remsen & Taylor - An annotated list of the birds of Bolivia (Buteo Books, 1989):
A: Amazonian lowlands
N: Non-amazonian lowlands
L: Lowlands in general
F: Andean foothills
U: Upper tropical zone
S: Subtropical zone
T: Temperate zone
H: T + S + U + occasionally F
P: Puna zone
PT: Puna/Temperate (transition zone or both zones...)
V: Valle zone (drier intermontane basins/valleys)
W: widespread

John van der Woude,
The Netherlands - -