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19 July - 14 August 2002

by Eric Salzman, Lorna Salzman, Fred Lesser, Armas Hill, Russell Payson

Trip Narrative:

Friday, July 19: Eric and Lorna leave Newark for São Paolo on Continental Airlines. We meet Fred Lesser in waiting area at Newark Airport; he is easily identifiable because he is wearing binoculars. Armas Hill and Russell Payson are coming on separate flights from Philadelphia and Phoenix via Miami.

Saturday, July 20:

Arrival in São Paolo. We are supposed to meet Armas and Russell in the airport but there is no sign of them. A call to Armas’ wife in Delaware reaches Armas himself who explains that their flights were cancelled by severe thunderstorms last night; they will arrive tomorrow. The three of us who have gotten this far go to the Hotel Panamby on the road between the airport and São Paolo. In spite of its highly visible location on the Via Dutra, the principal highway from Rio to São Paolo, the Panamby proves to be incredibly difficult to approach by any means or from any direction. This seems absurd for a major hotel in a major city but it turns out to be typical of the chaos known as traffic in major Brazilian towns.

Birding? We get our first Brazilian birds in the little garden built around the sewage ponds in the back of the hotel and in open fields next door. Also, with the aid of a taxi, we find a Parque or Horta Florestal somewhere in the endless São Paolo sprawl (Blackish Rail, hummers, tanagers). One of the problems with birding in Brazil is that there is no Peterson or Sibley for Brazilian birds. Nevertheless, with the aid of the cartoonish pictures in a charming little book entitled “Todas as aves do Brasil” (“All the Birds of Brazil”) and the extant two volumes of Ridgely/Tudor (“Birds of South America”), we are able to figure most of them out.

Sunday, July 21:

Armas and Russell arrive at the Panamby in a rental van (a VW Kombi) and we set out for Itatiaia National Park in the mountains between São Paolo and Rio. Our first stop is in the western part of the park which has the northernmost araucaria forest in South America. This area is reached through a mountain resort town by the name of Campos do Jordão. Unfortunately something like half the population of São Paolo has chosen to spend their Sunday in this town and getting in and out is one long traffic nightmare. Eventually we get to some fairly good birding areas (Vinaceous Parrot, Blue-billed Black-Tyrant, Plush-crested Jay) but it is long after dark by the time we reach the main part of the park. There are only two hotels actually in the park and the Hotel do Ype, the one preferred by birders, is unfortunately full so the Hotel Simon is where we stay.

Monday, Tuesday July 22, 23:

The Hotel Simon is not the most comfortable place in the world but the grounds are full of birds and the Hotel do Ype, whose grounds are at least as birdy, is easily accessible as well. The owner or manager of the Hotel Simon has set up a little hut in a hidden nook filled with hummingbird feeders and hummers – an amazing eight or nine species – and a more conventional feeder filled with fruit scraps which attracts Saffron Toucanets and all sorts of tanagers. It is possible to sit on the front porch of his house (by the side of the hotel) and watch the spectacle. Even more astonishingly, you can stand right in the middle of the hummingbird hut, surrounded by feeders and feedees, with absolutely no diminution in activity by these fearless mites as they buzz, zip, sip and squabble literally centimeters from your head. The Hotel do Ype also has feeders – filled with a blizzard of colorful tanagers – and a terrace with good views of scenery, vegetation and birds.

We spend two full days in the park, birding the grounds of both hotels, a number of the park roads, the so-called Lago Azul area with its hummer feeders (Frilled Coquette) and a few trails, notably the so-called Jeep Trail which proves to be outstanding. A Giant Antbird – huge but normally secretive like most of its small cousins – follows us right up this zig-zag trail, calling all the way and showing itself quite prominently. We also get good looks at a Rufous-tailed Antthrush which has been called in with tape by a visiting Scottish birder; this bird is virtually identical to the Such’s or Cryptic Antthrush which is also common in the area but has an entirely different call or song (we hear it persistently but never see the bird). Other good local birds include Red-breasted Toucan, Eastern Streamcreeper, White-collared Foliage-gleaner, White-shouldered Fire-eye, Eared Pygmy-Tyrant, Brown and Olive-green Tanagers as well as the astonishing and colorful tangara tanagers.

Wednesday, July 24:

A drive in the Itatiaia highlands on the high and rough Agulhas Negras Road is very productive (Black-and-Gold Cotinga singing its weird and long unrecognized song, Itatiaia Thistletail, various furnariids and antbirds, Ruby-crowned and Diademed Tanagers, Red-rumped and Bay-chested Warbling-Finches; also Rufous-thighed Hawk, the local version of a Sharp-shinned). A fancy new hotel opposite the bottom of the road offers a few birds (Sooty Tyrannulet flycatching over a pond) and a late lunch. Afterwards, we leave for Ubatuba, a resort town on the coast south of Rio, with a major nearby stop on the way in an area of wetlands and grasslands (Streamer-tailed Tyrant, Masked Yellowthroat). Like many coastal towns in this part of the Brazil, Ubatuba is reached by an extremely steep and poorly maintained road that zig-zags down the Atlantic slope of the Serra do Mar and we have the additional challenges of darkness and dense fog. Eventually Armas, operating mostly by instinct, gets to the bottom, finds his way through Ubatuba itself and locates the Pousada dos Amantes in a neighboring coastal town. This pousada, right in the middle of its small coastal village, is more of a bed & breakfast than a hotel or motel and it has, as we will discover, Brazilian Tanagers right on its doorstep.

Thursday, July 25:

After locating the Brazilian tanagers, we are greeted by an Aplomado Falcon flyover as we head out. The morning is spent in lowland Atlantic forest on a streamside trail where Eric gets separated from the rest of the party, thereby causing a mild panic. In spite of this, there are many good birds here (the local version of the Royal Flycatcher which may be a good species; Sharpbills, a number of local furnariids and antbirds). Later we visit a coffee-and-cocoa plantation called Capricornio (it is virtually on the Tropic of Capricorn), which was owned by a Dane who has recently passed away; the hope is that the property can be maintained as a preserve. On the way in, there are multiple hummingbird feeders on the porch of a house by the road with chairs on which you can sit and watch hummers like Festive Coquette, Saw-billed Hermit and Sombre Hummingbird. The main house at Capricornio stands empty and wide-open with its bookshelves still filled with volumes in several languages. The plantations (still tended), the surrounding lowland humid forest (in some danger) and adjacent open areas are very birdy (Pale-browed Treehunter, Southern Bristle-Tyrant, the tiny Buff-throated Purpletuft, calling bellbirds). Overnight again at the Pousada dos Amantes.

Friday, July 26:

After a second morning birding in the Ubatuba area (including our only actual coastal birding of the trip and a return to the areas we visited yesterday), we go back to the Pousada for lunch and make our departure. After failing to find a gas station on our way out of town, we run out of gas on the coastal road. The good news is that we manage, barely, to glide into a gas station; the bad news is that it is closed! A helpful passing motorist gives us a lift to the nearest functioning fill-up where we get a liter of the precious stuff in a plastic bag! It is enough to get the Kombi to the gas station and, after a complete fill-up, we are able to resume our route, taking us back up the Serra do Mar towards São Paolo. At Fred's request, Armas finds a pond full of White-faced Whistling Ducks right at dusk; there is just enough light to see their white faces! We return to the Panamby in São Paolo and it only take us an hour or so of frantic circling from one side of the highway to the other merely to arrive at the front door.

Saturday, July 27:

Morning flight from São Paolo to Cuiaba, capital of the huge Western state of Mato Grosso or Big Thicket (rather than “Big Forest” which would be Mata Grossa). Armas is not on the flight and we are met at the airport by a young local guide by the name of Fabiano Oliveira. Surprisingly, Fabiano has an English edition of “Todas os aves do Brasil”, of which we were not previously aware (and which, as of this writing, I still have not been able to obtain). Fabiano takes us to the town of Pocone, the starting point for the Transpantaneira, a famous dead-end dirt road that traverses a good chunk of the Pantanal, said to be the largest freshwater wetland in the world. We work our way slowly along – there are birds (Pearl Kite, Laughing Falcon for starters) and other wildlife everywhere – to K. 33 where we turn off to the right and proceed, in the gathering darkness, to the Pouso Alegre, a ranch which is also now a lodge.


Sunday, July 28:

Most of the lodges in the Pantanal are old-fashioned working cattle ranches with cowboys (known here, as well as in Argentina, as gauchos) and wide open spaces that are also hospitable to wildlife. In southeastern Brazil, it is still “winter” and, as we have discovered, breeding season has not yet begun (few birds are singing and many birds, notably flycatchers, are still on winter vacation to the north). In the Pantanal, however, there are only two seasons, dry and wet. During the wet season, much of the Pantanal is flooded; everything is spread out and many areas are relatively inaccessible. During the dry time, the birds and animals are concentrated into relatively fewer wetland areas. This is also the height of breeding season for many birds and the huge raptor, ibis, stork and heron nests that perch precariously on the isolated trees scattered throughout this wide-open landscape are fully occupied, many of them with young.

The Pantanal is part of the Paraguay/Paraná River system which flows into the giant estuary of the Plata to the south. Not surprisingly, there are no real endemics here as most of the birds are shared with adjacent Bolivia and nearby Paraguay and Argentina. But, on the other hand, there are a number of species that enter Brazil only in a very limited area (eg. White-fronted Woodpecker, Great Rufous Woodcreeper, Red-crested Cardinal, Gray-crested Cachalote) and are typical of inland areas in southern South America.

Pouso Alegre
is one of the main centers for the declining Hyacinth Macaw which breeds on the property; there is a pair using a nesting hole a short distance from the main ranch building. We also watch a pair of Gray-crested Cachalotes (a recent split from the Rufous Cachalote) picking up huge sticks from the ground to make their elaborate stick nest. We spend a good part of the day tramping the grounds which include some areas of low, dry forest (Helmeted Manakin, Large-billed Antwren, Mato Grosso Antbird). We are also shown a roosting potoo that is identified by Fabiano as a Giant Potoo although later, in retrospect, we are able to re-identify it as the local race of Common (or Gray) Potoo.

Back on the Transpantaneira, we bird our way along to the next lodge, Santa Tereza on the Piraim River deep in the Pantanal. A night drive on this ranch produces a Pauraque frozen in the vehicle lights and so immobilized that Fabiano is able to tip-toe up and grab it, bringing it back to the car and allowing us to observe, in the hand, its field marks and huge mouth gape. He tries the same trick with a Scissor-tailed Nightjar but, at the last moment, the bird takes off, showing us its extraordinary tail feathers in the process.


Monday, July 29:

Today’s highlight is a boat ride on the Piraim River. Fabiano, always ready for a hands-on experience, actually wrestles a Yellow Anaconda sunning itself on thick vegetation extending out into the water; after a struggle, the anaconda pulls free and gets away. Birds? A great many including Bare-faced Curassow, Sunbittern, Sungrebe and Boat-billed Heron as well as numbers of more familiar water birds. On dry land, there are two species of cardinals and Toco Toucans right at the ranch feeders and a Tamandua Anteater in the woods along the river. Santa Tereza, like all the lodges here, has preserved the traditional Brazilian cowboy or gaucho culture without destroying the teeming wildlife of the region; one of the pleasures is watching the grizzled gauchos on horseback moving the cattle around.

Later in the day, we return to the Transpantaneira and retrace our steps, this time stopping at the Pousada Piuval near the edge of the Pantanal proper. As always, every meter along the road is filled with incredible numbers of birds including (to mention only less familiar species) amazing numbers of Snail Kite, Black-collared and Great Black Hawks, Gray-breasted Wood-Rail, Jabiru and Maguiri Storks, half a dozen species of ibis, Whistling, Capped and White-necked Herons, Rufescent Tiger-Heron, Limpkin, Wattled Jacana, several species of macaws and two or three spinetails adapted to low marsh vegetation.


Tuesday, July 30:

Morning at the Pousada Piuval (Southern Screamer, White-fronted Woodpecker). Return to Cuiaba where we meet Armas at the Diplomat Hotel. After a considerable search for a cash machine that will produce American $$ (finally located at the BBV Bank), we depart for Chapada do Guimaraes, the name of a town (Fabiano’s home town), a region and national park in the highlands opposite the Pantanal. After a rather spectacular drive with a stop for birding at a waterfall and a detour at a National Park site overlooking a canyon and waterfall, we return to the Chapada road and promptly run out of gas (again!) just short of the town. Eventually, again with the help of a passing motorist, we are able to get fuel, get to a gas station and arrive in town where we stay at the Hotel Turismo (or Pousada Wolff).

Wednesday, July 31.

Morning in the cerrado, a widespread and typically Brazilian scrub habitat with an entire set of birds all its own (Coal-crested Finch, a pair of tanagers one of which looks exactly like a shrike, White-eared Puffbird, Checkered Woodpecker, Rufous-winged Antbird, etc.). Afternoon birding near the town with an evening stop at a very birdy gallery forest by a river (White-wedged Piculet, becards). The day ends with a loud-calling Pheasant Cuckoo in the forest right at the edge of a dirt road but always stubbornly out of sight. Afterwards to the local souvenir shops and overnight again at Pousada Wolff.

Thursday, August 1:

Morning again in cerrado, successfully calling in a Collared Crescent-chest right to our feet, and back at the gallery forest. After a visit to an artisanal crafts shop, we drive back to Cuiaba for another trip to the BBV Bank and lunch at a churrascaria (a local institution that can only be described as a carnivore feedlot; definitely not recommended to vegetarians). Fabiano helps us find a driver with van (and wife) who will make the long drive to the Jardim da Amazonia and back. This ride, always in the state of Mato Grosso, takes us across the low continental divide between the La Plata and Amazon watersheds. You might expect such a place to be rather exotic but in fact the countryside looks more like Nebraska than tropical Brazil; this is a major agricultural area specializing in soybeans and sugar cane.

We have elected to take the “new route” through the agricultural center of Nova Mutum and, after a turnoff in the gathering dusk, we find ourselves on a long drive in total darkness on poorly marked and largely deserted back-country dirt roads. By a miracle (or by Armas’ excellent powers of intuition), we manage to make all the correct turns but eventually our route is barred by a river. There is supposed to be a ferry here but everything looks dark and we are about to turn around in despair when we see someone approaching with a flashlight. It is the ferry operator who motions for us to drive onto a flat barge in the river; he powers up an antique ferry boat and pushes us across to the opposite bank. From here to the Jardim da Amazonia is a relatively short run through a ghostly nocturnal Amazonian forest.

Friday, August 2:

Jardim da Amazonia
is a very attractive lodge on the banks of the Rio Claro, one of the southernmost tributaries of the world’s greatest river system. This is definitely not Nebraska and the birds here are mostly true Amazonian species. There are many of all types but the outstanding find, first spotted by Lorna, is a Black-girdled Barbet, a species endemic to the central Amazonian basin and not usually seen this far south. Other species of note include Dot-eared Coquette, Turquoise, Paradise and Blue-necked Tanagers. After a full day’s birding on dry land, we take a river trip on two outboard-powered dugout-style boats. The idea is to go up river as far as possible under power and then drift downstream back towards the lodge at dusk. This plan is somewhat altered when one of the motors conks out and the two boats have to be lashed together and powered by an electric trolling motor. For all that, the ride is an idyllic run up and down an exquisite and unspoiled tropical waterway. It is also fairly productive and it is here that we see the real Great Potoo, a huge white ghost perched prominently over the river on a dead stub and confirming that the earlier bird was indeed misidentified.

Saturday, August 3:

Early morning in Jardim da Amazonia. Afterwards we return to Cuiaba on the old route, giving a lift to the two daughters (nieces?) of the owners of the establishment, one of whom has just returned from school in the United States. Afternoon flight back to São Paolo with overnight at the Panamby. Goodbye to Fred Lesser who returns to the U.S.

Sunday, August 4:

Morning flight to Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais. This translates as General Mines and it was the mineral weath – especially silver – that created the economic base of colonial Brazil. (When you land on the Brazilian coast north of Rio you are in the State of the Holy Spirit; you can then proceed to General Mines and finally to Big Thicket!) Belo Horizonte was a provincial town when we were here years ago; now it is a big city with the usual classic Brazilian traffic problems. We rent a car and, rather then head into town, drive north through Lagoa Santa to the Cerro do Cipo area where we stay at the very attractive Pousada do Ipe. This pousada has a lush setting on a waterfall as well as some nice birds (Pale-breasted Spinetail, Pileated Finch). It also has a troupe of very cute (and tame) Tufted-ear Marmosets.

Monday, August 5:

We climb the heights of the Cerro do Cipo to find the Cipo Canastero, a relatively recently discovered endemic of very restricted range. It takes us a while to find the bird (like many other birds in non-breeding season – it is winter, after all – it is not very responsive to tape) but eventually it shows. Other good birds in this distinctive highland habitat include the Hyacinth Visorbearer and the Pale-throated Serra-Finch. Other, lower areas, are less productive (Firewood Gatherer was the best species lower down). Evening again in the Pousada do Ipe.

Tuesday, August 6:

Morning in the Cerro do Cipo area. We drive back to Belo Horizonte and continue c. 100 kilometers east and south to the historic Caraça Monastery isolated in a wild and deeply forested valley surrounded by craggy mountains. This impressive and beautiful place, which still functions as a monastery, now takes in tourists. An additional attraction is that this forest is an important surviving outlier of the Mata Atlantica with many endemic birds. The monastery is also famous for the Maned Wolves that are fed nightly on the steps of the monastery. The first bird we saw here as we entered the valley on its single dead-end road was a Shear-tailed Gray-Tyrant. On our arrival at the monastery, we find our Scottish friend from Itatiaia, also newly arrived. Accommodations are in the old monk’s quarters which have been modernized (our room, at least, is quite attractive and comfortable). Dinner is in the old refectory and, as everywhere on our trip, it is served buffet style.

After dinner, I find our acquaintance from Scotland taking the evening air on the steps of the monastery and deep in conversation with another overseas birder whose accent I can’t quite place. I strike up a conversation with this second visitor and discover that I am talking with Ian Sinclair, the author of the standard South African guide which we used two years ago on our visit to that part of the world! Why didn’t you call me, he says, I would have taken you around. Well, Ian, I didn’t know you then but next time I’m in South Africa you will certainly hear from me!

Wednesday, August 7:

Breakfast at the monastery is in a separate and very picturesque room which is heated (it is quite cool in the morning) by a big old iron stove on which visitors can fry their eggs! This turns out to be a full and rewarding day birding around the monastery whose forests are particularly notable for suboscines including the gorgeous Swallow-tailed Cotinga, the very loud Cinnamon-vented Piha as well as various furnariids, antbirds, manakins and flycatchers.

Thursday, August 8:

We spend much of the day on the trails near the monastery and birding our way out along the single road in. We now have to decide whether to continue toward Vitoria to visit the reserves east of Belo Horizonte or to head west to the Serra da Canastra National Park to look for the hyper-rare Brazilian Mergansers. Since this is the best time and place for these very rare waterfowl (they have recently been seen there with young), we decide on the latter course, returning to Belo Horizonte and staying at the Brazilton Hotel in the western "suburb" of Contagem.

Friday, August 9:

Morning visit to the local Parque Fernão Dias where we find the rare and threatened Three-toed Jacamar. The drive from Belo Horizonte to the Serra da Canastra covers some 300 kilometres to the west, the latter part of it in the dark on dirt roads. We follow signs to a "pousada ecologico" with the alluring name of Paraiso da Canastra on the top of a hill very near the foot of the Casca D'Anta waterfall. We almost miss the entrance in the dark, driving past on a dirt road to nowhere. When we finally get there, we find a well-appointed pousada (it is, as we later discover, only half-finished) that appears to be totally vacant. The caretaker, seemingly the only person in residence, speaks no English and our Portuguese is, to put it mildly, primitive. However we are led to understand that he can put us up and also provide dinner. The former is accomplished by his disappearing to the back and bringing out linens, carrying them down to a pair of (completed) cabins and making our beds; we now have a place to stay. Dinner is arranged by the simple expedient of shouting down the hill to a house at the edge of the property below. Someone shouts back and eventually we are escorted down and into a farmhouse kitchen where we take a hearty meal in the bosom of the family, a charming and unexpected moment and one of the few times on the trip when dinner is a sit-down affair rather than a buffet.

Saturday, August 10:

The Serra da Canastra National Park consists largely of a high tableland or mesa covered in natural grasslands. The Brazilian Merganser occurs both at the top and near the bottom of the Casca D'Anta on the Rio São Francisco. As a merganser family has been seen on the lower river, we spend most of the day exploring the run under the mesa but all we can find are two mysterious dark birds hiding in riverside vegetation which prove to be ordinary Muscovys. Back at the pousada, the owner, Orlando César Barrett, has returned from his home in the nearby town of Piumhi and has now geared up his restaurant into operation. We decide to stay.


Sunday, August 11:

It is a long detour to the tableland above and we leave early from the pousada. The National Park gate is not yet open although the guardian is there and we have to argue our way in. Eventually we are successful only to discover that we have been preceded by a VENT group, the members of which appear to be looking for something by the road. After all this anticipation, the stark grasslands of the mesa appear to be virtually birdless. However, we eventually find the upper river at the idyllic place where it comes out of the mesa just before it crashes down the steep side as the Casca d’Anta. Our arrival is timed perfectly as a pair of Brazilian Mergansers comes wheeling in low, past our startled eyes; they land on the water and proceed to loaf and fish in full view. Eventually we find some other good birds on the plateau including the curious Cock-tailed Tyrant, the rare and threatened Ochre-breasted Pipit (apparently what the VENT group was searching for) and a passel of birds at the source or nascente of the Rio São Francisco. Overnight back at the Paraiso da Canastra.


Monday, August 12:

Morning birding in the forests just below the waterfall and around the pousada. We find three species of swifts among the thousands at the falls (a truly spectacular sight), a Brazilia Tapaculo calling from cover (it refuses to emerge) and a pair of White-striped Warblers walking about on the forest floor with, simultaneously, a small flock of White-bellied Warblers gamboling through the trees above, nicely enabling us to distinguish these similar-looking species. When it comes time to pay the bill at the pousada, we discover that this charming and beautifully located place charges more than most luxury hotels in Brazil and no amount of bargaining with Orlando César Barrett succeeds in reducing the bill. Reluctantly, we decide that we cannot recommend this place to other birders. Afternoon back to Belo Horizonte where we again stay at the Brazilton.

Tuesday, August 13:

For our last full day in Brazil, we decide to visit the old silver mining town of Ouro Preto with birding detours along the way. Ouro Preto is a superb Portuguese colonial hill town, with gorgeous baroque and rococo churches and palaces, mostly dating from the 17th and 18th centuries and it has been meticulously preserved and restored. We remembered it from years ago as a sleepy place but it has since become a bustling tourist objective while retaining most of its charm. The Estalagem Ouro Preto, in the hills just outside of town, proves to be an elegant, old-fashioned hotel surrounded by forests and gardens and, not surprisingly, it is very birdy (many hummers and tanagers, three Swallow-tailed Cotingas in a tree seen from above!). It would have been a great place to stay (it was completely empty) and the quoted price was a lot less than we paid at the Paraiso da Canastra but all our luggage is back at the Brazilton and we must return to Belo Horizonte.


Wednesday, August 14:

Eric spends the morning in the Parque Fernão Dias. Armas and Russell leave for the U.S. directly from Belo Horizonte. Eric and Lorna fly back to São Paolo to catch the evening Continental flight back to Newark.

Species List:

Bold-face = endemic, near-endemic or species of limited-area distribution

t = threatened species (BirdLife International)

nt = near-threatened species (BirdLife International)

se = southeastern Brazil

sw = southwestern Brazil (Mato Grosso)

sc = south central Brazil

e = eastern Brazil

1.   = life bird

*Greater Rhea (Rhea a. americana) (nt) – grasslands spccies, common in open areas of Mato Grosso 7/27-8/3

*Solitary Tinamou (Tinamus s. solitarius) – flushed in forest at Ubatuba 7/25

*Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus o. obsoletus) – seen twice on trail at Caraça 8/8

*Spotted Nothura (Nothura m. maculosa) – grasslands species; seen crossing the Jardim-Cuiaba Road 8/3 and in the Serra da Canastra area 8/11


Least Grebe (Podiceps dominicus speciosus) – lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24, Caraça 8/7

Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps anarcticus) – Serra da Cipo area 8/5

Brown Booby (Sula l. leucogaster) – two birds perched on a rock, others flying, Ubatuba harbor 7/26

Neotropical (Olivaceous) Cormorant (Phalacrocorax b. brasilianus) – widespread in wetland locations

Anhinga (Anhinga a. anhinga) – several birds in the Pantanal 7/28-29

Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) – Ubatuba harbor 7/25-26

*Whistling Heron (Syrigma s. sibilitrix) – fair numbers seen in Pantanal

Capped Heron (Pilherodias pileatus) – fair numbers seen in Pantanal; also Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

White-necked (Cocoi) Heron (Ardea cocoi) – fairly common in the Pantanal 7/26-29; Rio Claro 8/2

Great Egret (A. alba egretta) – very common almost everywhere

Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerula) – one seen on 7/30 along the Pantaneira

Snowy Egret (E. thula brewsteri) – fairly common in many areas

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus i. ibis) – common everywhere

Striated Heron (Butorides s. striatus) – Parque Florestal in São Paolo 7/20; common in Pantanal 7/27-30

Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli) – Parque Florestal, São Paolo 7/20; numbers in the Pantanal 7/27-30

Boat-billed Heron (Cochlearius cochlearius) – on the Piraim River near Piuval Lodge 7/29

Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma l.(?) lineatum) – fairly common in Pantanal 7/27-30

Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis erythromelas) – on the way into the Pantaneira 7/27

Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) – very common, Pantanal 7/27-30; also seen in a flock over the Rio Claro 8/2

*Maguari Stork (Ciconia (Euxenura) maguari) – migrants or wintering birds from Argentina; a few in the Pantanal 7/29

*Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) – fairly common, Pantanal 7/27-30

American Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus brasiliensis) – seen every day of the trip

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura ruficollis) – much less common than Black Vulture but widely seen

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (C. burrovianus urubitinga) – fairly common, Pantanal 7/27-30

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (C. melambrotos) – Rio Claro area, Caraça 8/2,3,6

*Plumbeous Ibis (Theristicus (Harpiprion) caerulescens) – fairly common, Pantanal 7/28-30

*Buff-necked Ibis (T. caudatus) – fairly common, Pantanal (caudatus); also Serra da Canastra area (hyperorius)

*Green Ibis (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) – uncommon to fairly common, Pantanal 7/27-30; also Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

*Bare-faced (Whispering) Ibis (Phimosus infuscatus) – fairly common, Pantanal 7/27-30

White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) – one seen, Pantanal 7/29

Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja) – uncommon to fairly common, Pantanal 7/27,29-30

*Southern Screamer (Chauna torquata) – grassland species; several birds, Piuval Lodge, Pantanal 7/29

White-faced Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata) – pond near Rio/São Paolo highway, 7/26, Pantanal 7/29

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (D. autumnalis) – Pantanal 7/30, Jardim da Amazonia (Rio Claro) 8/2

Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) – many places; common barnyard bird but also found in wild areas such as the Rio São Francesco at the foot of the Serra da Canastra

*Brazilian Teal (Duck) (Amazonetta brasiliensis ipecutiri) – lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24, Pantantal 7/30

*Brazilian Merganser (Mergus octosetaceus) (t) (se) – male and female seen flying at close range and landing in the quiet pool of the São Francisco River just before it plunges over the edge of the Serra da Canastra as the Casca D’Anta; the birds were observed at eye level in binoculars and spotting scopes, sitting on the river with the male also diving for fish 8/11

Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus yetapa) – 8/1 (on the cerrado road near Chapada)

Pearl Kite (Gampsonyx swainsoni) – near beginning of Pantaneira 7/27

White-tailed Kite (Elanus l. leucurus) – several open locations including fields adjacent to the Hotel Panamby, São Paolo and areas in Mato Grosso 7/21,27,31 8/3

Snail Kite (Rosthamus s. socialibis) – very common in Pantanal, 7/27-30

*Rufous-thighed (split from Sharp-shinned) Hawk (Accipiter [striatus] erythronemius) – top of the Agulhas Negras Road 7/24 [mid-southern South American form of the Sharp-shinned Hawk; given as a full species by Clements]

Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens flexipes) – Campos do Jordão 7/21, Pantanal 7/28

Great Black Hawk (Buteogallus u. urubitinga) – fairly common in Pantanal 7/27-30

Savanna Hawk (B. meridionalis) – most common in Pantanal 7/27-30; seen in other open locations 7/20, 8/11

Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus n.(?) nigricollis) – common in Pantanal 7/27-30

Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris) – widespread (probably occiduus & magniplumis)

White-tailed Hawk (B. a. albicaudatus) – several locations in open country 7/31 8/3,10,11

*Southern (Crested) Caracara (Polyborus. plancus) - widespread and common

Yellow-headed Caracara (Milvago c. chimachima) – widespread and common

Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans queribundus) – near beginning of the Pantaneira 7/27; heard in several other locations

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius cearae?) – a number of open country locations

*Aplomado Falcon (F. f. femoralis) – near Ubatuba 7/25, Pantantal 7/29,31, road to Serra da Canestra 8/9

Bat Falcon (F. r. rufigularis) – Pantaneira 7/27, Rio Claro 8/2

*Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis pantanalensis) – common in Pantanal 7/27-30

*Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris jacupemba) – Pantanal 7/28

Spix’s Guan (P. j. jacquacu) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

*Dusky-legged Guan (P. o. obscura) – common at Itatiaia 7/21-24; Caraça 8/6-8, Canastra 8/12

Blue-throated (Common) Piping Guan (Pipile [pipile] cumanensis grayi) – seen several times in the Pantanal 7/28-30

*Bare-faced Curassow (Crax fasciolata) – m & f seen from boat ride on the Piraim River 7/29 (not sure if this was nominate or grayi)

Limpkin (Aramus g. guarauna) – common in Pantanal 7/27-30

*Gray-necked Wood-Rail (Aramides c. cajanea) – common in wet areas

*Blackish Rail (Pardirallus (Rallus) nigricans zelebori) – Parque Forestal, São Paolo 7/20; road to Canastra 8/9

Common Moorhen (Gallinule) (Gallinula chloropus galeata) – Parque Florestal, São Paolo 7/20; wetlands near Canastra 8/12

*Sungrebe (American Finfoot) (Heliornis fulica) – from boat in Piraim River 7/29

Sunbittern (Eurypyga h. helias) – common in Pantanal 7/27-30

*Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) – grasslands species; heard in many open locations; seen near the Paraiso da Canastra 8/10-12

Wattled (South American) Jacana (Jacana j. jacana) – Parque Florestal, São Paolo 7/20; Pantanal 7/27-30

*White-backed (South American) Stilt (Himantopus malanurus) – Pantanal 7/28-30

Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis lampronotus) – very widespread in open areas

Kelp (Dominican) Gull (Larus dominicanus) – Ubatuba 7/25-26

Sandwich (Cayenne) Tern (Sterna. sandvicensis eurygnatha) – Ubatuba 7/25-26

*South American Tern (S. hirundinacea) – Ubatuba 7/25-26

Large-billed Tern (Phaetusa simplex chloropoda) – Pantanal 7/28-29

Rock Dove (Feral Pigeon) (Columba livia) – virtually all inhabited areas

Scaled Pigeon (C. speciosa) – Jardim da Amazonia, Cerro da Cipo, Caraça 8/3-4,7

*Picazuro Pigeon (C. p. picazuro) – very widespread virtually throughout

Pale-vented Pigeon (C. cayennensis sylvestris) – lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24, Pantanal 7/27-30

Plumbeous Pigeon (C. p. plumbea) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/23-24; Caraça 8/7-8

Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata virgata) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24; Pantanal 7/7/28-29; Serra do Cipo 8/4-5

Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina t. talpacoti) – widespread almost throughout

*Picui Ground-Dove (C. p. picui) – Pantanal 7/27-30

Scaled Dove (C. [Scardafella] s. squammata) – Pantanal 7/28,30; Caraça, Canastra 8/6,8,10-12

Blue Ground-Dove (Claravis pretiosa) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

*Long-tailed Ground-Dove (Uropelia campestris) (sw)– Pantanal 7/27-28

White-tipped (-fronted) Dove (Leptotila verreauxi chalcauchenia) – Ubatuba area 7/26; Pantanal 7/28-30; Chapada 7/31; Caraça, Canastra, Ouro Preto 8/6-10,13

*Hyacinth(ine) Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) (sw)– Pantanal 7/27-30

Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Red-and-green (Green-winged) Macaw (A. chloroptera) – Chapada 7/30-31

Chestnut-fronted Macaw (A. severa) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Red-bellied Macaw (Orthopsittaca [Ara] manilata) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Blue-winged (Illiger’s) Macaw (Prinolius [Ara]. maracana) (t) – Pantanal 7/28-30

*Golden-(Yellow-collared) Macaw (Prinolius [Ara] auricollis) – Pantanal 7/27,30

*Red-shouldered Macaw (Diopsittaca [Ara] nobilis longipennis) – Pantanal 7/27; Chapada 7/31

White-eyed Parakeet (Conure) (Aratinga l. leucophthalmus) – Agulhas Negras Road, Chapada 7/24,30-31; Jardim da Amazonia, Canastra, Ouro Preto 8/2,11,13

*Peach-fronted Parakeet (Conure) (A. aurea) – Pantanal 7/28,/30, Chapada 7/31,8/1; Cipo, Caraça, Canastra 8/4,6,11

*Black-hooded (Nanday) Parakeet (Conure) (Nandayus nenday) – Pantanal 7/29

*Reddish-(Maroon-)bellied Parakeet (Conure) (Pyrrhura f.? frontalis) – Itatiaia, Ubatuba 7/22-26

Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus cotorra?) – common in Pantanal 7/27-30

*Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius vividus) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24; Caraça, Parque Fernao Dias 8/6,14

*Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica) (se, endemic)– Ubatuba area 7/25-26

*Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (B. c. chiriri) – Pantanal 7/27-20; Jardim da Amazona, Cipo, Caraça 8/2,5-6

Blue-headed (Red-vented) Parrot (Pionus m. menstruus) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Scaly-headed Parrot (P. maximiliani melanobelpharus) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road, Ubatuba, Pantanal 7/21-23, 26-28

*Blue-(Turquoise-)fronted Parrot (Amazon) (Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/27-31

Orange-winged Parrot (Amazon) (A. a. amazonica) – Pantanal 7/27

*Vinaceous(-breasted) Parrot (Amazon) (A. vinacea) (t) (se,e) – Itatiaia (Campos do Jordão) 7/22 [21 species of parrots seen in all]

Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya macroura cayana) – widespread; perhaps more than one ssp

Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) – widespread

*Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira) – widespread inland

Tropical Screech Owl (Otus choliba choliba or uruguaiensis) – heard in two or three locations; seen at Pousada do Ipe 8/4

Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus nacurutu) – heard and seen in Pantanal 7/28

Burrowing Owl (Athene c. cunicularia) – grasslands & cerrado species; seen in a number of open areas: Pantanal, Chapada 7/27-30-31; Canastra 8/9,11

Great Potoo (Nyctibius grandis) – Rio Claro, Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Common or Gray Potoo (N. g. griseus) – Pantanal 7/28 [possible split]

*Nacunda Nighthawk (Podager n. nacunda) – numbers in Pantanal 7/27-29; austral migrant or wintering bird from Argentina

*Band-tailed Nighthawk (Nyctiprogne leucopyga) – Pantanal 7/28

Pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis derbyanus) - widespread from Pantanal, Chapada 7/28-29,30-31; Canastra 8/9-12

*Scissor-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis torquata furcifera) – Pantanal 7/28; Caraça 8/6

Great Dusky Swift (Cypseloides senex) – Chapada, Casca D’Anta 8/1,12

White-collared Swift (Streptoprocne z. zonaris) – São Paolo, Agulhas Negras Road 7/21,24,26; Caraça, Canastera 8/6,9,12

*Biscutate Swift (S. b. biscutata) (se) – Casca D’Anta 8/12

*Ashy-tailed or Sick’s Swift (Chaetura andrei meridionalis) – Ubatuba area 7/25-26 [If Sick’s Swift is a full species, it is endemic as a breeder to se Brazil but migrates north, crossing the equator to spend the austral winter in northern S America]

*Saw-billed Hermit (Ramphodon naevius) (nt; e, endemic) – feeders by road into Capricornio (Ubatuba) 7/25

Rufous-breasted or Hairy Hermit (Glaucis h. hirsuta) – Ouro Preto 8/13. [A medium-sized reddish hermit type in the forest understory edge at the Estalagem Ouro Preto hotel was called as Reddish Hermit; however this is unlikely to be correct as the Reddish Hermit is one of the smallest birds in the world, barely larger than the Bee Hummingbird; it is also basically a lowland bird and is probably out of range at Ouro Preto. As the bird did not appear to have tail streamers, Rufous-breasted Hermit fits fairly well.]

*Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornia e. eurynome) (se) – Hotel Simon, Itatiaia 7/22-24

*Planalto Hermit (P. pretrei) – Itatiaia 7/22, Serra da Cipo 8/4-5

*Dusky-throated Hermit (P. squalidus) – Itatiaia 7/22-23

*Sombre Hummingbird (Campylopterus [Aphantocroa] cirrochloris) (se,endemic) – feeders on road into Capricornio near Ubatuba 7/25-26

*Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (Eupetomena m. macroura) – widespread; the most commonly seen and widely distributed hummer seen; missing only from the Jardim da Amazonia

*Black Jacobin (Melanotrochilus fuscus) (se) – Itatiaia 7/22-24, Caraça 8/7-8, Parque Fernão Dias 8/13

*White-vented Violetear (Colibri serrirostris) – Pantanal 7/27, Serra da Cipo, Caraça, Canastra, 8/4-5,8,12

Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Dot-eared Coquette (Lophornis gouldii) (c,sw) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

*Frilled Coquette (L. magnifica) (se, endemic) – feeders at Itatiaia 7/22

*Festive Coquette (L. c. chalybea) (se) – feeders on road into Capricornio near Ubatuba 7/25-26

*Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris pucherani) – Parque Florestal, São Paolo 7/20, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/13 and probably other localities in between

Fork-tailed or Common Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata baeri and eriphile) – Ubatuba area 7/26, Jardim da Amazonia, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/2,13

*Violet-capped Woodnymph (T. glaucopis) (se) – Itatiaia, Ubatuba area 7/22-23,25-26

*White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus griseiventris) – Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/13.

*White-throated Hummingbird (Leucochloris albicollis) – Itatiaia 7/22, Caraça, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/8,13

*Versicolored Emerald (Agyrtria v. versicolor) – Itatiaia 7/22, Jardim da Amazonia, Caraca 8/2,8 (another ssp may also be involved)

*Sapphire-Spangled Emerald (Polyerata l. lactea) (se) – Parque Florestal, São Paolo 7/20 (probably elsewhere as well but this bird was well seen and ID’d in the São Paolo park)

*Glittering-throated Emerald (P. fimbriata tephrocephala) – Itatiaia, Chapada 7/22,30; Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/13 (one or two other locations as well; more than one ssp may be involved)

*Brazilian Ruby (Clytolaema rubricauda) (se, endemic) – Hotel Simon, Itatiaia 7/22-23; Caraca 8/7

*Hyacinth Visorbearer (Augastes s.(?) scutatus) (nt; se, endemic) – Serra da Cipo 8/4-5

Black-eared Fairy (Heliothrix aurita auriculata) – Itatiaia 7/22, Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Long-billed Starthroat (Heliomaster l. longirostris) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Blue-tufted Starthroat (H. furcifer) – Chapada 7/31

*Amethyst Woodstar (Calliphlox amethystina) – Caraça 8/8 [27 sp of hummingbirds seen!]

White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis melanopterus) – seen several times in Itatiaia, Ubatuba area 7/22-26; also Caraça 8/7

*Blue-crowned Trogon (T. curucui behni) – Chapada 7/30-31

Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle t. torquata) – widespread from coastal areas to Pantanal to Jardim da Amazonia

Amazon Kingfisher (C. a. amazona) – São Paolo park 7/20; Pantanal 7/27-30, Jardim da Amazonia 8/1-2

Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana mathewsii) – Pantanal 7/29, Canastra 8/11

American Pygmy Kingfisher (C. a. aenea) – Pantanal 7/29

*Rufous-capped Motmot (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) – Itatiaia 7/23 [barely seen in the dusk]

*Brown Jacamar (Brachygalba melanosterna lugubris) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

*Three-toed Jacamar (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) (t; se, endemic) – Parque Fernão Dias, Belo Horizonte 8/9

Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28-29,31; Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3; more than one ssp may be involved

*White-eared Puffbird (Nystalus c. chacuru) – cerrado & grasslands specialist; Chapada 7/31, Cipo, road to Canastero 8/1,4,12

Black-fronted Nunbird (Monasa n. nigrifrons) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/27-31, Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

Swallow-wing (Chelidoptera t. tenebrosa) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Black-girdled Barbet (Capito dayi) (c)– Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3 [near endemic known mainly from the central Amazon basin]

Lettered Aracari (Pteroglossus inscriptus) – Chapada 7/31, Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Red-necked Aracari (P. bitorquatus sturmiii?) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Chestnut-eared Aracari (P. castanotis australis) – Pantanal 7/28,30; Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

*Saffron Toucanet (Baillonius bailloni) (nt; se) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/22-24

*Spot-billed Toucanet (Selenidera m. maculirostris) – Agulhas Negras Road, Ubatuba area 7/24-25

Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastros vitellinus ariel?) – Chapada 7/31

*Red-breasted Toucan (R. dicolorus) (se) – Itatiaia, Pantanal 7/22-24, 30; Caraca 8/8

White-throated (Cuvier’s) Toucan (R. tucanus cuvieri) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/3 [this is part of the Red-billed or White-throated Toucan complex; not sure what are the limits of the various forms]

*Toco Toucan (R. toco albogularis) – Pantanal 7/27-30; Canastra 8/9-12

*White-barred Piculet (Picumnus c. cirratus) – Caraça 8/6-8

*White-wedged Piculet (P. a. albosquamatus) – Chapada 7/31

*White Woodpecker (Melanerpes candidus) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/29,31; Jardim da Amazonia, Canastra 8/2,11

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (M. cruentatus) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Yellow-fronted Woodpecker (M. flavifrons) (se) – Itatiaia, Ubatuba area 7/22,24-26

*White-fronted Woodpecker (M. cactorum) (s) – Pantanal 7/30 [species of limited distribution in the interior, mostly n. Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia, getting into Brazil only in the Pantanal]

*Checkered Woodpecker (Picoides mixtus cancellatus?) – dry woodland & cerrado specialist; Chapada 7/31

*Little Woodpecker (Verniliornis passerinus) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28,30; Estalagem near Ouro Preto 8/13 (probably several ssp)

Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula erythropis) – Itatiaia, Ubatuba 7/22,25

*Green-barred Woodpecker (Flicker) (Colaptes m. melanochloros) – Itatiaia 7/22; Pantanal, Chapada 7/28,31; Canastra 8/9,11 [probably more than 1 ssp]

*Campo Flicker (C. c. campestris) – widespread in open areas from São Paolo and Pantanal/ Chapada 7/21,24,28-31 to Canastra 8/9-11

*Pale-crested Woodpecker (Celeus l. lugubris) – Pantanal 7/28

Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus l. lineatus and erythrops) – Pantanal 7/28,30; Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Rufous Hornero (Furnarius r. rufus) – widespread and very common in most locations

*Sooty-fronted Spinetail (Synallaxis f. frontalis) – Caraça 8/6

Pale-breasted Spinetail (S. a. albescens) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24, Hotel do Ype (Cipo) 8/12

*Spix’s (Chicli) Spinetail (S. spixi) (se) – Caraça 8/8-9

*Rufous-capped Spinetail (S. ruficapilla) (se) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/21-22,24; Caraça 8/7

*White-lored Spinetail (S. alb ilora) (sw) – Pantanal 7/29

*Pallid (Plain-browed) Spinetail (Cranioleuca pallida) (se, endemic) - Agulhas Negras Road 7/24, Caraça 8/7-8

*Rusty-backed Spinetail (C. v. vulpina) – Pantanal 7/29

Yellow-throated (-chinned) Spinetail (Certhiaxis cinnamomea russeola) – near Ubatuba, Pantanal 7/26,28-29

*Itatiaia Thistletail (Spinetail) (Oreophylax moreirae) (se, endemic)- Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*Cipo Canastero (Asthenes luiziae) (se, endemic) – Cerro do Cipo 8/5

Common (Rufous-browed) Thornbird (Phacellodomus rufifrons fargiu and rufifrons) – Pantanal 7/29, Caraça 8/7-8

*Greater Thornbird (P. ruber) – Ubatuba area, Pantanal 7/26,28-29

*Firewood-Gatherer (Anumbus annumbi) – Serra do Cipo area 8/6

*Gray-crested Cachalote (Pseudoseisura unirufa) – Pantanal 7/28-29 [a split from the Rufous Cachalote]

Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilans) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2 [not sure of ssp]

*Sharp-billed Treehunter (Xenops) (Heliobletus contaminatus) (se) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner (Syndactyla r. rufosuperciliata) – Itatiaia 7/22-23, Caraça 8/7

*Pale-browed Treehunter (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus) (se, endemic) – Capricornio near Ubatuba 7/26

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor rufus) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/23-24

*White-collared Foliage-gleaner (Anabazenops fuscus) (se, endemic) – Itatiaia 7/23

*Rufous-breasted Leaftosser (Sclerurus s. scansor) (e,se) – forest near Ubatuba 7/25

*Sharp-tailed (Eastern) Streamcreeper (Streamside Lochmias) (Lochmias n. nematura) – Itatiaia 7/22-23 (also heard in several locations including the Casca D’Anta) [is this a possible split? Clements still calls it Sharp-tailed]

*Thrush-like (Plain-winged) Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla turdina) (se) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/23-24

Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus) – Itatiaia 7/22-23, Caraça 8/7

*White-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes a. albicollis) (se) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/22-24

*Great Rufous Woodcreeper (X. major remoratus) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28-30 [species of limited area distribution in interior, mainly in Bolivia, Paraguay and n. Argentina; Pantanal ssp is endemic]

Buff-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus guttatus dorbignyanus?) – Chapada 7/30

*Scaled Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes squamatus falcinellus) (e,se) – Itatiaia 7/22

*Narrow-billed Woodcreeper (L. a. angustirostris) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28-30

*Lesser Woodcreeper (L. f. fuscus) (e,se)– Agulhas Negras Road, Ubatuba area 7/24,26

Red-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus lafresnayanus trochilirostris) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28,30

*Giant Antshrike (Batara c. cinerea) (se)– Itatiaia 7/23

Great Antshrike (Taraba m.. major) – Pantanal 7/28-30, Caraça 8/7

Barred Antshrike (T. doliatus signaturs?) – Pantanal 7/28-30

*Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike (T. ambiguus) – Itatiaia 7/23 [Eastern Slaty-Antshrike has apparently been broken up into a number of limited area spp; this ought to be the right one for the Rio de Janeiro area]

*Variable Antshrike (Thamnophilus caerulescens caerulescens or albonotatus) – Caraça 8/7-8

*Rufous-winged Antshrike (T. torquatus) (e,se,sw) – Chapada 7/31 [cerrado species]

*Rufous-capped Antshrike (T. r. ruficapillus) – pond edge on property of new hotel at base of the Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

Plain Antvireo (Dysithamnus m. mentalis) – Itatiaia 7/23, Ubatuba area 7/25, Chapada 8/31, Canastra, 8/10-12

*Rufous-backed Antvireo (D. xanthopterus) (se,endemic) - Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*Star-throated Antwren (Myrmotherula gularis) (se,endemic)– Itatiaia 7/23, Ubatuba 7/26

*Salvadori’s Antwren (M. minor) (se,endemic) – Ubatuba area 7/26

*Black-capped Antwren (Herpsilochmus atricapillus) (nt,e) – Caraça 8/8

*Large-billed Antwren (H. longirostris) (c,sw) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28,31

*Serra Antwren (Formicivora serrana serrana or interposita) (nt,se,endemic) – Caraça 8/726

*Rusty-backed Antwren (F. r. rufa) – Chapada 7/31 [cerrado specialist]

*Ferruginous Antbird (Drymophila ferruginea) (se,endemic) – Caraça 8/8

*Ochre-rumped Antbird (D. ochropyga) (nt,se,endemic) – Caraça 8/8

*Dusky-tailed Antbird (D. malura) (se) – Caraça 8/8

*Scaled Antbird (D. squamata) (e,se,endemic) – near Ubatuba 7/25

*Streak-capped Antwren (Terenura maculata) (se) – Ubatuba area 7/25

*Rio de Janeiro Antbird (Cercomacra brasiliana) (nt,se,endemic) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*Mato Grosso Antbird (C. melanaria) (sw) – Pantanal 7/28

*White-backed Fire-eye (P. leuconota maura) – Chapada 7/31

*White-shouldered Fire-eye (Pyriglena leucoptera) (se) – Itatiaia 7/23, Caraça 8/7

*Rufous-tailed (Brazilian) Antthrush (Chamaeza ruficauda) (se,endemic) – jeep trail, Itatiaia 7/23

*Rufous Gnateater (Conopophaga lineata vulgaris) (e,se) – Itatiaia 7/23, Paraiso da Canastra 8/12

*Collared Crescent-Chest (Melanopareia torquata rufescens) (c,sw)– Chapada 8/1 [cerrado specialist]

*Swallow-tailed Cotinga (Phibalura f. flavirostris) (nt,se) – 4 treetop birds, Caraça 8/8; 3 birds in a tree seen from above at Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/13

*Black-and-gold Cotinga (Tijuca atra) (nt,se,endemic) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*Buff-throated Purpletuft (Iodopleura pipra) (t,e,se,endemic) – Capricornio near Ubatuba 7/26

*Cinnamon-vented Piha (Lipaugus lanoides) (t,se,endemic) – road into Caraça 8/8

*Blue (Swallow-tailed) Manakin (Chiroxiphia caudata) (se) – Caraça 8/7

*Helmeted Manakin (Antilophia galatea) (c,sw) – Pantanal 7/28

*Pin-tailed Manakin (Ilicura militaris) (se,endemic) – female, Caraça 8/7

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum cinerascens or obsoletum) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28-29,31

Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias m. murina) – Canastra, near Ouro Preto 8/10-11,13

Yellow Tyrannulet (Capsiempis flaveola) – Caraça 8/8 (elsewhere?)

*Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet (Tyrannulus elatus) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2?

Greenish Elaenia (Myiopagis v. viridicata) – Caraça 8/7

Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia f. flavogaster) – Brazilton Hotel, Belo Horizonte 8/9

White-crested Elaenia (E. albiceps chilensis) or Small-billed Elaenia (E. parvirostris) – Serra da Cipo 8/4-5 [these 2 species are closely related and look alike; furthermore albiceps winters in the breeding range of parvirostris]

*Plain-crested Elaenia (E. c. cristata) – Chapada 7/31, 8/1

Lesser Elaenia (E. chiriquensis albivertex) – Canastra, near Ouro Preto 8/9,11,13

*Highland Elaenia (E. obscura obscura or sordida) – Canastra 8/12

*Sooty Tyrannulet (Serpophaga nigricans) – flycatching over a pond on hotel grounds at the base of Agulhas Negras Road 7/24, Nascimento S Francisco at Canastra 8/12

*White-crested Tyrannulet (S. s. subcristata) – Chapada 7/31

*Gray-hooded Flycatcher (Mionectes rufiventris) (se) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon a. amaurocephalus) – Itatiaia 7/22-23

*Southern Bristle-Tyrant (Phylloscartes eximius) (nt,se) – Capricornio near Ubatuba 7/26

*São Paolo Tyrannulet (P. paulistus) (t,se) – near Ubatuba 7/26

*Serra do Mar Tyrannulet (P. difficilis) (nt,se,endemic) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet (P. v. ventralis) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/22,24, Caraça, Canastra 8/8,10,12

*Planalto Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias fasciatus brevirostris) (e,se) – near Ubatuba 7/26, Caraça, Canastra 8/8,11

*Rough-legged Tyrannulet (P. burmeisteri) – Caraça 8/8

*Greenish Tyrannulet (P. virescens) (se) – Agulhas Negras Road, near Ubatuba? 7/24-25?

*Gray-capped Tyrannulet (P. griseocapilla) (nt,se,endemic) – Itatiaia 7/22, Caraça 8/9

*Southern Scrub-Flycatcher (Sublegatus modestus brevirostris) – Chapada 7/31, 8/1, Canestra 8/11

*Chapada Suiriri (Suiriri islerorum) – Chapada 7/31, 8/1 [There are now 3 species of Suiriri. The bird we saw was probably this species (by location and habitat)]

*Eared Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis auricularis) (se) – Itatiaia, near Ubatuba 7/22,25-26

*Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant (Hemitriccus diops) (se) – Itatiaia 7/23

*Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant (H. orbitatus) (t,se,endemic) – Caraça 8/7

*Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant (H. s. striaticollis) – Pantanal 7/29

*Hangnest Tody-Tyrant (H. nidipendulus paulistus) (t,se,endemic) – Caraça 8/7

*Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant (H. m. margaritaceiventris) – Pantanal 7/28

*Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum latirostre ochropterum) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28,31

*Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher (T. poliocephalum) (se,endemic) – Pantanal 7/27, Caraça, Canastra 8/8,12-13

Common Tody-Flycatcher (T. cinerum coloreum) – Hotel Panamby, São Paolo 7/20-21, Pantanal 7/29, Canastra (Nascente São Francisco) 8/11

Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Tolmomyias s. sulphurescens) – Itatiaia 7/22, Canastra 8/12

*White-throated Spadebill (or split) (Platyrinchus m. mystaceus) – Itatiaia 7/23

Atlantic (Amazonian) Royal-Flycatcher (Onychorrhynchus [coronatus] swainsoni) (t,se,endemic) – stream bed near Ubatuba 7/25 [N.B.This is an endemic species if swansoni, isolated in eastern Brazil, is split from coronatus]

Bran-colored Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus flammiceps) – Lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24

*Yellow-rumped Flycatcher (Myiobius mastacalis) (se) – Itatiaia 7/23, Caraça 8/7-8 [endemic form, split from Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher]

*Black-tailed Flycatcher (M. atricaudus ridgwayi) – Caraça 8/8 [This form is also endemic to se Brazil although apparently less likely to be split]

(Southern) Cliff-Flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa) – Itatiaia, hotel at foot of Agulhas Negras Road 7/22-24, Chapada 7/30, Caraça, Canastra 8/8,10-11 [Not split by Clements]

Tropical Pewee (Contopus c. cinereus) – Itatiaia 7/21-22, other locales

Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus r. rubinus) – Pantanal 7/28-30

*Gray Monjita (Xolmis cinerea cinerea and pepoaza?) – Pantanal 7/27, Chapada, Canastra, Ouro Preto area 8/1,11-13

*White-rumped Monjita (X. velata) (se, sw)– São Paolo, Agulhas Negras Road 7/20,24, Pantanal 7/28-30, Caraça, Canastra 8/9-12

*Blue-billed Black-Tyrant (Knipolegus cyanirostris) (se) – Campos do Jordão 7/22

*Velvety Black-Tyrant (K. nigerrimus) (e,se,endemic) – Itatiaia, lowlands near Itatiaia 7/23-24, Caraça, Canastra, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/8,10,12-13

*Crested Black-Tyrant (K. lophetes) (sc,se) – Itatiaia 7/20-21,24, 8/11

*Black-backed Water-tyrant (Fluvicola albiventer) – Pantanal 7/28-29

Masked Water-Tyrant (F. n. nengeta) – Itatiaia 7/23-24

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala) – Pantanal 7/27

*Cock-tailed Tyrant (Alecturus tricolor) (sc,sw,se) – Canastra 8/11

*Streamer-tailed Tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa) – lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24

*Yellow-browed Tyrant (Satrapa icterophrys) – lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24

Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia c. colonus) – Itatiaia, Ubatuba area 7/22, 24-25, Caraça, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/8-9,13

Cattle Tyrant (Machetornis r. rixosus) – Ubatuba area, Pantanal 7/25,27-30, Ouro Preto, Belo Horizonte 8/13-14

*Shear-tailed Gray-Tyrant (Muscipipra vetula) (nt,se) – road into Caraça 8/6

*Rufous-tailed Attila (Attila phoenicurus) (se breeder) – Canastra 8/11

*Gray-hooded Attila (A. r. rufus) (se,endemic) – Itatiaia, near Ubatuba 7/22,26, Caraça 8/8

*Rufous Casiornis (Casiornis rufa) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28-31

Sirystes (Sirystes sibilator atimastus) – Chapada 7/31

Swainson’s Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/1-3 [ssp not clear; many birds move north for the winter, confusing the ssp issue]

Short-crested Flycatcher (M. ferox australis) – lowlands near Itatiaia, Pantanal, Chapada 7/24,28,30-31, Caraça 8/9

Brown-crested Flycatcher (M. tyrannulus bahiae) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/29-31, Jardim da Amazonia, Caraça 8/2,6,8

Lesser Kiskadee (Philohydor(?) l. lictor) – Pantanal 7/28-29

Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) – virtually everywhere, even on top of the principal buildings in Ouro Preto [ssp difficult to determine; probably argentinus and possibly also maximiliani]

Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarhynchus p. pitangua) – Capricornio near Ubatuba, Pantanal 7/25-26,28-29, Jardim da Amazonia, Caraça, Canastra 8/2,7-10

*Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Myiozetetes c. cayanensis) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

Social Flycatcher (M. similis pallidiventris) – widespread and common

Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus solitarius) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus v. varius) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

*White-throated Kingbird (Tyannus albogularis) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Tropical Kingbird (T. m. melancholicus) – widespread

*Greenish Schiffornis (Mourner) (Schiffornis virescens) (se) – Caraça 8/7

*White-naped Xenopsaris (Xenopsaris a. albinucha) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/3

Chestnut-crowned Becard (P. c. castaneus) – Agulhas Negras Road, near Ubatuba 7/24-26, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/13

*Green-backed Becard (Pachyramphus v. viridis) – Chapada 7/31, 8/1; Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/13

*White-winged Becard (P. polychopterus nigriventris) – Chapada 7/31, 8/1

*Crested Becard (P. v. validus) – Itatiaia 7/22

Black-tailed Tityra (Tityra cayana braziliensis) – Itatiaia 7/23

Masked Tityra (T. semifasciata semifasciata or fortis?) – Chapada 7/30-31

Black-crowned Tityra (T. inquisitor pelzelni?) – Chapada 7/30-31, 8/1

*(Crested) Sharpbill (Oxyruncus c. cristatus) – small group in a feeding flock in reserve near Ubatuba; also perched bird coughing up pits like a cotinga at Capricornio 7/25-26

Brown-chested Martin (Phaeoprogne tapera tapera or fusca?) – Chapada 7/30

Gray-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea chalybea or macrorhamphus) – Ubatuba area, Pantanal 7/25-26, 28, Jardim da Amazonia 8/1,2

White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer) – Pantanal 7/27-29, Jardim da Amazonia, Canastra 8/2,10

*White-rumped Swallow (T. leucorrhoa) – lowlands near Itatiaia, Pantanal, Chapada 7/24,28-30, Canastra 8/10-11

Blue-and-White Swallow (Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica) – widespread except in Pantanal

Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx r. ruficollis) – widespread

*Ochre-breasted Pipit (Anthus nattereri) (t,se) – Serra da Canastra 8/12 [grasslands species]

Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus atricapillus or albovittatus) – Pantanal 7/28-30

*Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus unicolor) – Pantanal 7/28-31

(Southern) House Wren (Troglodytes aedon musculus) – widespread in almost all inhabited locations

*Chalk-browed Mockingbird (Mimus saturninus frater and modulator) – widespread

*Yellow-legged Thrush (Platycichla f. flavipes) – Itatiaia (Campos do Jordão), Ubatuba area 7/21-22,26 [endemic ssp]

*Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus r. rufiventris) – widespread, the most common thrush [mainly Brazil but a little too widely distributed to be considered near-endemic]

Pale-breasted Thrush (T. l. leucomelas) – widespread except near Ubatuba and Jardim da Amazonia

*Creamy-bellied Thrush (T. amaurochalinus) – widespread except in Jardim da Amazonia

White-necked Thrush (T. a. albicollis) – near Ubatuba 7/25-26

*Masked Gnatcatcher (Polioptila dumicola berlepschi) – Pantanal 7/28-30

*Purplish Jay (Cyanocorax cyanomelas) – Pantanal 7/28-30, Chapada 8/1

*Curl-crested Jay (C. cristatellus) (sc) – Chapada 7/31,8/1 [cerrado species]

*Plush-crested Jay (C. c. chrysops) – Itatiaia (Campos do Jordão) 7/21

Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis ochrocephala) – common and widespread, São Paolo, near Ubatuba, Pantanal, Chapada, Caraça, near Ouro Preto [other ssp?]

Red-eyed (Chivi) Vireo (Vireo olivaceus diversus) – Chapada 7/31, Caraça 8/7 [other ssp?]

*Rufous-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus poecilotis or poicilotis) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/23-24, Caraça 8/7 [note that the 2nd spelling of the trinomial appears in Clements but is undoubtedly an error]

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) – all inhabited areas

Common Waxbill (Estrilda astrild) – flocks in several places: Capricornio near Ubatuba 7/25, Canastra, near Ouro Preto 8/9,13

Hooded Siskin (Carduelis magellanica icterica) – near Ubatuba 7/25

Tropical Parula (Parula p. pitiayumi) – São Paolo, near Ubatuba, Pantanal 7/20,26,29, Canastra 8/11-12

*(Southern) Masked Yellowthroat (Geothlyhpsis aequinoctialis velata) – São Paolo, lowlands near Ubatuba, Ubatuba area 7/20,24,26 [potential split]

Golden-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus azarae) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road, Ubatuba area 7/22-26 (elsewhere?)

*White-bellied Warbler (B. hypoleucus) (sw,se) – Chapada 7/31, Caraça, Canastra 8/7-8,10, 12

*White-rimmed (-browed) Warbler (B. leucoblepharus) (se) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*White-striped Warbler (B. leucophrys) (sw,sc,endemic) – Canastra (a pair on the forest floor near the foot of the Casca D’Anta waterfall; several White-bellied Warblers seen in canopy at the same time) 8/12

Flavescent Warbler (B. f. flaveolus) – Caraça, Parque Fernão Dias, near Ouro Preto 8/6,9,12-13

Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) – widespread in east, Cipo, Caraça, Canastra [ssp difficult to specify]

*Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum s. speciosum) – São Paolo, Pantanal, 7/20,28

*Brown Tanager (Orchesticus abeillei) (nt,se,endemic) – Itatiaia (Hotel Ype) 7/22

*Cinnamon Tanager (Schistochlamys r. ruficapillus) (e,se,endemic) – lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24, Jardim da Amazonia, Canastra 8/4,10-12 [other ssp?}

Black-faced Tanager (S. melanops olivina) – Chapada, Canastra 8/1,7

*White-banded Tanager (Neothraupis fasciata) (nt,sw,sc) – Chapada 7/31-8/1 [cerrado species]

*White-rumped Tanager (Cypsnagra hirundinacea) (nt,sw,sc) – Chapada 7/31-8/1 [cerrado species]

Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana major) – São Paolo, Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road, near Ubatuba 7/20-24,26, Caraça, Canastra 8/8,10

*Orange-headed Tanager (Thlypopsis s. sordida) – Pantanal 7/27

*Guira Tanager (Hemithraupis guira boliviana and forsteri) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28,31, Canastra 8/10-12

*Rufous-headed Tanager (H. r. ruficapilla) (se,endemic) – Ubatuba area 7/25-26, Caraça 8/8-9

Hooded Tanager (Nemosia pileata caerula) – Caraça, Parque Fernão Dias (Belo Horizonte) 8/7-8,14

*Olive-green Tanager (Orthogonys chloricterus) (se,endemic) – Itatiaia 7/21-23

Gray-headed Tanager (Eucometis penicillata albicollis) – Chapada 7/30-31

*Flame-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus cristatus nattereri) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/27,31

White-shouldered Tanager (T. l. luctuosus) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

*Ruby-crowned Tanager (T. coronatus) (se) – Itatiaia, Agulha Negras Road 7/21-24

White-lined Tanager (T. rufus) – Chapada 7/31 ?

*Black-goggled Tanager (Trichothraupis melanops) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/22-24, Estalagem 8/13

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Habia r. rubica) – near Ubatuba 7/25

*Lowland Hepatic-Tanager (Piranga flava saira) – Itaiaia 7/21-23

Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo centralis?) – Pantanal, Chapada, Jardim da Amazonia 7/28-8/3

*Brazilian Tanager (R. bresilius dorsalis) (e,se,endemic) – near Ubatuba 7/25-26

*Sayaca Tanager (Thraupis s. sayaca) – very widespread

*Golden-chevroned Tanager (T. ornata) (se,endemic) – common in se (Itatiaia, Ubatuba) 7-21-25, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/13

Palm Tanager (T. palmarum melanoptera and palmarum) – Jardim da Amazonia, Cipo, Canastra, Caraça, near Ouro Preto 8/2,4-5,10,13

*Diademed Tanager (Stephanophorus diadematus) (se) – near Ubatuba, Agulhas Negras Road 7/23-24

Fawn-breasted Tanager (Pipraeidea m. melanonota) – near Ubatuba 7/26

*Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica serrirostris) – Caraça 8/8

Violaceous Euphonia (E. violacea auranticollis) – Caraça, Canastra 8/7,10

Thick-billed Euphonia (E. l. laniirostris) – Pantanal 7/26; Chapada 7/30

White-lored Euphonia (E. c. chrysopasta) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Rufous-bellied Euphonia (E. rufiventris) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/3

*Chestnut-bellied Euphonia (E. pectoralis) (se) – São Paolo, Itatiaia, Ubatuba area 7/20,21-25

*Blue-naped Chlorophonia (Chlorophonia c. cyanea) – Itatiaia 7/22-23

Turquoise Tanager (Tangara mexicana boliviana?) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

Paradise Tanager (T. chilensis coelicolor or chilensis) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/3

*Green-headed Tanager (T. seledon) (se) – Itatiaia, Ubatuba area 7/21-25

*Red-necked Tanager (T. c. cyanocephala) (e,se) – near Ubatuba 7/26 (elsewhere?)

*Brassy-breasted Tanager (T. desmaresti) (se,endemic) – Itatiaia, Agulha Negras Road 7/23-24

*Gilt-edged Tanager (T. cyanoventris) (se,endemic) – Caraça, Canastra, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/7-8,12-13

*Burnished-buff Tanager (T. cayana chloroptera) – Caraça, Canastra, Estalagem Ouro Preto 8/6,8,10,13

*Blue-necked Tanager (T. cyanicollis melanogaster) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Black-faced Dacnis (D. l. lineata) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Yellow-bellied Dacnis (D. flaviventer) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana paraguayensis) – São Paolo, Itatiaia, near Ubatuba, 7/20,22-23,26, Jardim da Amazonia, Cipo, Caraça, Canastra 8/3,5,7,12-13 [another ssp?]

Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza spiza and axillaris) – Itatiaia 7/22, Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Swallow-Tanager (Tersina v. viridis) – Chapada, Jardim da Amazonia, Canastra 7/30-31, 8/2-3,9-12

*Coal-crested Finch (Charitospiza eucosma) (sc) – Chapada 7/31-8/1 (somewhere else?) [cerrado species]

*(Gray) Pileated Finch (Coryphospingus p. pileatus) – Cipo (Hotel Ipe) 8/5

*Red Pileated-Finch (Red-crested Finch) (C. cucullatus rubescens) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/27-28,31-8/1

*Bay-chested Warbling-Finch (Poospiza thoracica) (se,endemic) – Agulhas Negras Road 7/24

*Red-rumped Warbling-Finch (P. lateralis lateralis or cabanisi) (se) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/21,24

Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia j. jacarina) – Itatiaia, lowlands near Itatiaia, Pantanal, Chapada 7/23-24,27,31-8/1, Caraça 8/9

*Plumbeous Seedeater (Sporophila p. plumbea) – Chapada 7/31-8/1, Cipo 8/4

*Rusty-collared Seedeater (S. collaris melanocephala) – Pantanal 7/28

Lined Seedeater (S. l. lineola) – Canastra 8/11

Yellow-bellied Seedeater (S. n. nigricollis) – Cipo, Caraça, Canastra 8/5,7,12

*Dubois’ Seedeater (S. ardesiaca) (se, endemic) – Caraça 8/6-8

*Double-collared Seedeater (S. c. caerulescens) – near Ubatuba, Canastra 7/25, 8/10,12

*White-bellied Seedeater (S. leucoptera cinereola) – lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24

*Sooty Grassquit (Tiaris fulginosa) – Itatiaia (Campos do Jordão) 7/21

Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola pelzelni) – Pantanal 7/27-29, Canastra, near Ouro Preto 8/10-13 [which ssp?]

*Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch (Emberizoides h. herbicola) – lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24, Cipo, Canastra 8/1,10,12

*Pale-throated Serra-(Pampa-) Finch (E. longicauda) (nt,e,endemic) – Serra da Cipo 8/4

*Great Pampa Finch (Embernagra p. platensis) – Canastra, near Ouro Preto 8/12-13

*Red-crested Cardinal (Paroaria coronata) – Pantanal 7/28-30 [very limited range in Brazil]

*Yellow-billed Cardinal (P. c. capitata) – Pantanal 7/28-30

*Grassland Sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis xanthornis) – Chapada, Canastra 8/1,?

Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) – very widespread [several ssp?]

Grayish Saltator (Saltator c. coerulescens) – Pantanal 7/28-30

Buff-throated Saltator (S. m. maximus) – Chapada, Jardim da Amazonia 8/1-3

*Black-throated Grosbeak (S. [Pitylus] fulginosus) (se) – road to Canastra in Minas Gerais 8/10; solitary bird sitting in a tree in open country just by the road; gray back, dark face and throat, huge red bill very well seen; although this bird was way out of its usual forest habitat, it was very well seen and viewed through a scope as it sat in the open; it is hard to imagine what else it might have been (the locality is within range of this bird and perhaps not far from forested habitat) [This bird appears under several English and Latin generic and specific names]

*Green-winged Saltator (S. similis ochraceiventris) (s,se) – Itatiaia, Agulhas Negras Road 7/22,24, Caraça, near Ouro Preto 8/7-8,13

*Black-throated Saltator (S. atricollis) (sw,sc,nw) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/27,31-8/1, Canastra 8/10

*Unicolored Blackbird (Agelaius c. cyanops) – Pantanal 7/27-29

*Bay-winged Cowbird (Molothrus b. badius) – Pantanal 7/28-29

Shiny Cowbird (M. b. bonariensis) – Itatiaia, Pantanal, Chapada 7/21-22,28-30, Canastra 8/11-12

Giant Cowbird (M. o. oryzivora) – Pantanal 7/28-30, Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

*Epaulet Oriole (Icterus cayanensis {pyrrhopterus, periporphyrus & cayanensis]) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/28-31; Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3 (races have different color epaulets)

Troupial (I. icterus strictifrons) – Pantanal 7/28-31 [candidate for a split – probably involving several ssp – as Campo Oriole but not so given by Clements]

Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus c. cela) – Pantanal 7/28, Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

Red-rumped Cacique (C. haemorrhous affinis) – Itatiaia, Ubatuba area 7/21-25

*Golden-winged Cacique (C. chrysopterus) – Itatiaia 7/21-22

*Solitary (Black) Cacique (C. solitarius) – Pantanal 7/28-29, Jardim da Amazonia 8/3

Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus maculosus) – Ubatuba area, Pantanal, Chapada 7/25-30, Caraça, Canastra 8/7-12

*Amazonian (Olive) Oropendola (Gymnostinops [Psarocolius]. b. bifasciatus) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/3

*Yellow-rumped Marshbird (Pseudoleistes guirahuro) (se)– lowlands near Itatiaia 7/24, Canastra 8/10-11

*Chopi Blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi chopi and/or sulcirostris) – Pantanal, Chapada, Jardim da Amazonia 7/27,29-30,8/1,3,11-12

Heard Only:

Gray Tinamou (Tinamus tao) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Cinereous Tinamou (Crypturellus cinereus) – Chapada 7/31

Undulated Tinamou (C. undulatus) – heard many times, Pantanal 7/28-30

Tataupa Tinamou (C. tataupa) – Chapada 7/31

Agami (Chestnut-bellied) Heron (Agamia agami) – Pantanal 7/29

Ruddy Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana) – near Ubatuba 7/25

Striped Cuckoo (Tapera naevia) – heard in many areas but never seen

Pheasant Cuckoo (Dromococcyx phasianellus) – Chapada 7/31; heard at dusk on road descending into a stream bed; calling persistently right at forest edge but could not be coaxed out into the open

Variable (Black-capped) Screech-Owl (Otus atricapillus) – heard at Pousada dos Amantes near Ubatuba 7/24

Amazonian Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium hardyi) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (G. brasilianum) – Pantanal 7/28-29

Surucua Trogon (Trogon surrucura) – Ubatuba area 7/26

Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota) – Chapada 7/31

Such’s (Cryptic) Antthrush (Chamaeza meruloides) – Itatiaia 7/23

Variegated Antpitta (Grallaria varia) – Ubatuba area 7/26, Caraça 8/8

Slaty Bristlefront (Merulaxis ater) – Itatiaia 7/23

Brazilia Tapaculo (Scytalopus novacapitalis) – Canastra 8/12

Bare-throated Bellbird (Procnias nudicollis) – Capricornio near Ubatuba 7/25-26

Moustached Wren (Thryothorus genibarbis) – Chapada 7/31

Buff-breasted Wren (T. leucotis) – Pantanal, Chapada 7/29-30, Jardim da Amazonia 8/2-3

Cocoa Thrush (Turdus fumigatus) – Jardim da Amazonia 8/2

Yellowish Pipit (Anthus lutescens) – Pantanal 7/28,30


482 species

460 seen [135 endemics, near-endemics or limited-area distribution in Brazil and its immediate neighbors]

22 heard only

266 lifers + 3 potential splits

Other Wildlife:

Tufted-ear Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus penicillata) – Pousada Ipe, Parque Fernão Dias

Silvery or Black-tailed Marmoset (Callitrix argentata) – Itatiaia

Black Howler (heard) (Alouatta caraya) – where? (we heard howlers at (I think) one of the Pantanal lodges)

Brown Howler (Alouatta fusca) – where?

Brown or Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella) – Itatiaia

Black-faced or Masked Titi Monkey (Callicebus personatus) – Itatiaia

Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) – São Paolo, Pantanal

Neotropical (La Plata or Southern) River Otter (Lutra longicaudus) – Pantanal

Tapiti or Brazilian Rabbit (Silvilagus brasiliensis) – Pantanal

Brazilian/Guianan Squirrel (Sciurus aestuans ingrami) – where?

Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) – Caraça

Crab-eating Fox (Dusicyon thous) – Pantanal

Common/Black-eared Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) – southeast (where?)

Southern Tamandua (Collared Anteater) (Tamandua tetradactyla) – Pantanal

Gray /Brown Brocket Deer (Mazama gouazoubira) – Pantanal

Red Brocket Deer (Mazama americana) – Pantanal

Crab-eating Raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) – Mato Grosso

South American Coati/Coatimundi () – Pantanal

(Azara’s) Agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) – Mato Grosso

small, unidentified Cavy (?) – Serro do Cipo

Cuis/White-throated Cavy or Tuco-tuco (Ctenomyhs brasiliensis) – Canastra (Nascente São Francisco)

Ocelot (Felis pardalis) – Pantanal

Bat spp – most locales

Mouse spp – Itatiaia

Paraguayan (Spectacled) Caiman – Pantanal

Iguanas and other lizards

Yellow Anaconda – Pantanal

Eric Salzman

Box 775

East Quogue, NY 11942

631 653-5236; 718 522-6138

September 21, 2002

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