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21 October - 11 November 2000

by Ron Hoff

My wife and I took a birding tour with Ornifolks to the southeast part of Brazil. This 21day tour started with Itatiaia National Park. From there we went to the Ubatuba area, then to a small town called Itirapina, which is still in Sao Paulo state, for some cerrado habitat species. From there it was on to the state of Minas Gerais to Serra de Canastra Park. After Canastra we went on to another park in Minas Gerais called Serra de Cipo, with a brief stop near Belo Horizonte to pick up Three-toed Jacamar. From Cipo, we drove to a place called Sao Conceicao do Castelo, with a brief stopover at Caraca. After a few days here we went into the state of Espirito Santo to the town of Linhares, where we visited two reserves - Linhares and Sooretama. The last places we visited were Nova Lombardia and a private fazenda called Cafundo. I’ll go through the trip, giving day by day highlights, and then put the total species list, with dates seen, at the end of the report, along with some comments and recommendations.

October 21

Through email with Ornifolks, we had arranged to meet at the Hotel Turistico in Rio de Janeiro. There were seven of us and our guide was Guy Kirwan. We had a nice 10 person Mercedes van that proved to be very workable for the trip. We drove to Itatiaia park, arriving around noon. We stopped at a small store on the way up the entrance road. They had a couple of hummingbird feeders and they were attracting lots of hummers. Black Jacobins were numerous. Other hummers there were Violet-capped Woodnymph, Brazilian Ruby, Sapphire-spangled Emerald, and Frilled Coquette (a male no less!).  Further up the hill, we stopped at a nice hotel (below Hotel do Ype, where we were staying) to watch their hummer feeders for a while. There we added White-chinned Sapphire, White-throated hummingbird, Glittering-throated Emerald, and Scale-throated Hermit. After checking in at Hotel do Ype and a short rest, we went even further up the hill to what’s called the jeep trail. Forest birding is always slow, but we managed to pick up Spot-breasted Antvireo, Greenish Schiffornis, and Black-throated Grosbeak. Night at Hotel do Ype.

October 22

Today we went around to the back side of Itatiaia Park to a road called Agulhas Negras. This was an excellent birding area with virtually no traffic and great habitat. Some of the birds we had there were Rufous-tailed Antbird, Giant Antshrike, Rufous-backed Antvireo, Pale-browed Treehunter, Yellow-browed Woodpecker, Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, Thick-billed Saltator, Bay-chested Warbling-Finch, and Red-rumped Warbling-Finch. After we birded this section of the road, we drove much higher up into the park, to about 7500 feet. Along the way we saw Highland Elaenia and Araucaria Tit-Spinetail. We then came to a swampy area. Here we added Plovercrest (after much searching) and Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant. We then drove even further up the road and finally picked up Itatiaia Thistletail and Long-tailed Reed-Finch. I estimated that at this point we were over 8000 feet in elevation.

October 23

We went back to the jeep trail this morning. The birding was pretty slow (lack of rain?), but we managed to add Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant, Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner, Eared Pygmy-Tyrant, White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Sharp-billed Treehunter, Spot-billed Toucanet, Blue Manakin, and Mouse-colored Tapaculo. After a mid-day break, we went to the Tres Picos trail, where we added Bicolored Hawk, Surucua Trogon, and Red-breasted Toucan.

October 24

We went back to the Tres Picos trail this morning. We picked up Ochre-rumped Antbird, White-browed Foliage-gleaner, Bertoni’s Antbird, White-shouldered Fire-Eye, and Streaked Antwren.

We left Itatiaia and drove to Ubatuba in mid-day. After checking in at the Hotel Castelo Balmoral, we went to a place called Fazenda Angelim. It was already pretty late, but as we were driving in, we spotted a Paint-billed Crake on the road. Inside the reserve we added Crescent-chested Puffbird, Red-necked and Flame-crested Tanagers, Ferruginous Antbird, and a poor but countable look at a Festive Coquette.

October 25

We went back to Fazenda Angelim again this morning and added Unicolored and Star-throated Antwrens, Brazilian Tanager, White-throated Spadebill, Saw-billed Hermit, Mantled Hawk, and Blond-crested Woodpecker. We then drove to the town of Mambucaba. After lunch, we drove through the town and searched for Black-hooded Antwren on some private property. The bird didn’t want to respond to tape and drizzling rain didn’t help matters. After nearly giving up, we finally caught a glimpse of one. It was a poor look, but better than nothing. We also added Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher and Neotropical River Warbler.

October 26

We again went to Fazenda Angelim in the morning. Today we added Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, Black-capped Becard, Yellow Tyrannulet, Rufous-headed Tanager, Tufted Antshrike, Bare-throated Bellbird, Scaled Antbird, and Azure-shouldered Tanager. My wife saw a Reddish Hermit, but everybody else missed it. In the afternoon, we went to a place just west of Ubatuba called Folha Seca. We didn’t add much in the way of new species, but found a Blue Manakin lek, where the birds were actually performing their mating dance. It was mesmerizing!

October 27

We again went to Fazenda Angelim in the morning. We added Sapphire-spangled Emerald, Bran-colored Flycatcher, Rufous-winged Antwren, and Long-billed Gnatwren. We spent the afternoon driving to a town called Itirapina. We got there late, but had just enough time to go to a town park and pick up Curl-crested Jay. Our hotel here was the Pousada Paraiso das Aguas. The rooms were nice and they had several interesting animals in cages there, including marmoset monkeys. We had Gilded Hummingbird and Rufescent Tiger-Heron on the hotel grounds.

October 28

The nearby cerrado habitat was our destination here. Our driver let us out at the edge of the highway and we walked about two miles back to the cerrado, behind a pine tree farm. We immediately started picking up different birds. Added here were Cock-tailed Tyrant, Bearded Tachuri, Capped Seedeater, Yellow-rumped Marshbird, Campo Flicker, a distant Whistling Heron, Cinnamon, White-rumped, and White-banded Tanagers, Plain-crested Elaenia, Sharp-tailed grass-Tyrant, Tawny-headed Swallow, Black-masked finch, and Black-bellied Seedeater. When we walked back to go to lunch, we found that the alternator on the van had malfunctioned. Our driver had taken it to be repaired and had talked a city bus driver to come and pick us up. We went back to the same place that afternoon and added Orange-headed Tanager, Sooty Swifts, Streamer-tailed Tyrant, Yellow-browed Tyrant, and Rufous-winged Antshrike. The cerrado habitat here was about 6 Km. west of Itirapina. Just before a highway tollbooth, we got out and walked to the right, past a pine tree farm, until we came to some railroad tracks. The cerrado was on both sides of the tracks.

October 29

We left after breakfast to begin our drive to Serra de Canastra National Park. We got about halfway, when the alternator acted up again. Not wanting to get stranded in the middle of nowhere on Sunday, we stopped in a town called Sao Sebastian de Paraiso. We had to spend the rest of the day there because nobody was open. We did see Red-legged Seriema on the way.

October 30

Try as he might, our driver was not able to get the van fixed today.

October 31

We were told the van might be ready as early as 0830, but it didn’t turn out that way. It took until 1530 to get the van back. They had gotten the alternator fixed, but managed to zap the air-conditioner in the process. Fortunately we didn’t need it the rest of the trip. Our destination was a town called Sao Roque de Minas, near Canastra Park. On the way there we stopped a couple of times and picked up Spotted Nothura, White-rumped Swallow, and Blackish Rail. We stayed at the Farias Hotel, a quaint, tidy little place with tiny rooms but excellent food.

November 1

We birded the lower part of the park in the morning to try to find the Brazilian Merganser. After trying a couple of places, we finally spotted a group of three from near the entrance gatehouse, but they were very distant and not all of us got an acceptable look. We then went further into the park, to a tall waterfall called Casca D’ante. There we added Planalto (or Russet-mantled) Foliage-gleaner, Planalto Hermit, Gilt-edged Tanager, and Gray-headed Kite. There were loads of White-collared and Great Dusky Swifts roosting behind the waterfall and soaring through the air. On the way back out we picked up Toco Toucan, Golden-capped Parakeet and Sooty Tyrannulet. During our mid-day break, I managed to spot a Stripe-breasted Starthroat in the gardens of our hotel. That afternoon we went into the higher elevations of the park, a totally different habitat. We added Great Pampa Finch, Firewood-gatherer, and Brazilian Tapaculo. While driving the roads looking for other birds, we spotted over 20 Cock-tailed Tyrants. We could have had a few more species in this park and the next park (Serra do Cipo), but the alternator problem made us alter our plans and eliminate extra days in both places.

November 2

Our destination today was Serra do Cipo National Park. On the way there, we stopped in a suburb of Belo Horizonte called Contagem and we were able to track down a Three-toed Jacamar that has been nesting there for a few years. We then finished driving to our hotel at the bottom of Cipo, called Pousada Chao da Serra. It was very nice; one of the best places we stayed in. That afternoon we drove up into the hills and found our two target birds, Hyacinth Visorbearer and Cipo Canastero. On the way back down the hill we picked up a Rufous-capped Antshrike.

November 3

We went back up the road for a couple of hours before breakfast and managed to pick up Sooty-fronted Spinetail, Crested Black Tyrant, Gray Monjita, Olivaceous Elaenia, and Gray-backed Tachuri. After breakfast we began a very long driving day. We stopped around 1300 in a place called Caraca. It’s an old monastery in a huge forested valley. We tried to pick up a couple of birds that we missed earlier, Serra Antwren and Dusky-tailed Antbird. We didn’t find them but did find Brassy-breasted tanager and Swallow-tailed Cotinga. The rest of the day was spent driving an endlessly curvy road to our hotel, which was basically a truck stop in a place called Sao Conceicao do Castelo. Here we were joined by a very nice Brazilian couple who were ecological consultants, Ana Cristina Venturini and her husband Pedro.

November 4

Ana and Pedro took us to a private fazenda called Pindobas IV. This was a tree farm where the owner had decided to preserve some of the remaining Atlantic forest. The owner had also allowed some researchers to come in and survey the bird population to see what was there. In doing so, the Cherry-throated Tanager was re-discovered after not being seen for many years (since 1942, I think). Ana and Pedro had permission to go onto the property and we went to one of two known patches of forest where the tanagers have been found to try to see them. They searched all morning and played tapes to try to find the tanagers, but couldn’t find them. While searching for the tanagers, we managed to find Hooded Berryeater, Blue-winged Macaw, Plain Parakeet, Sharpbill, Planalto Woodcreeper, Cinnamon-vented Piha, Black-billed Scythebill, Yellow-eared Woodpecker, and Channel-billed Toucan. We never did find the tanagers, so we went back down to the ranch and had lunch. After lunch, we went to the other patch of forest that the tanagers have been seen in and found them in 15 minutes! What beauties! We eventually saw 6 individuals, out of only 11 known to exist. To cap it all off, we got a great look at a White-bibbed Antbird on the way out. Later yet, we went to another area of the farm where some of the group saw the elusive Spotted Bamboowren.

November 5

Today we went to an area called Caete. It was about 4000 feet in elevation and some of the best looking forest we would see on this trip. Ana and Pedro said we were the first birders to visit this area. We walked a road so the birding was easy. Here we found Oustalet’s Tyrannulet, Pin-tailed Manakin, Saffron Toucanet, Black-tailed Flycatcher, Pallid Spinetail, Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Such’s Antthrush, Rufous Gnateater, and a White-necked Hawk. We also found a small troop of very cute Buff-headed Marmoset monkeys. I thought this area really had great birding potential.

November 6

This morning we drove to the town of Linhares and checked into the hotel N. S. Conceicao. This was the first day we really had any rain to speak of and it was to follow us for almost the rest of the trip. After checking into the hotel and lunch, we went to the Linhares reserve (called CVRD). We managed to find Orange-winged and Mealy Parrots, Black-necked Aracari, Yellow-green Grosbeak, Red-stained Woodpecker, Ruddy Nightjar, White-bearded Manakin, White-flanked Antwren, Wedge-billed Woodcreeper, Yellow-backed Tanager, and Cocoa Thrush.

November 7

A steady rain all day pretty much killed birding. We went to the Linhares reserve, but were only able to bird sporadically. In spite of the rain we were able to see White-fringed Antwren, a beautiful Blue-throated Parakeet, Red-headed and White-crowned Manakins, Great Potoo, Gray-hooded Attila, White-tailed Trogon, and Black-headed Berryeater. While we were sitting in the dining area after lunch, we saw a Minute Hermit. About 1500 the rain let up a bit and we added Red-browed Parrot and right at the very last minute, before dark, a pair of Solitary Tinamous.

November 8

Today we went to the Sooretama reserve. It was still raining off and on, but not as heavy as yesterday. This is a really nice reserve with a fairly large forested area. Here we were able to add Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, White-flanked Antbird, Striated Softtail, Scalloped Antbird, Band-tailed Antwren, Cinereous Antshrike, Olivaceous Flatbill, Grayish Mourner, Pearly-breasted Cuckoo, Sooretama Slaty Antshrike, Yellow-throated Woodpecker, White-fronted Nunbird, White-browed Blackbird (on the way in to the reserve), Thrushlike Woodcreeper, Tataupa Tinamou, and two Barn Owls on the way out.

November 9

It was still raining as we went to the Linhares reserve for the final time to try to find Red-billed Curassow. We searched and searched, driving many roads, but just couldn’t seem to find the Curassows. We did manage to find a Sepia-capped Flycatcher, two Hooded Tanagers, and some Blue-winged Parrotlets. While we were driving one of the roads we came to a place where some trees had fallen down, blocking the road. Pedro got out and hacked a small opening around the brush. He came back excitedly and motioned for us to follow him. When we got to the other side, we found a pair of Red-billed Curassows. We set up the scope and got great views of the pair, eventually even seeing two chicks! These birds are truly beautiful.

We left Linhares and drove to the town of Santa Tereza. We checked into the Hotel Pierazzo (very nice). After hiring a truck to help get us up a very muddy hill, we drove to the IBAMA Nova Lombardia Reserve.

At the entrance building there were 5 hummingbird feeders with at least 8 species of hummers using them: Brazilian Ruby, Versicolored Emerald, White-throated Hummingbird, Black Jacobin, Sombre Hummingbird, Scale-throated Hermit, Violet-capped Woodnymph, and Frilled Coquette. We found one of the Coquettes perched in a tree and put the scope on it. What an incredible view of an exquisite creature! Wow! There was also a concrete area about 10 feet away where the park people put fruit out. Some of the species we saw very close up there were: Blue Dacnis; Azure-shouldered, Black-goggled, Cinnamon, Golden-chevroned, and Ruby-crowned Tanagers; Buff-throated and Green-winged Saltators; Rufous-bellied thrush; Maroon-bellied Parakeet; Saffron Finch; and Creamy-bellied Thrush. We also found a Gray-capped Tyrannulet near the entrance building. After all this, we went up a road into the park a bit. There we worked through the rain again and picked up Yellow-breasted Flycatcher and Wied’s Tyrant-Manakin.

November 10

The first thing this morning we drove to a place called Fazenda Experimental de Bananal do Norte. Here we looked for and found Plumbeous Antvireo. After we drove back to town for lunch, we went to another fazenda called Cafundo. We found a pair of White-faced Whistling-Ducks and 4 Brazilian Teals on a pond on the farm. We didn’t get into the remnant patch of forest here until 1545, but managed to find Southern Antpipit, Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant, two more Plumbeous Antvireos, and a Black-cheeked Gnateater.

November 11

Our final day was mostly a drive back to Rio, but on the way back we stopped near the coast and a place called Lago Azul to try for Restinga Antwren. Once we got to the right place, it only took about 15 minutes to find the bird. Our last stop was a bay near the town of Niteroi (across the bay from Rio). Here we found Southern Pochard, Kelp Gull, Yellow-chinned Spinetail, Least Grebe, and finally (for the last bird of the trip) a Rufous-sided Crake! Our driver took us directly to the Rio airport where we caught our flight home.


The numbers after the species are the dates it was actually seen.

H17 = the bird was heard, but not seen, on the 17th.

G8 = Someone in the group, beside myself, saw it on the 8th.

Since the trip started on October 21rst. and ran into November, the higher numbers are for October and the lower numbers are for November.

Species order follows Sibley and Monroe.

Greater Rhea- 1 Solitary Tinamou- 7
Little Tinamou- H7, H8 Brown Tinamou- H26
Yellow-legged Tinamou- H7 Tataupa Tinamou- 8
Red-winged Tinamou-1 Spotted Nothura- 31,1
Dusky-legged Guan- 21, 23, 24, 4, 5 Red-billed Curassow- 9
White-faced Whistling-Duck- 10 Black-bellied Whistling-Duck- G8
Brazilian Teal- 10 Southern Pochard- 11
Brazilian Merganser- G1 White-barred Piculet- 24, 1, 9
White Woodpecker- 28 Little Woodpecker- 22
White-spotted Woodpecker- 23 Red-stained Woodpecker- 6
Yellow-eared Woodpecker- 4 Yellow-throated Woodpecker- 8
Golden-green Woodpecker- G22 Yellow-browed Woodpecker- 22
Green-barred Woodpecker- 28 Campo Flicker- 28, 31-7, 10
Blonde-crested Woodpecker- 25, 27 Lineated Woodpecker- 1
Crimson-crested Woodpecker- 28 Black-necked Aracari- 6, 7, 9
Saffron Toucanet- 22, 24, 5 Spot-billed Toucanet- 23
Channel-billed Toucan- 4, 6 Red-breasted Toucan- 23
Toco Toucan- 31, 1 Three-toed Jacamar- 2
Rufous-tailed Jacamar- G27, G7 White-eared Puffbird- 28, 31, 1
Crescent-chested Puffbird- 24 White-fronted Nunbird- 8
Swallow-wing- 6, 9 White-tailed Trogon- 7, 8, 10
Black-throated Trogon- 9 Surucua Trogon- 23, 24, 1
Rufous-capped Motmot- 21 Ringed Kingfisher- 11
Amazon Kingfisher- 29, 11 Green Kingfisher- 31
Squirrel Cuckoo- 31, 7, 8 Smooth-billed Ani- 21, 24-29, 31-3, 6, 9-11
Guira Cuckoo- 27, 8, 10 Striped Cuckoo- 25
Pearly-breasted Cuckoo- 8 Blue-winged Macaw- 4, 7
White-eyed Parakeet- 1 Golden-capped Parakeet-1
Peach-fronted Parakeet- 29-3, 7 Blue-throated Parakeet- 7
Maroon-bellied Parakeet- 22, 24, 1, 4, 5, 9 Blue-winged Parrotlet- 9
Plain Parakeet- 26, 4, 7, 8 Yellow-chevroned Parakeet- 3
Red-capped Parrot- G21, G4 Scaly-headed Parrot- 23-27, 5, 6
Red-browed Parrot- 7, 8 Orange-winged Parrot- 6, 7
Mealy Parrot- 6, 7 Sooty Swift- 28, 31
Great Dusky Swift- 1 White-collared Swift- 21-24, 26, 27,1, 3
Biscutate Swift- G3-6, G3 Gray-rumped Swift- 24-27, 5-9
Ashy-tailed Swift- 23, 24, 1 Scale-throated Hermit- 21, 22, 4, 7, 9
Planalto Hermit- 1 Reddish Hermit- G26
Minute Hermit- 7, 8, 10 Saw-billed Hermit- 25, 27
Swallow-tailed Hummingbird- 21, 24, 27, 1-3, 7, 8  Black-Jacobin- 21-27, 9
White-vented Violetear- 21, 28, 1 Black-throated Mango- 21
Plovercrest- 22 Frilled Coquette- 21, 25, 5, 9
Festive Coquette- 24 Glittering-bellied Emerald- 1-3
Violet-capped Woodnymph- 21-23, 25, 5, 9 White-chinned Sapphire- 24, 28, 8
Gilded Hummingbird- 27 White-throated Hummingbird- 21, 22, 4, 9
White-tailed Goldenthroat- 22 Versicolored Emerald- 21, 9
Glittering-throated Emerald- 21, 24, 4 Sapphire-spangled Emerald- 21, 27, 1
Sombre Hummingbird- 9 Brazilian Ruby- 21-24, 4, 9
Hyacinth Visorbearer- 2 Stripe-breasted Starthroat- 1
Barn Owl- 8 Tropical Screech-Owl- 25
Tawny-browed Owl- 23 Burrowing Owl- 28, 1, 2, 8, 10
Striped Owl- 25 (leader only) Great Potoo- 7
Least Nighthawk- 31, 1 Ruddy Nightjar- 6, 7
Pauraque- 1, 6-8 Band-winged Nightjar- 1 (leader only)
Picazuro Pigeon- 24, 27-3 Pale-vented Pigeon- 28, 1, 3
Plumbeous Pigeon- 22, 24, 26 Eared Dove- 27, 29, 30
Scaled Dove- 28 Plain-breasted Ground-Dove- 26, 2, 3, 9
Ruddy Ground-Dove- 24-5, 8-10 Picui Ground-Dove- G1, G8, G9
Scaled Pigeon- 6 White-tipped Dove- 28
Gray-fronted Dove- 9 Ruddy Quail-Dove- 25
Red-legged Seriema- 29, 2 Ocellated Crake- H1
Rufous-sided Crake- 11 Gray-necked Wood-Rail- 25-27, 31
Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail- 22 Blackish Rail- 31, 2
Purple Gallinule- 10 Common Moorhen- 21, 31,10
Paint-billed Crake- 24 Lesser Yellowlegs- 11
Wattled Jacana- 27, 29, 10 Southern Lapwing- almost every day
Kelp Gull- 11 Gray-headed Kite- 28, 1
Swallow-tailed Kite- 4, 7, 9 White-tailed Kite- 6
Rufous-thighed Kite- 21 Plumbeous Kite- 1, 6-8
Bicolored Hawk- 26, 5 White-necked Hawk- 5
Mantled Hawk- 25 Savannah Hawk- 29, 31, 10
Harris's Hawk- 1 Roadside Hawk-25-28, 31, 1, 9, 10
White-tailed Hawk- 21, 22, 31, 1 Crested Caracara- almost every day
Yellow-headed Caracara- almost every day American Kestrel- 29, 31-2, 8-10
Aplomado Falcon- G8, G2 Bat Falcon- G3
Least Grebe- 10, 11 Pied-billed Grebe- G3
Neotropic Cormorant- 21, 31, 11 Whistling Heron- 28
Snowy Egret- 28, 10 Capped Heron- 10
Cocoi Heron- 28 Great Egret- almost every day
Cattle Egret- almost every day Striated Heron- 21, 27, 11
Rufescent Tiger-Heron- 29 Buff-necked Ibis- G31
Black Vulture-abundant Turkey Vulture- almost every day
Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture- 10 King Vulture- 1
Magnificent Frigatebird- 21, 25, 26, 11 Ochre-bellied Flycatcher- G26
Gray-hooded Flycatcher- 23 Sepia-capped Flycatcher- 9
Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant- 23, 4, 5 Eye-ringed Tody- Tyrant- 10
Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant- 26 Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher- 5
Common Tody-Flycatcher- 1 Planalto Tyrannulet- G1
Greenish Tyrannulet- 21 Gray-capped Tyrannulet- 9
Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet- G28, G1 Mouse-colored Tyrannulet- 24
Yellow Tyrannulet- 26 Yellow-bellied Elaenia- 2, 3, 11
Small-billed Elaenia- 22 Olivaceous Elaenia- 28, 1, 3
Plain-crested Elaenia- 28 Highland Elaenia- 22
White-crested Elaenia- G28 Sooty Tyrannulet- 1, 5
White-crested Tyrannulet- 28, 5 Sharp-tailed Tyrant- 28
Bearded Tachuri- 28 Gray-backed Tachuri- 3
Southern Bristle-Tyrant23, 1 Oustalet's Tyrannulet- 5
Serra do Mar Tyrannulet- 22, 24 Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet- 22, 5
Eared Pygmy-Tyrant- 23, 25 Olivaceous Flatbill- 8
Yellow-olive Flycatcher- 5, 8, 9 Gray-crowned Flycatcher- G6
Yellow-breasted Flycatcher- 9 White-throated Spadebill- 25
Bran-colored Flycatcher- 27, 28, 2, 3 Black-tailed Flycatcher- G5
Swallow Flycatcher- 21, 22, 24, 30, 1 Fuscous Flycatcher- 21
Euler's Flycatcher- 22, 23, 5 Tropical Pewee- 26
Gray Monjita- 27-29, 2, 3 White-rumped Monjita- 28, 31-2
Blue-billed Black-Tyrant-21, 4 Crested Black-Tyrant- 24, 1, 3
Masked Water-Tyrant- 23, 31, 2, 5, 10, 11 White-headed Marsh-Tyrant- 31, 2, 10
Cock-tailed Tyrant- 28, 1 Streamer-tailed Tyrant- 28, 1
Yellow-browed Tyrant- 28, 1 Long-tailed Tyrant- 21, 24, 26
Cattle Tyrant- 24-26, 2, 3, 7, 10 Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant- 22, 4
Gray-hooded Attila- G7 Grayish Mourner- 8
Sirystes- 1, 4 Dusky-capped Flycatcher- 27
Short-crested Flycatcher- G1 White-throated Kingbird- 1
Tropical Kingbird- almost every day Fork-tailed Flycatcher- 21, 22, 24, 25, 27-29, 31-3
Variegated Flycatcher- 21, 24-28 Boat-billed Flycatcher- 24-27
Streaked Flycatcher- 25-27, 1, 6, 8, 10 Rusty-margined Flycatcher- 5
Social Flycatcher- 24-27, 2, 3, 6, 9, 10 Piratic Flycatcher- 26
Great Kiskadee- abundant Shrike-like Cotinga (Elegant Mourner)- H5
Swallow-tailed Cotinga- 3, 5 Black-and-Gold Cotinga- 22
Hooded Berryeater- 4 Black-headed Berryeater- 7
Screaming Piha- H6, H9, H10 Cinnamon-vented Piha- 4
Red-ruffed Fruitcrow- 8 Bare-throated Bellbird- 26, 5 
Sharpbill- 4 Red-headed Manakin- 7
White-crowned Manakin- G7 Helmeted Manakin- 1
Swallow-tailed Manakin- 22-27, 4 Pin-tailed Manakin- 5
White-bearded Manakin- 6, 10 Wied's Tyrant-Manakin- 9
Greenish Schiffornis- 21, 4 Chestnut-crowned Becard- 21, 25
White-winged Becard- G10 Black-capped Becard- 26, 8
Crested Becard- 27, 6, 8, 10 Black-tailed Tityra- 24, 26, 8
Black-crowned Tityra- G8 Giant Antshrike- 22
Tufted Antshrike- 26 Great Antshrike- 29, 2
Planalto Slaty-Antshrike- 23 Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike-8, 10
Variable Antshrike- 22, 23, 5 Rufous-winged Antshrike- 28
Rufous-capped Antshrike- 2 Spot-breasted Antvireo- 21, 25-27, 4
Plain Antvireo- 23 Rufous-backed Antvireo- 22
Plumbeous Antvireo- 10 Cinereous Antshrike- 8
Star-throated Antwren- 25, 27 White-flanked Antwren- 6, 9
Unicolored Antwren- 25 Band-tailed Antwren- 8
Rufous-winged Antwren- 27 White-fringed Antwren-7
Restinga Antwren- 11 Black-hooded Antwren-25
Ferruginous Antbird- 23-27 Bertoni's Antbird- 24
Rufous-tailed Antbird- 22 Ochre-rumped Antbird- 24
Scaled Antbird- 26 Streak-capped Antwren-24-27
White-shouldered Fire-Eye- 24, 4 Scalloped Antbird- 8
White-bibbed Antbird- 4 Squamate Antbird- G25, G27
Pale-legged Hornero- 10 Rufous Hornero- 24, 29, 31, 1, 3-5, 7, 10
Araucaria Tit-Spinetail- 22 Itatiaia Thistletail- 22
Rufous-capped Spinetail- 21, 22, 24-26, 5 Sooty-fronted Spinetail- 3
Pale-breasted Spinetail- 28 Pallid Spinetail- 5
Yellow-chinned Spinetail- 11 Rusty-backed Spinetail- 28
Cipo Canastero- 2 Striated Softtail- 8
Rufous-fronted Thornbird- 29, 1, 3, 10 Firewood-gatherer- 1
Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper- 1 Pale-browed Treehunter- 22
Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner- 23 Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner- 1
White-browed Foliage-gleaner- 24 Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner- 21-24, 4, 5
Black-capped Foliage-gleaner-21, 24, 27 White-collared Foliage-gleaner- 23, 25, 5
White-eyed Foliage-gleaner- 26 Tawny-throated Leaftosser- G27
Sharp-billed Treehunter- 23, 24, 5 Streaked Xenops- 21, 24, 4, 5, 8, 9
Thrush-like Woodcreeper- 27, 8, 10 Olivaceous Woodcreeper- 23, 24, 4,
Wedge-billed Woodcreeper- 6 White-throated Woodcreeper- 21-23
Planalto Woodcreeper- 4 Buff-throated Woodcreeper- 8
Scaled Woodcreeper- 21, 5, 6, 9 Lesser Woodcreeper- 21, 4
Black-billed Scythebill- 4,5 Short-tailed Antthrush- H21-26, H4
Such's Antthrush- 5 Rufous-tailed Antthrush- H22, H23
Variegated Antpitta- H22, H4, H5 Rufous Gnateater- 5
Black-cheeked Gnateater- 10 Collared Crescent-chest- H28
Spotted Bamboowren- H25, H27, G4 Mouse-colored Tapaculo- 24
Brasilia Tapaculo- 1 Rufous-browed Peppershrike- 22, 23, 26, 1
Chivi Vireo- 24, 26-28, 6, 8, 9 Rufous-crowned Greenlet- 22, 24
Curl-crested Jay- 27, 28, 2 Yellow-legged Thrush- 25-27,4, 5
Rufous-bellied Thrush- almost every day Pale-breasted Thrush- 25, 28, 1
Creamy-bellied Thrush- 1-5, 9 Cocoa Thrush- 6, 7, 9
White-necked Thrush- 22 Chalk-browed Mockingbird- 24, 27-29, 31-3, 5, 7
Thrush-like Wren- 8 Sedge Wren- 1
House Wren- almost every day Long-billed Gnatwren- 26
White-winged Swallow- G3, G10 White-rumped Swallow- 31, 1
Brown-chested Martin- 31, 1, 10 Gray-breasted Martin- almost every day
Blue-and-White Swallow- almost every day White-thighed Swallow- 26, 27
Tawny-headed Swallow- 28, 1 Southern Rough-winged Swallow- common
House Sparrow- common Hooded Siskin- 28
Rufous-collared Sparrow- common Grassland Sparrow- 28, 1
Saffron-billed Sparrow- 2 Tropical Parula- 27, 28, 10
Masked Yellowthroat- 25, 28 Golden-crowned Warbler- 21-24, 5
White-bellied Warbler- 1 White-browed (Rimmed) Warbler- 1
Neotropical River Warbler- 25 Bananaquit- 21, 26, 9
Chestnut-vented Conebill- G28 Brown Tanager- G5
Cinnamon Tanager- 28, 1, 9 White-banded Tanager- 28
White-rumped Tanager- 28 Magpie Tanager- 21, 23, 24
Orange-headed Tanager- 28 Guira Tanager- 1
Rufous-headed Tanager- 26, 2, 5 Yellow-backed Tanager- 6
Hooded Tanager- 9 Cherry-throated Tanager- 2
Olive-green Tanager-24, 25 Flame-crested Tanager- 24-26, 6
Ruby-crowned Tanager- 21, 25-27, 3, 5, 9 White-lined Tanager- 21, 1
Black-goggled Tanager- 24, 5, 9 Red-crowned Ant-Tanager- 6
Silver-beaked Tanager- 28 Sayaca Tanager- almost every day
Azure-shouldered Tanager- 26, 27, 4, 5, 9 Golden-chevroned Tanager- 21-24, 3-5, 9
Palm Tanager- 24-27, 3, 5, 7-10 Diademed Tanager- 22
Fawn-breasted Tanager- 22, 5, 9 Purple-throated Euphonia- 1
Violaceous Euphonia- 26, 27, 7 Chestnut-bellied Euphonia- 21, 24, 26
Blue-naped Chlorophonia- 23 Green-headed Tanager- 21, 24-27
Red-necked Tanager- 24, 25, 9 Brassy-breasted Tanager- 22-24, 3-5
Gilt-edged Tanager- 1, 5, 9 Burnished-buff Tanager- 28, 1, 3, 5, 10
Opal-rumped Tanager- 6 Blue Dacnis- 21, 23-26, 1, 4-7, 9
Green Honeycreeper- 26 Swallow Tanager- 1
Black-masked Finch- 28 Long-tailed Reed-Finch- 22
Bay-chested Warbling-Finch- 22 Red-rumped Warbling-Finch- 22
Saffron Finch- 1, 4, 5, 9, 10 Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch- 28, 1, 8
Great Pampa-Finch- 1 Blue-Black Grassquit- 27, 28, 1, 5, 9
Plumbeous Seedeater- 28 Yellow-bellied Seedeater- 1-3, 9
Double-collared Seedeater- 25-28, 30-1, 5 Capped Seedeater- 28, 1
Black-bellied Seedeater- 28 Yellow-green Grosbeak- 6, 8, 10
Black-throated Grosbeak- 21 Buff-throated Saltator- 9
Green-winged Saltator- 2, 3, 9 Thick-billed Saltator- 22
Black-throated Saltator- 28, 31, 1 Crested Oropendula- 1, 3, 5
Red-rumped Cacique- 21, 23, 24, 6, 8, 10 Golden-winged Cacique- 22, 23
Chestnut-capped Blackbird- 27-29, 31 White-browed Blackbird- 8
Yellow-rumped Marshbird- 28, 31-2 Chopi Blackbird- 28, 29, 31-3
Shiny Cowbird- 21-27, 29, 5, 7, 10 Giant Cowbird- G3

Comments and Recommendations.

1 - Both Serra de Canastra and Serra do Cipo deserved more time. Our alternator problem caused us to miss at least a whole day in both places. We didn't get all the species in either place by any means. I felt the same way about the reserves at Linhares and Sooretama. We had several days at Linhares, but rain hurt our chances. Sooretama was great too. I would like to have had another day there as well.

2 - Caraca looked like it also had some potential. It was a wonderful looking place with lots of forest. Our stop there was all too brief. I would have loved spending at least a whole day there

3 - The place called Caete was fabulous. I thought it had tremendous potential as a birding destination. The forest was gorgeous. I would suggest three days here. It's near a community called Castelhino (spelling?). This is private property, so you would have to get permission from the owner to go there. Ana and Pedro could probably help with this.

4 - Ana and Pedro were great. Their company is called Originalis Natura / ES. They also have a web page
( As I understand it, you have to go through them to get into Pindobas IV to see the Cherry-throated Tanagers. They have tapes and know the wildlife in these areas very well. They are also very nice and professional. I highly recommend them if you need help anywhere in the area around Vitoria, Espirito Santo.

5 - I hope this report helps people who are planning to go to southeast Brazil. It's a fabulous place with lots of birds. The Brazilian people are very friendly and the infrastructure is one of the best in South America. The roads are good and the food is very good. We never felt threatened in any way. I worked in the southeast back in 1986 and again in 1988. There have been vast improvements since then, but the prime habitats are very much under siege. I would suggest going sooner than later, but I guess that statement could be made about most places in the world today. We had about 64 endemics seen. Not many places in the world have those kinds of numbers.

As always, I've tried to be accurate in this report. If there are any mistakes, they are mine alone, and I'd like to know about them (

Ron Hoff

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