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5-16 December 1993

Report by Dalcio Dacol

In December of 1993 I had another opportunity to bird in Sao Paulo, a state in southeast Brazil.  Unlike my trip in September of 1992 to this same region, when I was doing some voluntary work for a US based conservation organization (RARE), this time it was a purely birding trip.  This trip had its origin in my second attempt to see the Whiskered Tern that visited Delaware in July and August of 1993.  On a Saturday morning in early August, as I was leaving the Pickering Beach marsh, after having seen the tern flying away in a southward direction, I bumped into Bob Ridgely who had just arrived.

I had known Bob for some time because of my interest in gathering support here in the US for conservation efforts in Sao Paulo state.  I had also been telling him about the ornithological wonders of south Sao Paulo state, an area that Bob, despite his extensive travelling in South America, had never visited.  Previously we had attempted to set up a birding trip to that area but somehow never managed to pull it through.

As we walked back to the marsh we met Tom Burke, an avid birder from NY.  Bob then suggested that perhaps we should try to go to SP in December when he had some time to travel.  Upon returning to DC (after having had splendid views of the tern in the Logan tract in the afternoon) I wrote to my friend Paulo Martuscelli, who is a biologist with the Sao Paulo state agency in charge of parks and reserves, asking him whether he could set up an itinerary for us.

Finally, when December arrived six of us left the US for Brazil: Louis Bevier, Tom Burke, Dalcio Dacol, Bob Ridgely, Guy Tudor and David Wilcove.  Late in the morning of December 5th we met with Paulo at the airport in Sao Paulo, boarded a rented VW van and started our journey.

It was a successful trip, despite being late in the breeding season which made it difficult to find many forest species.  As a group we managed to identify 365 species in 12 days.  Even Bob Ridgely managed to find some life birds, quite remarkable since he has seen most of the bird species in South America.  5th - Late morning arrival at SP airport, where we joined up with Paulo.  At the airport, while packing the van, we were rewarded with a territorial display by a Fork-tailed Flycatcher.  A woodland strip bordered the parking lot and many common birds inhabited that narrow patch: Tropical Kingbird, Great Kiskadee, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Blue-and-White Swallow, House Wren, Rufous-bellied Thrush, Bananaquit, Sayaca Tanager and Rufous-collared Sparrow, a nice welcome commitee!

After lunch at a classic "churrascaria" (a typical southern Brazilian barbecue restaurant) we drove to Itirapina in the interior of Sao Paulo state.  We stayed at very simple lodgings in the Horto Florestal, a combination of botanical garden and city park.  In late afternoon, despite exhaustion from the long flight and drive, we scouted the forest reserve till dusk.

The forest reserve here contains small remnants of "cerrado" and "campo".  "Cerrado" is the Brazilian name for the savannas of central Brazil which are interspersed with riparian forest.  "Campo" is a natural grassland, usually on sandy soil which is sometimes flooded during the raining season.  This kind of habitat is under tremenduous threat throughout central Brazil because of agricultural development and in Sao Paulo state only small patches remain.  Nevertheless it is a surprisingly birdy habitat.

The mixed woodland near the lodgings, a mix of exotic and native plants, also proved to be very birdy, mostly with widespread species, but also some surprises such as Sombre Hummingbird, Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Masked Gnatcatcher and Burnished-buff Tanager, all of which were expected for this region, but in more pristine habitat (or so we thought!).

December 6th -

After a long morning drive we walked out into some nice patches of cerrado.  Then back to town for lunch and a brief rest and out again in late afternoon till dusk when we heard several Giant Snipes.  Highlights: Lesser Nothura, Collared Crescent-chest, Helmeted Manakin, Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant, Bearded Tachuri, Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant, Cock-tailed Tyrant, White-striped Warbler, White-banded Tanager, White-rumped Tanager, Cinnamon Tanager, Black- throated Saltator, all "cerrado" specialties.

We were very luck to spot the Lesser Nothura, a kind of grassland tinamou, while it walked along a firebreak allowing for excellent views of this reclusive bird.  We also had good views of a displaying male Cock-tailed Flycatcher.  The male Cock-tailed Flycatcher is a black and white tyrant flycatcher about the size of an Eastern Kingbird, with a tail shaped somewhat like an airplane's tail (i.e., seen from behind in flight it looks like _|_ ).  In its display flight it flies horizontally with very fast wing beats but with the wings held almost leveled, making the bird look almost like a mechanical toy airplane.

The two tanagers are particularly striking for the similarity of their plumages with those of certain shrikes (which do not occur in South America).  Thus the plumage of the White-banded Tanager is very similar to that of an adult Northern Shrike while the White-rumped Tanager's closely resembles that of the Fiscal Shrike of Africa.

December 7th -

We drove out early in the morning to try to spot the displaying Giant Snipes at dawn, but no luck, we didn't even hear them this time.  Then we covered several isolated patches of woodland.  Highlights: Flavescent Warbler, Hooded Tanager (here at the southern limit of its range), Red Pileated-Finch.  At Itirapina we recorded 141 species (4 were seen by using tapes).

After lunch we drove south towards the mountains of the Serra do Paranapiacaba.  We ended up around 6 PM at a large state park called Fazenda Intervales (some 30 km south of Capao Bonito).  About 20 km before Intervales, near the town of Ribeirao Grande, we stopped at a nice marsh, with many birds and Capybaras!  Among the birds: Blackish Rail (seen and heard, no tape was used), Brazilian Duck, Wattled Jacana, Solitary Sandpiper, White-eared Puffbird, Streamer-tailed Tyrant, White-headed Marsh-Tyrant.

Fazenda Intervales is a fine place well set up for ecotourism.  The lodgings are in the high part, about 850 m above sea level, the reserve encompasses some 38000 hectares of forest down to about 70 m above sea level.  Intervales is located between two other state parks.  These three protected areas together hold about 120,000 hectares of continuous, mostly primary, forest, one of the largest remnants of the severely endangered Atlantic forest of eastern Brazil.  To stay at Intervales contact Nani Amil, Fazenda Intervales, Caixa Postal 95, Guapiara, Sao Paulo - CEP 18310-000, Brazil, phone or fax: 55-0155-421511.  Ms. Amil speaks English fluently and can help in making reservations and arranging for transportation.

December 8th -

In early AM we drove to Base do Carmo to walk and bird along an internal road crossing the forest.  Fazenda Intervales has several outposts that consists of a small house with bedrooms, bath and kitchen which are used by researchers studying the forest.  A couple of these bases are available for tourists too.  In this case Intervales provides a guide who takes food and cooks for the tourists at the bases, which are quite far from the main lodge.

We had a very productive bird walk in beautiful forest throughout.  Highlights: Slaty-breasted Wood-rail, Rusty-breasted Nunlet, Spot-billed Toucanet, Red-breasted (Green-billed) Toucan, Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, Rufous-tailed Attila, Sharpbill, Cinnamon-vented Piha, Bare-throated Bellbird, Black-throated Grosbeak.

We returned to the main lodge for lunch and siesta.  Right in front of the entrance to the dining hall we found a nest of the Swallow-tailed Cotinga.  It had one nestling and the parents took turns feeding and brooding it.  During our lunch-time and dinner observations, we noticed that approximately every 5-15 minutes one of the parents would return with food and approach the nest, the brooding parent would then leave and the newly arrived parent would feed the nestling and proceed to brood it till the other parent returned.  We went out in the afternoon for a hike along a nearby forest trail, this time didn't see many birds because of late hour (though we saw among others: Dusky-legged Guan, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Cryptic Antthrush, Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, Large-headed Flatbill, Rufous-crowned Greenlet and Magpie Tanager).  The trail looked very good and promising and we planned to return to it on our last morning.

December 9th -

Another early morning drive (we got our breakfast in the form of wrapped sandwiches and a thermos of coffee after dinner in the previous night, thus we were able to go to the field quite early in the morning) and then walk along road in the Base Barra Grande area (about 700 m above sea level) reached by driving through a neighboring small farm.

Again a very productive walk through beautiful primary forest, spectacular views of Solitary Tinamou, Black-fronted Piping Guan and Mantled Hawk were the highlights.  A pair of Solitary Tinamous came out to the road in response to a tape playback allowing for good , but brief, views of these large tinamous.  One magnificent Black-fronted Piping Guan was seen and another heard giving its flying wing-rattle at edge of tall primary forest; this turkey-sized bird was watched as it gave its wing-rattle while sailing across a small valley from one ridge to another, and then as it fed on the large fruits of a canopy tree.  Mantled Hawk: one superb bird seen perched in an isolated snag at edge of small marshy clearing, apparently hunting.  Other interesting birds were the beautiful endemic tanagers Green-headed Tanager, Red-necked Tanager and Brassy-breasted Tanager, all in the genus Tangara which is well known for including some of the most beautiful birds in South America.

In late afternoon we walked from the lodgings till that small farm with moderately good result, especially considering the windy and cloudy conditions.  Among other birds we saw: Dusky-tailed Antbird, Shear-tailed Gray-Tyrant, Hooded Berryeater, Diademed Tanager, Chestnut-backed Tanager.  Overall it was warm (surprisingly so for the elevation) and muggy, but so far we had had no rain and the forest floor was almost dry.  In the evening we attempted a nocturnal foray which turned out to be notably unsuccessful.

December 10th -

Long morning and mid day walk up the Mirante trail.  We reached the Mirante, a nearby peak (1060 m) with a communications tower on top.  Again very productive but no sign of the White-bearded Antshrike, Bob's nemesis bird, and the main target of this walk.  From the Mirante we had a 360 degree view of the surrounding area.  Forest extending as far as the eye could see in all directions, except west, where we could see the agricultural lands on the plateau beyond Fazenda Intervales.

We rested during the afternoon and had an early dinner and went out on another nocturnal foray which was once more perplexingly unsuccessful despite the apparently perfect weather conditions (we did spot a couple of Pauraques though).

December 11th -

Our last morning at Intervales was spent on an early morning walk (under light rain) up the Mirante trail checking out the bamboo groves in search of the elusive White-bearded Antshrike.  At almost the last possible moment we found a somewhat loose understory flock and Bob managed (using his tape player) to lure a pair out of the dense undergrowth and we all had excellent views of this rare and reclusive antshrike.  We also saw Tufted Antshrike and White-browed Foliage Gleaner in this morning walk.  At Intervales we recorded 173 species (seen with help of tapes: 15 species).

We departed late in the morning towards Peruibe, a beach resort town on the coast where we arrived around 6 PM.  Despite a few brief birding stops it was a very hot and uncomfortable journey, however we did manage to see an Aplomado Falcon and a flock of Yellow-rumped Marshbirds (despite their name they were in a quite dry cornfield).  Had an excellent seafood dinner and spent the night in a nice hotel (yes, air-conditioning!).

December 12th -

We left the hotel early in the morning and drove south along the coast towards Jureia State Ecological Reserve (about 80,000 hectares, the vast majority of which is of very difficult access).  Two mountain ranges are included in this reserve and the bulk of it is an immense plain wedged between the ranges.  The forests on the slopes come down to almost sea level, gradually transforming into coastal sand plain forest and then either scrub and beach or mangrove around rivers and creeks that empty at the beach.

We stayed at very simple lodgings at the Rio Verde station.  The station had batteries charged by solar panels and thus we had a few hours of electricity at night as well as enough power to keep a small refrigerator operating, and therefore a supply of cold beers!  To get there we drove south along the coast for about an hour and a half till we got to the Una river, which we crossed by boat leaving our car on the northern bank.  Then we drove 26 km by jeep (with some of us on a trailer) along a dirty road through the sand plain forest to the Verde river.  We crossed it by boat and reached our lodgings after a short boat trip (actually just our luggage did that, we just crossed the river by boat and walked towards our lodgings while birding along a trail parallel to the river).  We brought our food and hired the wife of one of the resident reserve guards to cook for us.  Although we didn't make many birding stops on our way in, we saw along the way, among others, the following birds: Scaly-headed Parrot, Amazon Kingfisher, Green Kingfisher, Azure Jay, Brazilian Tanager.

Upon arriving we saw a nice pair of Rufous-thighed Kites in territorial display flight high over the clearing of the Rio Verde station.  The flowering banana plant in front of station was being guarded by a very zealous Saw-billed Hermit.  We had a late lunch, a short siesta and then went for a late PM walk into very nice tall forest.  The highlight of this walk was an exceptional view of a reclusive tapaculo, the Slaty Bristlefront.  The weather here was hot and muggy and the place was very buggy.

December 13th -

Long morning hike up into the forest, reaching about 200 m above sea level.  Only moderately productive.  Highlights: American Pygmy Kingfisher, Grayish Mourner, White-eyed Foliage Gleaner, Squamate Antbird, Black-capped Becard.  A late afternoon walk out to the ocean beach was even less productive, we saw only a Flame-crested Tanager and a Brazilian Tanager in the mangroves and beach scrub.  On the way back to the camp a sensational pair of Black-cheeked Gnateaters showed up just before dusk near the station for the day's birding highlight.   At dusk we arranged the patio chairs in a semi-circle around the perimeter of the clearing, had our cold beers on hand, and waited for the calling Short-tailed Nighthawks to put out a flying show around the clearing.  We were not disappointed!

December 14th -

Birding around the camp in the morning, and then the return trip to Peruibe.  We saw quite a number of birds around the camp itself: Black-capped Screech-Owl, Short-tailed Nighthawk, Green-and-rufous Kingfisher, White-tailed Trogon, Channel-billed Toucan, Robust Woodpecker, Blue Manakin, Swallow Tanager, Neotropical River Warbler.  Also in the Jureia area we managed to see all five species of kingfishers that occur in Brazil.  At Jureia we noted 121 species (with tapes: 9).

On the way out the last bridge before the Una river (where we left our VW van) had given out and the jeep couldn't cross it.  We had to walk with our gear, in mid-day sun, about 3 miles to the Una river.  We had a nice seafood lunch in Peruibe with lots of beer and then another long and uncomfortable ride south, towards the coastal town of Cananeia, a sleepy place altogether different in feel from Peruibe.  Car troubles threatened to disrupt our activities, Paulo left us off to wait for a parrot evening roosting flight and eventually a few appeared.  We spent the night in a nice hotel in Cananeia.

December 15th -

All day devoted to a very fruitful excursion to Ilha do Cardoso, another of Sao Paulo's State Parks, encompassing 22000 hectares.  To get there we had to rent a boat and cross a wide sound which was very choppy on our way back.  Once in the island, to reach some of the best forest habitats, we walked 4 km from the landing pier.
There are numerous long trails that access a variety of superb habitats, and the avifauna is rich (during the 3 years that Paulo lived there he recorded 370 species).  In one day we didn't have enough time to properly sample it.  In about 8 hours there we identified about 97 species (3 by tape).  Highlights: Red-tailed Parrot, Unicolor Antwren, Rufous-winged Antwren, Sao Paulo Tyrannulet, Restinga Tyrannulet, Gray-hooded Attila, Black-headed Berryeater, Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, Azure Jay.

On our return boat trip we explored for about an hour the mangroves on the western side of Comprida island, a long barrier island north of Cardoso and found Roseate Spoonbills, Little Blue Herons and wintering Semipalmated Plovers.

December 16th -

Morning excursion to Ilha Comprida (reached by ferryboat from Cananeia), a magnificent and almost totally unspoiled 75 km long low coastal barrier island covered by sand plain forest.  An effort is currently underway to permanently protect at least 1/3 of the island as another Sao Paulo state park.  We visited several nesting areas of the Red-tailed Parrot.

After that we drove north along a splendid and desert beach with firm sand to view from high dunes the forest at the center of the island, which should be the core of the planned park.  >From the top of the dunes as one looks west one sees the dense coastal scrub coming up to the top of the dunes and in the lower parts the coastal sand plain forest takes over all the way to the sound (3 to 10 km away, the island is long and narrow) with forest as far as the eye can see along a north-south direction.

Highlights: Rufescent Tiger-Heron, Wilson's Plover, Red-tailed Parrot, Black-backed Tanager, lots of the lovely Brazilian Tanager.  This sighting of the Wilson's Plover might be the southernmost record for this species, which usually is not found wintering any further south than the coast of Bahia in northeastern Brazil.  Altogether we recorded 88 species in the Cananeia and Comprida islands (by tape: none, tapes were not used there).

Around noon we were back at Cananeia to start the long haul back to the Sao Paulo airport.  During part of the trip we endured unbelievably heavy truck traffic compensated later by the sights at the spectacular superhighway constructed up the Serra do Mar connecting the port of Santos to the city of Sao Paulo.

We got into some heavy traffic congestion at rush hour in Sao Paulo city but arrived at the airport still with daylight.  We saw a few White-faced Whistling Ducks flying over the highway near the airport, where some wetlands bordered the road.  As we parked the van near the same spot were we had boarded it 12 days before, we had another good view of a displaying Fork-tailed Flycatcher before we finally packed away our binoculars.

We boarded a midnight flight to New York, except for David Wilcove who went on to Bahia in northeast Brazil where he saw Lear's Macaw and the Little Blue Macaw, two extremely endangered macaws who are the object of conservations efforts being done in collaboration with ICBP (now BirdLife International).

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This list is a transcription of an annotated list of the birds seen in this trip that Bob Ridgely (RSR) kindly sent to the participants a few days after our return.  I have cut some stuff in the interest of brevity (I had to retype it from a hard copy) and put here and there a few of my own (DKD) comments.


  Solitary Tinamou (Tinamus solitarius)
 - heard rather commonly at Intervales, where RSR managed to "tape out" (ie, attracted by playing back a recording of their calls) a pair onto the road in the Barra Grande area; a few also heard in tall forest at Jureia.

  Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus)
 - a few heard at Intervales.

  Yellow-legged Tinamou (Crypturellus noctivagus)
 - one heard at Jureia.

  Small-billed Tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris)
 - a few heard around Itirapina, one heard in coastal sandplain forest at Jureia.

  Tataupa Tinamou (Crypturellus tataupa)
 - commoner (at least vocalizing more ) than Small-billed around Itirapina in the same kind of habitat.  Also a few heard in coastal scrub around Cananeia.

  Red-winged Tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens)
 - heard fairly commonly in cerrado and grasslands around Itirapina (RSR was surprised we didn't see any).

  Lesser Nothura (Nothura minor)
 - one heard in grassland at Itirapina in the first PM there (vocalization very similar to the one on ARA's tape (Voice of the Tinamous by Hardy et.  al., available from ABA sales) which was recorded in Emas National Park, Brazil).  The following afternoon we got to see it very well at the same spot as the bird walked along a sand road.  We did not heard anywhere the usually more common Spotted Nothura giving their distinctive song.  DKD: This was one RSR's lifebirds.


  Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster)
 - small numbers in the sound going to and from Cardoso island, all immatures.

  Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
 - widespread in small numbers, most numerous around Cananeia.

  Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens)
 - small numbers along coast from Jureia southwards, all of them soaring, including some sailing over the interior of Cardoso island.


  Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma lineatus)
 - one nice adult seen at Ilha Comprida.

  Whistling Heron (Syrigma sibilatrix)
 - a few seen in flight around Itirapina.

  Great Egret (Casmerodius albus)
 - scattered in small numbers everywhere where suitable habitat was found.

  Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)
 - same as Great Egret.

  Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)
 - 5 adults seen along edge of mangrove channels in Ilha Comprida.

  Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)
 - a few around Itirapina, small numbers scattered around pastures seen from the car during our travels.

  Striated Heron (Butorides striatus)
 - widespread in small numbers.

  Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja)
 - about 15 roosting during high tide on mangrove along channel separating Ilha Comprida from Cananeia.


  White-faced Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna viduata)
 - a few seen from the highway near Sao Paulo airport.

  Brazilian Duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis)
 - small numbers around Itirapina and in transit, scattered about artificial ranch ponds seen from the car.


  Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)
 - common and widespread, quite numerous at Cardoso island, several pairs seen flying over extensive forest at Intervales.

  Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)
 - scarce inland, but larger numbers near coast, including the beach itself.


  Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides furficatus)
 - flock of 12 seen regularly near Intervales lodgings, then a couple more circling over Cardoso island, almost seen in the same binocular field as a frigatebird.

  White-tailed ("Black-shouldered") Kite (Elanus leucurus) fairly common around Itirapina, also in transit, and one near Intervales on our way out.

  Rufous-thighed Kite (Harpagus diodon)
 - nice pair in territorial display high over the lodgings/ecological station at Jureia.

  Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea)
 - singles at Itirapina and along coast near Peruibe.

  Rufous-thighed ("Sharp-shinned") Hawk (Accipiter erythronemius)
 - one seen in low flight at Jureia.

  Mantled Hawk (Leucopternis polionota)
 - one superb bird seen perched at Intervales (Barra Grande area), in isolated snag at edge of small marsh clearing (apparently hunting); at least one other bird seen in flight near lodgings at Intervales).

  Savanna Hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis)
 - a few seen in open areas, mainly around Itirapina.

  Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris)
 - fairly common and widespread.

  Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus)
 - one pair in cerrado at Itirapina.

  White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus)
 - several pairs around Itirapina.


  Crested Caracara (Polyborus plancus)
 - a few in open areas, around Itirapina, in transit, and in coastal sandplain forest in Jureia and Cananeia.

  Yellowh-headed Caracara (Milvago chimachima)
 - fairly common and widespread, occurring right down to the seashore in several areas.

  Barred Forest-Falcon (Micrastur ruficollis)
 - one immature seen briefly at Intervales; astonishingly, never heard calling anywhere.

  American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)
 - fairly common in open areas of interior plateau (Itirapina, etc), but none seen in coastal lowlands.

  Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis)
 - one rather distant bird seen as it rested on a termite mound in an overgrazed field on our way to Peruibe.


  Dusky-legged Guan (Penelope obscura)
 - a few at Intervales, but never seen all that well.

  Black-fronted Piping Guan (Pipile jacutinga)
 - one magnificent bird seen and another heard giving its flying wing-rattle at Intervales (Barra Grande), at edge of tall primary forest; the bird seen was watched as it gave its wing-rattle while sailing across a small valley from one ridge to another, and then as it fed on the large fruits of a canopy tree.

  Spot-winged Wood-Quail (Odontophorus capueira)
 - several coveys heard calling briefly at dusk at Jureia.


  Ocellated Crake (Micropygia schomburgkii)
 - several heard calling in savanna at Itirapina.

  Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail (Aramides saracura)
 - several seen (both singles and pairs) on roads at Intervales, one of them flushing and landing at least 15 ft up on a tree at the forest edge (surprisingly we never heard any vocalization).

  Ash-throated Crake (Porzana albicollis)
 - fairly common by voice around Itirapina, and once seen exceptionally well as it tamely walked along a ditch with flowing water in early morning.

  Blackish Rail (Pardirallus nigricans)
 - one seen and another heard at marsh in Ribeirao Grande, near Intervales.

  Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)
 - several pairs at the same marsh near Intervales.


  Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata)
 - quite a good number heard around Itirapina.  RSR was surprised that, like the Red-winged Tinamou, we never saw any.


  Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis)
 - widespread in open areas, including at coast.

  Black-bellied (Grey) Plover (Pluvialis squatarola)
 - 3 in basic plumage on beach at Ilha Comprida.

  American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica)
 - 2 birds in basic plumage seen together on beach at Comprida island.

  Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris)
 - one on the beach at Comprida island.

  Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus)
 - group of 8 roosting at high tide inside mangroves on west side of Comprida island.

  Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia)
 - one seen on beach at Comprida island.  A preliminary search of records by RSR and Paulo Martuscelli indicates that this is probably the first for SP and southernmost record for this northern migrant, previously found in Brazil only as far south as the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil.


  Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana)
 - several pairs at that marsh near Intervales.

  Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria)
 - several seen at the same marsh as the Jacanas.

  Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia)
 - a few seen along coast at Jureia, Cananeia and Ilha Comprida.

  Sanderling (Calidris alba)
 - group of 6 seen accompanying the Golden Plovers on beach at Comprida island.

  Giant Snipe (Gallinago undulata)
 - at least two heard and taped while roding just after dusk over damp grassland near Itirapina, sadly only after full darkeness thus never actually seen.


  Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus)
 - quite common along the coast.

  Yellow-billed Tern (Sterna superciliaris)
 - one seen on beach at Comprida island.

  Sandwich (Cayenne) Tern (Sterna sandvicensis)
 - a few seen on beach at Comprida island and at Jureia.


  Picazuro Pigeon (Columba picazura)
 - fairly common in semi-open areas around Itirapina and on ranches along roads that we travelled going from one spot to another.

  Pale-vented Pigeon (Columba cayennensis)
 - small numbers, mainly in gallery (riparian) woodland, around Itirapina, and then fairly common in Cananeia, Cardoso and Ilha Comprida in sandplain forest.

  Plumbeous Pigeon (Columba plumbea)
 - fairly common, mostly by voice but also a few sightings, at Intervales and on Ilha do Cardoso, smaller numbers at Jureia.

  Rock Dove (Columba livia)
 - fairly common around towns and farms, etc.

  Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata)
 - common and widespread in open areas, down to the coast (where in small numbers).

  Ruddy Ground-dove (Columbina talpacoti)
 - small numbers in open areas, including towns.

  Scaled Dove (Scardafella squamata)
 - a few in open areas in Itirapina.

  Gray-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla)
 - small numbers heard and seen briefly (only once well) at Intervales, Jureia, and Cardoso island.

  Ruddy Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana)
 - one flew across road through sandplain forest at Jureia.


  White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophtalmus)
 - group of 4 seen in the town of Itirapina.

  Reddish-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis)
 - quite common at Intervales (where it was the most numerous parrot), smaller numbers at Jureia.

  Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius)
 - fairly common at Jureia and Cardoso island, mostly as fly-bys or fly-overs in small groups.

  Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica)
 - a few at Intervales (often perching on trees near our lodgings), then more numerous at Jureia, and a few on Cardoso island.

  Canary-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri)
 - several small groups around Itirapina and one large group feeding on canopy of huge fig tree on the main square in the town of Itirapina.

  Pileated Parrot (Pionopsitta pileata)
 - vocalization of fly-over group heard at Intervales.

  Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani)
 - small numbers seen in Peruibe, Jureia, Cananeia, Ilha do Cardoso and Ilha Comprida.

  Red-tailed Parrot (Amazona brasiliensis)
 - this endangered and endemic parrot of southern Brazil was seen in small numbers near Cananeia (5), Ilha do Cardoso (3) and southern end of Ilha Comprida (about 8, including a family group of 4).

  Blue-bellied Parrot (Triclaria machitacea)
 - this endemic and elusive parrot of southeastern Brazil managed to avoid us, with several fly-bys of just heard birds at Intervales and then at least one more such occurrence at Jureia, very disapointing.


  Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana)
 - a few seen at Itirapina, Intervales, Jureia and Cardoso island.

  Striped Cuckoo (Tapera naevia)
 - a few around Itirapina and Intervales.

  Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani)
 - widespread in open areas.

  Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira)
 - widespread in open areas, commonest around Itirapina.


  Common Barn Owl (Tyto alba) one seen flying at dusk in Itirapina.

  Black-capped Screech-Owl (Otus atricapillus)
 - several heard and one beautifully seen after tape-plyback in forest around camp at Jureia; sang mainly at dusk and early evening, only rarely later.

  Mottled Owl (Ciccaba virgata)
 - one distant bird heard at Intervales.

  Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia)
 - fairly common in open areas, from Itirapina down to coast at Cananeia, where an individual was most of the time perched on a hotel lamp-post.

  Stygian Owl (Asio stygius)
 - one bird spot-lighted at Itirapina, on a remnant of riparian forest.

  Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)
 - one nicely seen early in the morning in shrubby grassland near Itirapina.


  Short-tailed Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus)
 - one heard at dusk at Intervales, a calling pair seen beautifully as they flew around camp clearing at dusk in Jureia (also heard at dawn, but not as good a show).  DKD: at dusk we just put the lawn chairs in a semi-circle around the edge of the clearing and sat down, with a can of cold beer in one hand, waiting for the nighthawks to show up, quite pleasant despite the mosquitoes.

  Pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis)
 - several pairs around buildings at Intervales.

  Scissor-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis brasiliana)
 - several female plumaged birds seen at itirapina.


  Sooty Swift (Cypseloides fumigatus)
 - flocks passing over at Jureia.

  Great Dusky Swift (Cypseloides senex)- flocks passing over in Cananeia area.

  White-collared Swift (Streptoprogne zonaris)
 - fly-over flocks seen at Jureia and Cananeia.

  Biscutate Swift (Streptoprogne biscutata)
 - fly-over flocks at Intervales and Cananeia.

  Ashy-tailed Swift (Chaetura andrei)
 - associated with settled areas, a large group of this species was well studied during a stop at a gas station near Itirapina and another group was also observed quite well in Cananeia.

  Gray-rumped Swift (Chaetura cinereiventris)
 - small numbers seen at Intervales and on Cardoso island.


  Saw-billed Hermit (Ramphodon naevius)
 - fairly common in forest undegrowth and at borders at Jureia (especially around the camp clearing, where one repeatedly came in to feed on flowers of a banana plant), also several seen on Cardoso island.

  Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome)
 - fairly common at Intervales, some at Jureia.

  Dusky-throated Hermit (Phaethornis squalidus)
 - a few seen at Intervales, Jureia and Cardoso island.

  Planalto hermit (Phaethornis pretrei)
 - a couple seen around Itirapina.

  Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura)
 - quite common around Itirapina, widespread but seen best when feeding at the "bottle- brush" trees near our lodgings.

  Black Jacobin (Melanotrochilus fuscus)
 - fairly common at Intervales, smaller numbers at Jureia and other points on coast.

  White-vented Violet-ear (Colibri serrirostris)
 - fairly common in cerrado around Itirapina.

  Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis)
 - several seen closely near lodgings in Itirapina, then a couple more in Cananeia and comprida island.

  Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris)
 - small numbers around Itirapina, in second-growth at Intervales and in coastal scrub at Jureia.

  Violet-capped Woodnymph (Thalurania glaucopsis)
 - small numbers seen in forest at Intervales, Jureia, and Cardoso island.

  Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura)
 - fairly common around Itirapina.

  White-throated Hummingbird (Leucochloris albicollis)
 - fairly common in clearings at Intervales, numerous males vocalizing at forest edge.

  Versicolored Emerald (Amazilia versicolor)
 - fairly common at Intervales.

  Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Amazilia lactea)
 - several seen well at Itirapina, and at least one at Intervales.

  Sombre Hummingbird (Aphantichroa cirrhochloris)
 - one seen very closely on a couple of occasions as it fed at the flowering "bottle brush" trees near our lodgings in Itirapina.

  Stripe-breasted Starthroat (Heliomaster squamosus)
 - one female seen briefly and poorly in Itirapina, near our lodgings.

  Amethyst Woodstar (Calliphlox amethystina)
 - at least 4 beautiful males seen at forest edge in the Barra Grande area of Intervales, including one doing the pendulum display (we couldn't locate any females nearby though).


  Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus)
 - a couple seen at Intervales and heard in Jureia.

  Surucua Trogon (Trogon surrucura)
 - heard in woodland near itirapina.

  White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis)
 - surprisingly common at Intervales, Jureia and Cardoso island; by far the commonest and most widespread trogon of the trip.


  Rufous-capped Motmot (Baryphtengus ruficapillus)
 - heard a couple of times at Intervales.

  Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata)
 - scattered small numbers from Itirapina down to the coast.

  Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona)
 - a couple seen at Itirapina and at Jureia.

  Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana)
 - small numbers near coast, including mangroves at Comprida island.

  Green-and rufous Kingfisher (Chloroceryle inda)
 - rather a surprise was finding a splendidly tame (especially the female) pair apparently nesting in a river bank right at our camp at Jureia.

  American Pygmy Kingfisher (Chloroceryle aenea)
 - one seen briefly flying along a fast moving mountain stream at Jureia.  Thus at Jureia we saw all five species of Kingfishers that occur in Brazil.


  White-eared Puffbird (Nystalus chacuru)
 - several seen not far from the marsh at Ribeirao Grande, near Intervales.

  Crescent-chested Puffbird (Malacoptila striata)
 - one seen at forest edge near Peruibe, on our way to Jureia.

  Rusty-breasted Nunlet (Nonnula rubecula)
 - one seen well in the Carmo area of Intervales, carrying large insects in its bill, perhaps with a nest nearby.


  Saffron Toucanet (Baillonius bailloni)
 - a few heard at Intervales.

  Spot-billed Toucanet (Selenidera maculirostris)
 - pair seen at Carmo area of Intervales, a few heard at Jureia and at Cardoso island.

  Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus)
 - several seen near Peruibe and at Jureia, and a few heard at Cardoso island.  This is the endemic and geographically disjunct form of eastern Brazil R.  v.  ariel, with the bare skin around the eye crimson instead of the blue found in Amazonian forms.

  Red-breasted ("Green-billed") Toucan (Ramphastos dicolorus)
 - fairly common at Intervales and a few also near Peruibe and Jureia.


  White-edged ("Arrowhead") Piculet (Picumnus albosquamatus)
 - a couple seen briefly around Itirapina.

  Ochre-collared Piculet (Picumnus temminckii)
 - fairly common at Intervales and at Cardoso island.

  White Woodpecker (Leuconerpes candidus)
 - seen several times around Itirapina, then a few in semi-open areas en route subsequently.

  Yellow-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes flavifrons)
 - this beautiful woodpecker was seen only at Intervales, with pair near the dining hall everyday.

  Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus)
 - small numbers seen around Itirapina and in clearings at Intervales.

  White-spotted Woodpecker (Veniliornis spilogaster)
 - small numbers seen (but never well) at Intervales and Jureia.

  Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula)
 - pair seen repeatedly near camp clearing at Jureia, then several more at Cardoso Island.  RSR: this was the form erythropis of coastal eastern Brazil, which almost certainly should be regarded as a separate species (Red-throated Woodpecker).  Though its voice does seem similar to Amazonian forms its plumage is strikingly different and its range is quite disjunct.

  White-browed ("Yellow-browed") Woodpecker (Piculus aurulentus)
 - several seen at intervales, best as they came in to feed on the small black fruits of a low tree near the dining hall.

  Green-barred Woodpecker (Colaptes melanochlorus)
 - several seen around Itirapina (one pair near lodgings) and few more seen at clearings at Intervales (including a pair near dining hall).

  Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris)
 - widespread in open areas.

  Blond-crested Woodpecker (Celeus flavescens)
 - widespread and fairly common in forested areas and forest borders.

  Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus)
 - this usually commonly found woodpecker was never seen in this trip and heard only once near Itirapina.

  Robust Woodpecker (Campephilus robustus)
 - a fine pair seen several times in forest near the camp clearing at Jureia.


  Plain-winged Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla turdina)
 - fairly common, especially by voice, in forest at Jureia and Cardoso island.

  Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus)
 - fairly common at Intervales, even in heavy forest, and on Cardoso island, not recorded by us at Jureia.

  White-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) heard at dusk singing from deep in the forest at Jureia.

  Planalto Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris)
 - several seen at Intervales, but not seen at coastal plain, even in ideal habitat.

  Narrow-billed Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris)
 - several seen and a good number heard around Itirapina, including one amazing individual which had both mandibles greatly lengthened and twisted, looking like it couldn't possibly feed; however we watched it picking food items from bark in seemingly normal fashion.

  Scaled Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes squamatus)
 - uncommon in forest at Intervales.

  Lesser Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes fuscus)
 - at least one bird seen at intervales and a few at Jureia.


  Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus)
 - common in the Itirapina and Intervales regions, but seemed absent from the coast.

  Rufous-capped Spinetail (Synallaxis ruficapilla)
 - quite common in forest understory near forest borders at Intervales.

  Spix's ("Chicli") Spinetail (Synallaxis spixi)
 - not easy to see, but by voice this was the most numerous and widespread Synallaxis of the trip, being encountered in semiopen areas and forest edges virtually everywhere we went.

  Pale-breasted Spinetail (Synallaxis albescens)
 - fairly common, although more often heard than seen, in cerrado around Itirapina.

  Yellow-chinned Spinetail (Certhiaxis cinnamomea)
 - a few seen in marshy areas around Itirapina and near Intervales, but none seen on the coastal plain.

  Rusty-backed Spinetail (Cranioleuca vulpina)
 - one pair seen at Itirapina, here at the extreme southern limit of its range.

  Pallid Spinetail (Cranioleuca pallida)
 - small numbers seen at forest borders at Intervales, often with mixed flocks, here at the southern limit of its range.

  Firewood-gatherer (Anumbius anumbi)
 - one heard on the way to Intervales.

  White-collared Foliage-gleaner (Anabazenops fuscus)
 - this stunning foliage-gleaner was fairly common (especially by voice, but also regularly seen) in bamboo-dominated forest understory and borders at Intervales.

  White-browed Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia amaurotis)
 - one taped and seen very well in bamboo-dominated forest at Intervales; although we heard its call frequently this was the only individual seen.

  Black-capped Foliage-gleaner (Philydor atricapillus)
 - singles seen foraging with understory flocks in forest at Jureia and on Cardoso island.

  Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor lichtensteini)
 - fairly common at Intervales at Carmo and Barra Grande areas (but not around headquarters which were higher), foraging with flocks at varying levels at forest edge, one also seen at Cardoso island.

  Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor rufus)
 - small numbers seen and heard at Intervales (where one bird was seeing disappearing into a burrow dug into a bank, presumably had a nest there), and also at Cardoso island.

  White-eyed Foliage-gleaner (Automolus leucophtalmus)
 - quite common (especially by voice) in tall forest at Jureia, also noted on Cardoso island.

  Pale-browed Treehunter (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus)
 - scarce, with few even being heard, but there were a few in the forest at Intervales, never seen very well; this was the southern holti subspecies with a more rufous tail than other forms.

  Sharp-billed Treehunter (Heliobletus contaminatus)
 - several seen in forest at Intervales, but certainly not numerous here.

  Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilans)
 - a couple seen at Intervales.

  Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus)
 - quite common inside forest on Cardoso island, foraging low with small mixed flocks.

  Rufous-breasted Leaftosser (Sclerurus scansor)
 - several individuals seen well inside forest at Intervales, including one which flushed from its presumed nest inside a burrow dug into a bank along the trail on which we were walking; also another seen at Jureia, this bird clung for a long period to the trunk of a large tree, almost like a woodcreeper, the first time RSR ever saw any leaftosser do this.

  Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper (Lochmias nematura)
 - good protracted views of a fine pair around a small pond in the forest at Intervales; from their behavior they must have had a nest nearby, though neither was seen with food in its bill.


  Spot-backed Antshrike (Hypoedaleus guttatus)
 - heard on Cardoso island.

  Giant Antshrike (Batara cinerea)
 - several heard singing their powerful and far-carrying songs at Intervales, but at no time did we ever get even close to one.

  Tufted Antshrike (Mackenziaena severa)
 - one nice male seen in response to tape playback in bamboo-dominated forest at Intervales (taped out after Louis had spotted the female moving with a mixed flock); RSR: "though I suspect that this bird shouldn't be rare there (the habitat looked perfect) at no time did we hear this species singing, and since we were seeing recently fledged young of various species everywhere, one can only assume that by December the breeding cycle had advanced so far that singing was minimal."

  White-bearded Antshrike (Biatas nigropectus)
 - RSR: " with the Red-tailed Parrot, this antshrike was my "most-wanted" bird of this trip, but it sure proved a lot more difficult than the parrot; Paulo told us that he had seen this species on a few occasions at Intervales, and indeed the locally extensive bamboo-dominated forest near the headquarters looked suitable, but as with many other antbirds we were hampered by the lateness of the season and lack of singing, and I never heard any unsolicited singing; my strategy therefore was reduced to playing my tape (unfortunately a noisy one) at likely localities and at any understory flock we happened to encounter; after three days of this, I was getting rather sick of it all, but continued to play the tape, albeit perhaps in a more desultory fashion.  On our last morning walk, as we were heading back under light drizzle, I was playing it at a small flock (Plain Antvireos, etc...), when Louis calmly stated
 - I have the bird in view .  At first, having virtually given up on it, I didn't even comprehend what "bird" he was talking about!  Anyway the male was in full view for several minutes, and vocalized a few times (different from the regular song, sounding more like an antvireo), but unfortunately I didn't get much of it on tape; its mate was also seen briefly and not as well." DKD: this somewhat rare and rather locally distributed antshrike was also a lifer for me.  Both this bird and the Tufted Antshrike (which we saw 10 or 15 minutes before the White- bearded Antshrike) were definitively not pleased with the tape-playback.  They had their crests fully erect and their tails flared out, I had the impression that their eyes were burning with fury as they moved about very aggressively searching for the unseen intruders.

  Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus)
 - several pairs seen and heard around Itirapina.

  Rufous-capped Antshrike (Thamnophilus ruficapillus)
 - heard at itirapina.

  Variable Antshrike (Thamnophilus caerulescens)
 - overall astonishingly infrequent in this trip (RSR presumes this was mainly due to the near total lack of vocalization due to us being there late in the breeding cycle), with small numbers at Intervales and most forested areas we visited on the coastal plain.

  Spot-breasted Antvireo (Dysithamnus stictothorax)
 - fairly common in forest at intervales and a few also on Cardoso island.

  Plain Antvireo (Dysithamnus mentalis)
 - fairly common at Intervales and Jureia.

  Unicolored Antwren (Myrmotherula unicolor)
 - a single male and then a pair seen beautifully in forest understory on Cardoso island, only the second time that RSR has ever encountered this range-restricted species.

  Rufous-winged Antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus)
 - several pairs in forest canopy at Jureia, then quite numerous on Cardoso island, where seen better and more often.

  Ferruginous Antbird (Drymophila ferruginea)
 - rather uncommon at Intervales, seen nicely on only one occasion when RSR taped one out.

  Ochre-rumped Antbird (Drymophila ochropyga)
 - one lovely male heard and then seen well at Intervales near Mirante overlook; at the southern end of its range here.

  Dusky-tailed Antbird (Drymophila malura)
 - nice male heard and then taped out, surprisingly, in a degraded patch of scrub next to a small eucalyptus plantation at Intervales.  It is amazing that this bird came out at all given the late hour and strong wind, but it ended up performing nicely for us.

  Scaled Antbird (Drymophila squamata)
 - small numbers at Jureia and on Cardoso island, including a singing male at Jureia which was found foraging and singing from tangles about 30 ft above the ground, unusually high for this species which normally is semi-terrestrial.

  Streak-capped Antwren (Terenura maculata)
 - small numbers, recorded mostly by voice, at Intervales, Jureia and on Cardoso island.

  White-shouldered Fire-eye (Pyriglena leucoptera)
 - fairly common at Intervales, Jureia and on Cardoso island (where a juvenile male was seen).  This was one of the few antbirds that was still singing considerably.

  Squamate Antbird (Myrmeciza squamosa)
 - a few heard at Intervales.

  Short-tailed Antthrush (Chamaeza campanisona)
 - several heard singing at Intervales but, surprisingly, we never heard it in the coastal lowlands.

  Cryptic Antthrush (Chamaeza meruloides)
 - fairly common by voice at higher elevations at Intervales but despite several attempts to lure one in, never seen well.  RSR and DKD had a quick look at one crossing a wide trail with food in its bill, doubtless on its way to a nest.

  Rufous-capped Antthrush (Formicarius colma)
 - a few heard singing in forest at Jureia, but either very briefly (a couple songs before dusk near our camp) or at some distance and so, there was no opportunity to try to pull one in for us to see.

  Variegated Antpitta (Grallaria varia)
 - two birds briefly heard singing at Jureia, we made a long effort to try to lure one in but, although it approached, we never managed to actually see it.

  Black-cheeked Gnateater (Conopophaga melanops)
 - unlike the antpittas we got lucky with this scarce (or at least, hard to see) gnateater at Jureia when, just before dusk, RSR encountered a pair of them in the forest near our camp and then was able to pull then towards the trail for fantastic views; the pair, but especially the male, came in very close and often perched motionless right out in the open on branches and even on vertical saplings like an antbird; the handsome male's neat black "pencil-line" on the scapulars was very evident.

  Rufous Gnateater (Conopophaga lineata)
 - a couple heard and glimpsed in woodland patches at Itirapina, then fairly common and seen well on several occasions at Intervales, none seen or heard on the coastal plain.


  Collared Crescent-chest (Melanopareia torquata)
 - quite common by voice in cerrado near Itirapina.  RSR: "one bird seen and studied closely was puzzling in appearance, lacking the rufous nuchal collar (for which the species is named) and also looking quite olivaceous brown, but the range of the Olive-crowned Crescent-chest (M.  maximiliani), which this individual closely resembled, does not come anywhere close to Sao Paulo."

  Slaty Bristlefront (Merulaxis ater)
 - RSR: " again, I think this species had mostly stopped vocalizing: we heard none at Intervales, where I can't believe it isn't widespread, just before dusk, on our first day at Jureia, in tall forest I heard a distant bird sing twice, and we were able to approach and then I got the bird come out for fabulous views with my pre-recorded tape.  Towards the end we almost needed a flashlight to see it.  We never heard another one and, I couldn't elicit a response at the same site the next morning.  The elevation at that spot, 340 ft, is exceptionally low for this species."

  Mouse-colored Tapaculo (Scytalopus speluncae)
 - at least one was heard at Intervales (on the Mirante trail); probably another species that had stopped singing.

  White-breasted Tapaculo (Scytalopus indigoticus)
 - several heard and seen in tall forest at lower elevations at Intervales (Carmo and Barra Grande areas); the bird seen was a juvenile (mostly brown and showed white only on the upper throat), nonetheless it was singing perfectly normally and apparently holding territory.


  Planalto Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias fasciatus)
 - uncommon at Intervales, mostly just heard giving its ultra-distinctive call but also seen pretty well on one occasion.

  Rough-legged Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias burmeisteri)
 - at least one seen well at Intervales (Base do Carmo), accompanying an Oustalet's Tyrannulet and for once not excessively high, though it quickly retreated to the canopy.

  Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum)
 - fairly common in Itirapina area, also a couple seen in clearings at Intervales.

  Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina)
 - several seen well in scrub at Itirapina.

  Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster)
 - fairly common and widespread from Itirapina down to the various coastal localities (but none noted at Intervales).

  Olivaceous Elaenia (Elaenia mesoleuca)
 - a fair number seen at Intervales (RSR: "curiously, I didn't hear any calling."), these were the confusing elaenias that we saw several times around the dining hall.

  Lesser Elaenia (Elaenia chiriquensis)
 - common in cerrado at Itirapina.

  Highland Elaenia (Elaenia obscura)
 - one seen around a clearing in Intervales, one at Jureia and several in damp scrub and second growth around Cananeia and on Cardoso island.

  Sooty Tyrannulet (Serpophaga nigricans)
 - noted only at Intervales, where there was a trio around the lake and an exceptionally tame bird near the check-in building.

  White-crested Tyrannulet (Serpophaga subcristata)
 - only a very few seen at Itirapina and Intervales.

  Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta)
 - one seen very well in shrubby grassland at Itirapina with a juvenile in tow.

  Bearded Tachuri (Polystictus pectoralis) not uncommon in the shrubby grassland at itirapina, more numerous than anywhere else in RSR's experience.  We saw one male very nicely, and then it moved off doing its distinctive flight display with the characteristic call.

  Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant (Euscarthmus rufomarginatus)
 - two identical- looking birds seen in shrubby grassland at Itirapina foraging together.  This is a rare cerrado-grassland species.

  Gray-hooded Flycatcher (Mionectes rufiventris)
 - uncommon (noted mainly by voice) in forest understory at Intervales, Jureia and on Cardoso island.

  Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon amaurocephalus)
 - fairly common at Intervales and on Cardoso island.

  Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes ventralis)
 - a few noted at Intervales.

  Restinga Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes kronei)
 - a family group of this (only recently described) tyrannulet was watched for a protracted period at very close range in restinga woodland (coastal sandplain forest) on Cardoso island.

  Sao Paulo Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes paulistus)
 - not uncommon at understory of forest on Cardoso, where in RSR's experience seemed more numerous than in the other places where RSR has seen it.  It was seen in pairs, small family groups, sometimes with mixed flocks and sometimes on their own.

  Oustalet's Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes oustaleti)
 - uncommon in forest at Intervales, also several seen on Cardoso where RSR was surprised to see it, at least twice foraging in the same mixed flock together with Sao Paulo Tyrannulet.  Noted singly or in pairs, especially at middle levels, with absolutely unmistakable tail-quivering a constant feature, one can identify even a dark silhouette on this feature alone.

  Bay-ringed Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes sylviolus)
 - a few seen at Intervales in the Carmo area.

  Eared Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis auricularis)
 - fairly common at Intervales, mainly in pairs at forest edge.

  Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant (Hemitriccus diops)
 - a few heard in bamboo understory at higher elevatons at Intervales (Mirante trail).

  Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum plumbeiceps)
 - fairly common in dense understory of second-growth and forest borders at Intervales.

  Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum)
 - a few seen in secondary woodland around Itirapina, fairly common at forest borders and clearings at Intervales.

  Large-headed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon megacephala)
 - at least 2 separate birds seen and heard (one of them taped) in bamboo understory of forest at Intervales (Mirante trail).  RSR: " If there is a prior Sao Paulo record of this species I can find no evidence of it."

  Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Tolmomyias sulphurescens)
 - fairly common at Intervales, also some at Jureia.

  White-throated Spadebill (Platyrinchus mystaceus)
 - quite common (especially by voice) in forest and woodland understory at Intervales, solitary as almost always is the case.

  Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher (Myiobius barbatus)
 - a few seen in forest understory at Jureia and on Cardoso island.

  Bran-colored Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus)
 - widespread and usually quite common in second-growth and woodland/forest borders, inconspicuous but often vocalizing and drawing attention to itself.

  Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri)
 - fairly common (especially by voice) in forest understory and borders at Intervales, smaller numbers on Cardoso as well.

  Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus)
 - a few seen near Itirapina.

  Gray Monjita (Xolmis cinerea)
 - fairly common, widespread and conspicuous in open areas at and around itirapina and Intervales.

  White-rumped Monjita (Xolmis velata)
 - somewhat less numerous than the preceding species, but seen in much the same areas though usually more associated with groves of trees; here at the southern limit of its range.

  White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala)
 - pairs seen in marshes near Intervales but, somewhat surprisingly, seemed not to be present on the coastal plain, despite goodly amounts of seemingly suitable marsh terrain.

  Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus)
 - small numbers seen in Peruibe/Jureia area and on Cardoso.

  Cock-tailed Tyrant (Alectrurus tricolor)
 - several small colonies of this bizarre-tailed flycatcher located in shrubby grasslands at Itirapina, perhaps a total of about a dozen birds in two different areas.  DKD: This is a bird characteristic of the "cerrados" of central Brazil and it is in decline throughout its range due to habitat loss.

  Streamer-tailed Tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa)
 - several family parties of this fabulous large tyrannid were found in the itirapina area, and we also saw a few around the marsh near Intervales.

  Yellow-browed Tyrant (Satrapa icterophrys) small numbers seen at Itirapina and Intervales.

  Cattle Tyrant (Machetornis rixosus)
 - widespread in open areas, even down along the coast.

  Cliff Flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea)
 - a few birds seen around the buildings at Intervales and one at very appropriate habitat at the top of the Mirante trail (Intervales) were the only ones seen during this trip.

  Shear-tailed Gray-Tyrant (Muscipipra vetula)
 - as usual, scarce, with only one seen in a mainly cleared area at Intervales.

  Rufous-tailed Attila (Attila phoenicurus)
 - this usually scarce species was surprisingly common (especially by voice, but also seen routinely, even without tape-playback, more so than any other attila RSR has ever encountered) in forest and forest borders at Intervales, where it could have been called one of the "dominant" birds and was much more numerous than the Gray-hooded Attila.  Smaller numbers at Jureia and Cardoso, virtually at sea level.  Paulo told us it is present only from October to March, it migrates to the Amazon for the rest of the year.

  Gray-hooded Attila (Attila rufus)
 - a few seen and heard at Intervales (mainly Barra Grande area), then commoner (especially by voice, though also seen well a number of times, without tape-playback) at Jureia and on Cardoso island.

  Grayish Mourner (Rhytipterna simplex)
 - one taped and seen well in tall forest at Jureia, here near the southern end of its range.

  Sirystes (Sirystes sibilator)
 - strangely, only recorded at Cardoso island.

  Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni)
 - this was the common Myiarchus around Itirapina and there were some at Intervales too, near the coast we believe that both this species and ferox were present.

  Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox)
 - a few along the coast.

  Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus)
 - common, widespread and conspicuous in semiopen areas.

  Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua)
 - a few around Itirapina and a pair on Cardoso island.

  Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis)
 - small numbers seen in clearings at Intervales, and in restinga and clearings at Jureia and Cananeia.

  Three-striped Flycatcher (Conopias trivirgata)
 - uncommon in forest canopy and high at forest borders at Intervales, usually in pairs and noisy.  One pair seen at their messy nest stuffed into a broken off branch.

  Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus)
 - quite common and widespread om woodland borders and clearings.

  Piratic Flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius)
 - fairly common at Intervales, Jureia (where a pair was in the process of taking over a recently abandoned cacique nest at the station clearing), and around Cananeia and Cardoso island.

  Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus varius)
 - common around Itirapina, with smaller numbers around clearings at Intervales.

  Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus)
 - fairly common and widespread in open areas.

  Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana)
 - widespread and generally numerous in open areas, right down to the coast.

  Chestnut-crowned Becard (Pachyramphus castaneus)
 - common at Intervales, mainly at forest borders.

  White-winged Becard (Pachyramphus polychopterus)
 - a few seen only at Intervales.

  Black-capped Becard (Pachyramphus marginatus)
 - one pair taped and seen in forest canopy at Jureia, probably a southernmost record for this species.  The only previously published record for this species in Sao Paulo state is from 1985.

  Crested Becard (Pachyramphus validus)
 - the most numerous and widespread becard registered in this trip, several nests were found.  Noted everywhere from Itirapina to Intervales (with a nest on the front yard of the administrator's house) down to all the coastal areas visited.

  Black-tailed Tityra (Tityra cayana)
 - fairly common at Intervales, Jureia, and on Cardoso island.

  Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor)
 - seen at Intervales, Jureia and on Cardoso island.

  Greenish Mourner (Schiffornis virescens)
 - common (by voice) in forest understory at Intervales where one bird was seen, a few were also heard at Jureia.


  Wied's Tyrant-Manakin (Neopelma aurifrons)
 - common (by voice) in second- growth and borders at Intervales ; here at the extreme southern limit of its range.

  White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus)
 - a few seen in sandplain forest at Jureia.

  Pin-tailed Manakin (Ilicura militaris)
 - only one female seen at Intervales.

  Blue Manakin (Chiroxiphia caudata)
 - common (especially by voice, males were vocalizing and displaying a lot) in forest lower undergrowth at Intervales, Jureia and Cardoso.  Around the station clearing at Jureia these manakins were routinely displaying and calling from unusually high up in the trees.

  Helmeted Manakin (Antilophia galeata)
 - one dazzling male was taped and seen in a gallery woodland patch near Itirapina, and a few others were heard in the vicinity.


  Sharpbill (Oxyruncus cristatus)
 - common by voice at Intervales, but we never got a decent view of this canopy species.

  Swallow-tailed Cotinga (Phibalura flavirostris)
 - pair watched for repeated sessions at their nest in the crotch of two branches in a small tree in a clearing outside the dining area at Intervales.  Both birds were quite tame, and one or the other member of the pair was constantly in attendance with the well-grown fledgling (which at times appeared about ready to fall out of the nest!) , and every 5-15 minutes the foraging bird would come in with a large fruit or two to feed the youngster; one afternoon an intruding male appeared on the scene and tried to approach the nest, only to be chased off repeatedly by the resident male, we never heard any of them make a sound, though the resident male may have emitted something while chasing off the intruder.

  Hooded Berryeater (Carpornis cucullatus)
 - quite numerous at Intervales, especially by voice but also seen on frequent occasions.

  Black-headed Berryeater (Carpornis melanocephalus)
 - after much effort a pair was seen in the forest canopy at Cardoso, at precisely the same spot where seen a year ago by Dalcio and Paulo together with George Powell.

  Cinnamon-vented Piha (Lipaugus lanioides)
 - fairly common in the Carmo area of Intervales, but neither heard or seen elsewhere.

  Red-ruffed Fruitcrow (Pyroderus scutatus)
 - scarce, but we bumped into singles twice at Intervales and once on Cardoso.

  Bare-throated Bellbird (Procnias nudicollis)
 - quite common by voice at Intervales, especially in the Carmo area where we also saw a couple of vocalizing males and a female; we heard a few at Jureia, where mainly in the sandplain forest and then a few more singing in the Cananeia area (including Cardoso and Comprida islands).


  Azure Jay (Cyanocorax caeruleus)
 - fairly common in the coastal sandplain forest at Jureia and Cananeia, including Comprida and Cardoso islands.

  Curl-crested Jay (Cyanocorax cristatelus)
 - a few encountered around Itirapina.


  Brown-chested Martin (Phaeoprogne tapera)
 - surprisingly uncommon, our only sighting being a couple of pairs on the beach at Comprida island on our last morning.

  Gray-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea)
 - common and widespread.

  White-rumped Swallow (Tachyneta leucorrhoa)
 - fairly common and widespread in semiopen areas, mainly but not entirely near water.

  Blue-and-white Swallow (Ntiochelidon cyanoleuca)
 - widespread in open and semiopen areas, nesting down to the coast.

  Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
 - common and widespread, especially near water, even flying over coastal rocks and beaches at Jureia.

  Tawny-headed Swallow (Alopochelidon fucata)
 - small numbers seen around Itirapina.

  Cliff Swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota)
 - a few seen around Itirapina flying with other swallows.

  Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)
 - stunningly absent from this trip, the only ones seen were a couple flying past us on the beach at Comprida island on our last morning.


  Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus)
 - several heard at Itirapina.

  Long-billed Wren (Thryothorus longirostris)
 - fairly common in the coastal sandplain scrub and woodland and viny forest borders in all the coastal areas; seen well on a number of occasions and aptly named too!

  House Wren (Troglodytes aedon)
 - widespread and numerous.

  Long-billed Gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus)
 - several seen and heard in forest understory and borders at Intervales and Jureia.


  Chalk-browed Mockingbird (Mimus saturninus)
 - widespread and usually numerous in open areas but seemed absent from coastal areas.


  Masked Gnatcatcher (Polioptila dumicola)
 - seen at Itirapina once.


  Yellow-legged Thrush (Platycichla flavipes)
 - common in forest at Intervales, especially at Carmo area, also smaller numbers at coastal areas.

  Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris)
 - common in clearings and around houses throughout.

  Creamy-bellied Thrush (Turdus amaurochalinus)
 - common and widespread.

  Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas)
 - a few seen in woodland at Itirapina.

  White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis)
 - small numbers seen (more heard) in forest at Jureia and Cardoso, we also saw a few juveniles.


  Yellowish Pipit (Anthus lutescens)
 - several seen in grassy terrain near beach on Comprida island.


  Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis)
 - fairly common in woodland, including coastal sandplain forest.

  Chivi Vireo (Vireo chivi)
 - Also considered a subspecies of Red-eyed Vireo, widespread and generally numerous, much singing.

  Rufous-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus poicilotis)
 - uncommon at Intervales (mostly just heard).


  Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi)
 - fairly common in woodland and forest borders at Itirapina and on coastal areas.

  Masked Yellowthroat (Geothlypis aequinoctialis)
 - widespread and fairly common in appropriate, shrubby marshy habitat, but there was little singing this late in the season.

  Golden-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus)
 - small numbers at Intervales, then fairly common in coastal plain forests and woodlands.

  White-bellied Warbler (Basileuterus hypoleucus)
 - a few seen in woodland at Itirapina.

  Flavescent Warbler (Basileuterus flaveola)
 - several pairs in woodland patches near Itirapina.

  White-striped Warbler (Basileuterus leucophrys)
 - one beautiful pair taped out from a small patch of gallery woodland at itirapina.

  White-rimmed Warbler (Basileuterus leucoblepharus)
 - this normally common species was barely recorded this trip, with only a couple of birds heard singing at Intervales.

  Streamside (Neotropical River) Warbler (Basileuterus rivularis)
 - a few at Intervales and on Cardoso, but most numerous at Jureia, where a couple of pairs were almost absurdedly tame around the station clearing, feeding unconcernedly almost at our feet.


  Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola)
 - widespread and generally pretty numerous.

  Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana)
 - also quite common and widespread, particularly around Jureia and Cananeia.

  Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza)
 - small numbers at Jureia and on Cardoso.

  Bicolored Conebill (Conirostrum bicolor)
 - one pair seen in mangroves at Jureia.

  Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum)
 - small numbers seen in woodland around Itirapina.


  Rufous-headed Tanager (Hemithraupis ruficapilla)
 - fairly common at forest borders at Intervales, surprisingly we didn't find any on the coastal plain.

  Hooded Tanager (Nemosia pileata)
 - one pair seen in woodland at itirapina, quite a bit south of its recorded range in Sao Paulo.

  Burnished-buff Tanager (Tangara cayana)
 - fairly common in woodland patches and gallery woodland at Itirapina, males stunning as always.

  Chestnut-backed Tanager (Tangara preciosa)
 - we almost missed it, but did manage to see a fine pair of this lovely tanager in second-growth at Intervales.

  Black-backed Tanager (Tangara peruviana)
 - as with the previous species, not particularly numerous, perhaps most so in restinga (coastal sandplain forest) at Jureia where we struggled repeatedly and to no avail to get a decent view, having to settle only for partials and quick sightings of flying birds.  After dipping on it entirely on Cardoso island, in the last morning, in restinga on Comprida island we finally got protracted views of one dazzling male as it foraged for insects near the top of a tree; this until recently little-known species seems to be mainly restricted to restinga north to northern Rio de Janeiro.

  Green-headed Tanager (Tangara seledon)
 - fairly common in forest borders and canopy at Intervales, Jureia and on Cardoso.

  Red-necked Tanager (Tangara cyanocephala)
 - small numbers seen in forest at Intervales and on Cardoso island, the males absolutely dazzling.

  Brassy-breasted Tanager (Tangara desmaresti)
 - small numbers seen at higher elevations at Intervales.

  Violaceous Euphonia (Euphonia violacea)
 - a few seen in coastal localities.

  Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica)
 - fairly common around Itirapina.

  Chestnut-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia pectoralis)
 - fairly common in forest at Intervales, not as common in coastal forests.

  Golden-rumped Euphonia (Euphonia cyanocephala)
 - a lovely group (2 males and two females) seen near the Mirante summit at Intervales.

  Swallow Tanager (Tersina viridis)
 - a few pairs seen around the station clearing at Jureia and on Cardoso island.

  Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum)
 - a few seen in Peruibe/Jureia area and around Cananeia.

  Golden-chevroned Tanager (Thraupis ornata)
 - quite common at Intervales (David renamed them Madonna's Piha), many pairs with young seen.

  Sayaca Tanager (Thraupis sayaca)
 - widespread and common, even at Intervales where especially at first we had problems differentiating this from the desired Azure-shouldered Tanager.

  Azure-shouldered Tanager (Thraupis cyanoptera)
 - fairly common in forest borders at Intervales (especially Barra Grande), then a few more on Cardoso where Bob taped its lovely song, so different from other Thraupis.

  Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo)
 - a few seen in gallery woodland near Itirapina.

  Brazilian Tanager (Ramphocelus bresilius)
 - fairly common in restinga and scrub at Jureia and around Cananeia, Comprida and Cardoso islands, the male being, in RSR's opinion, one of the loveliest of all tanagers.

  Red-crowned Ant-tanager (Habia rubica)
 - uncommon inside forest at Intervales and Jureia.

  Ruby-crowned Tanager (Tachyphonus coronatus)
 - common at Intervales and around Cananeia/Comprida/Cardoso islands.

  Diademed Tanager (Stephanophorus diadematus)
 - fairly common at intervales, in second-growth and around clearings; another lovely tanager with a fine song (which was taped by RSR).

  Brown Tanager (Orchesticus abeillei)
 - several individuals of this Atlantic forest endemic were seen only at Intervales.

  Olive-green Tanager (Orthogonys chloricterus)
 - a few pairs seen in forest canopy at Intervales, one large flock (more than 10 birds) seen at Jureia.

  Black-goggled Tanager (Trichothaupis melanops)
 - small numbers in forest lower growth at Intervales and Jureia.

  Cinnamon Tanager (Schistochlamys ruficapillus)
 - a few seen around Itirapina.

  White-banded Tanager (Neothraupis fasciata)
 - a few seen in cerrado around Itirapina; RSR taped its grosbeak-like song.

  White-rumped Tanager (Cypsnagra hirundinacea)
 - several pairs found in cerrado around Itirapina.

  Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana)
 - a few pairs seen at Intervales, surprisingly we didn't encounter them at the coastal areas.


  White-browed Blackbird (Leistes superciliaris)
 - very few, but we saw scattered birds en route to Peruibe from Intervales, and a few more in the coastal lowlands.

  Yellow-rumped Marshbird (Pseudoleistes guirahuro)
 - small numbers seen in agricultural terrain (not near water) on the way from Intervales to Peruibe.

  Chestnut-capped Blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus)
 - nice nesting colony in the marsh at Ribeirao Grande (on the way to Intervales), a few others in marshy spots in that region.

  Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis)
 - fairly common and widespread in semiopen areas.

  Giant Cowbird (Scaphidura oryzivora)
 - one lone bird spotted by Guy Tudor at it was flying over the parrot roost at Cananeia; here near the southern limit of its range.

  Red-rumped Cacique (Cacicus haemorrhous)
 - overall not all that many, but some were seen at Intervales, Jureia and around Cananeia/Comprida and Cardoso islands.

  Golden-winged Cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus)
 - uncommon in forest borders at Intervales.


  Black-throated Grosbeak (Pitylus fuliginosus)
 - fairly common in forest canopy and borders at intervales.

  Green-winged Saltator (Saltator similis)
 - fairly common at Intervales and coastal areas.

  Black-throated Saltator (Saltator atricollis)
 - several pairs seen in cerrado around Itirapina.

  Lesser Seed-finch (Oryzoborus angolensis)
 - a few seen in the Jureia area.

  Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina)
 - not really common anywhere, but widespread.

  Lined Seedeater (Sporophila lineola)
 - two singing males seen at Itirapina.

  Double-collared Seedeater (Sporophila caerulescens)
 - widespread and fairly common.

  Capped Seedeater (Sporophila bouvreuil)
 - small numbers seen in cerrado patches at Itirapina.

  Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris)
 - several heard and one glimpsed in woodland at Itirapina.

  Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis)
 - common in open areas and around towns, occurring right down to sea level (even on beaches).

  Grassland Sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis)
 - common in cerrado around Itirapina, considerable singing.

  Wedge-tailed Grassfinch (Emberizoides herbicola)
 - common in cerrado around Itirapina, where one of the most numerous birds of that habitat; lots of singing.

  Red Pileated-Finch (Coryphospingus cucullatus)
 - a few seen on woodland around Itirapina and one seen in a clearing at Intervales.

  Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola)
 - a few seen around buildings at Intervales.

  Hooded Siskin (Carduelis magellanica)
 - several flocks were in residence around clearings at Intervales.

  Common Waxbill (Estrilda astrild)
 - this introduced African finch was seen at Peruibe.

  House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)
 - widespread in towns, etc.

Dalcio Dacol
Washington, DC

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