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13 July - 3 August 1990

by Eric & Lorna Salzman (with Rick Cech, Peter Joost & Fritz Mueller)


Saturday, July 14

Met Pieter J. van Bunningen and his Toyota Land Cruiser and picked up Rick Cech at airport.  Morning devoted to shopping and other preparations.  Afternoon on the upper Nono- Mindo Road; mostly cultivated areas and temperate forest descending just a short distance into the semi-tropical or cloud forest area.

Sunday, July 15

Upper Chiraboga Road ('Old Road'), crossing paramo and descending through temperate and semi- or sub-tropical forest.  The mountain forests were very dry and not active until late in the day.

Monday, July 16

Met Peter Joost who was already in Ecuador leading student groups.  From Quito to Papallacta Pass and Papallacta Lake and back (temperate zone and paramo).

Tuesday, July 17

Quito to Papallacta and Baeza on the Lago Agrio Road over Papallacta Pass through the Cuyuja area; stops at two or three trails north of the road, several roadside points ('Toucanet' spot was a place where Peter had seen Emerald Toucanet on a previous trip) and Papallacta Lake.  Temperate to paramo to temperate and subtropical zones.  Overnight at a new hotel (modest) in Upper or New Baeza (rebuilt after an earthquake).

Wednesday, July 18

Baeza-Huacamayo Ridge-Ministerio Road-Tena.  Mostly subtropical (cloud) and tropical forest.  Stop at Huacamayo Ridge where a narrow trail exists behind a radio tower giving access to good forested slopes.  The Ministerio Road, now paved to Coca, is said to be birdy but, as usual, it has opened up stretches of tropical wet forest near the road for clearing.  W have decided to fly to Coca from Quito so we only drive a short distance down this road and then reverse our steps to go to Tena where we stay overnight at the faded Hotel Auca.

Thursday, July 19

Tena-Baeza-Coca Falls-Baeza.  Tropical and subtropical (cloud forest) zones.  The Lago Agrio Road after the Baeza turnoff has been reconstructed after a major earthquake and the Coca River town of San Rafael, mentioned in some trip reports and guide books, no longer exists!  The turnoff for the falls, officially known as the Cascada de San Rafael, is marked by a triangular sign marked Inacel.  Good mountain forest birding along this road.  Since the earthquake, the Inacel road now goes only as far as the Inacel cabins and the viewpoint is reached by foot trail.  Overnight again in Baeza.

Friday, July 20

Baeza-Papallacta-Quito.  Tuesday, July 17, in reverse with similar stops.

Saturday, July 21

Quito-Coca by vintage TAME aircraft.  After skirting an equatorial volcano covered with snow and ice, the plane plunges through the cloud cover over deep tropical forest, rapidly descending to the ramshackle riverport of Coca.  Coca (officially, Puerto Francisco de Orellana, named for the conquistador who traversed Amazonia, west to east, from Quito to the Atlantic) is a rough, frontier-style town.  The trip to La Selva, by motorized longboat on the Rio Napo, was long and wet and we arrive drenched and chilled, mostly from splash (our rain ponchos were packed securely in our luggage and were unreachable).

Friday, July 21

Tuesday, July 24 La Selva.  It takes most of a day to get to La Selva and a full day to go back to Quito so a 5- day visit really adds up to only 3 full days in situ.  The weather was rather cool (we were never really hot for any length of time anywhere in Ecuador) and mostly pleasant.  La Selva is very well set up for birders and several of the guides are excellent spotters even without binoculars.  The best guide was Jose-- even knows many of the English names--but we found Giovanni to be just about as good as a bird spotter and even more anxious to show us what he could find.  Wildlife spotting is (or was) a survival skill in this part of the world and most of the guides were originally hunters.  The ability of these people to spot birds in the forest without binoculars is truly phenomenal and, to say the least, eye-opening.

Wednesday, July 25

Return to Quito via long-boat and TAME vintage aircraft.  Afternoon at Pululagua Crater near Quito.

Thursday, July 26

Nono-Mindo Road to Mindo with Pieter and the Land Cruiser.  Temperate zone to paramo to subtropical cloud forest.  Mad dash up the Finca Garzon to look for Cock of the Rock before nightfall.  This trail would have been worth doing at normal speed and not on the double; it goes up into some good- looking forest (it is utterly unsuitable for Cock-of-the-Rock but had singing Black Solitaire).  Overnight at the primitive little Residential on the main square.

Friday, July 27

There is an office of the Ecuadorian Forest Service in Mindo and a very knowledgeable young woman by the name of Cecilia arranged for a young man to take us to a real Cock-of-the-Rock site nearby.  The whole Mindo area is very birdy.  We also had the experience of running into a Venezuelan collector of Heliconias whom we had first met in Baeza on the opposite slope of the Andes.  Overnight in Santo Domingo de los Colorados opposite a bull-fighting ring which had a concert of local rock bands playing pre-Columbian-style tunes to a rock beat well into the wee hours.

Saturday, July 28

Tinalandia in the transition zone between subtropical (cloud forest) and tropical zones.  Good birding.  Tina is a very grand Russian lady who married locally and is the sister-in-law of the almost equally imposing proprietress of the Finca Garzon in Mindo.  Evening by the bridge at the foot of the Chiraboga Road looking (with limited success) for Cock-of-the- Rock, Torrent Duck and, of all things, Oilbird.  Overnight at Santo Domingo.

Sunday, July 29

Rio Palenque.  Excellent lowland tropical birding in a patch of the highly threatened lowland Pacific tropical forest.  Overnight back at Santo Domingo.

Monday, July 30

Santo Domingo-Rio Palenque-Guayaquil; except for a morning stop at Rio Palenque, almost entirely in farm country.  Overnight in Guayaquil.

Tueday, July 31

Santa Elena peninsula to the salinas or salt pans of Equasal.  Dry forest and scrub (Cerro Blanco area; Tumbesian endemics), coastal salt ponds, Pacific ocean.  Overnight in Guayquil.

Wednesday, August 1

Rick and Peter return home via Guayaquil airport.  Rest of expedition continues from Guayaquil back to Santo Domingo with stops at the Estantia Isaias on the wide savannah near Guayaquil, the ponds and rice paddies on the highway and, once again, Rio Palenque.  Mostly through farming areas but with patches of habitat including wetlands.  Overnight at Santo Domingo.

Thursday, August 2

Early morning at Tinalandia, then the Chiraboga Road back to Quito.  About 40 km from Quito, the Land Cruiser broke down.  There is an oil pumping station here (part of the pipeline coming from Lago Agrio in the Amazon) and the engineers there fixed us up.  But after only a km or two, the Cruiser broke down again and we had to turn it around (not an easy job on a narrow, rocky road) and roll back down again to the station--the only sign of habitation for miles around.  The engineers had no further suggestions but, with darkness closing in, another vehicle appeared.  Milagro!  It is a van commandered by another Van--i.e.  a countryman of Pieter, a Dutch biologist with a carload of birdwatchers in tow.  There was no room for us or our baggage but he agreed to take Fritz to the first town near Quito where Fritz could find someone with a pick-up who, for a consideration, would be willing to come back for us.  They went off and, with darkness gathering, the birds came out--the best flocks that we saw on the western mountains.  Fritz was a long time coming and, in desparation, we persuaded a fellow driving out in a pick-up--the only other vehicle to pass in all these long hours--to take us back toward Quito.  But no sooner had we climbed aboard than the long-awaited rescue truck appeared and we were eventually desposited at our hotel in Quito in time for some sleep.

Friday, August 3

4:30 wake-up, 7:15 flight to Miami and New York.  Eastern Airlines managed to take our bags--which accompanied us across mountain and jungle without a problem--and lose them between Miami and New York.  Two of them were eventually found at the airport; the third was delivered to us at home the next day.  Shortly thereafter Eastern went out of business.  TAME is, presumably, still flying to Coca.


This list follows the sequence and nomenclature of Sibley & Monroe.  465 species, not including White-eyed Hermit and Bluish Flower- piercer, species seen by Fritz Mueller on 8/2/90 ('F')

Total includes 5 species seen by Lorna Salzman only ('L'), and 3 species (Toucan Barbet, Buff-throated Woodcreeper and Nightingale Wren) recognized by voice only ('H')

Species not well seen but ID'd by other means (range, process of elimination, field marks well seen by others, etc) are marked ?; good candidates for group trip report but not for individual life list.  The group total was reputedly over 500 species; however I have never seen a final or combined trip report (to which this report was supposed to be a contribution)

Note: all dates given American style (mo/dy/yr)
Little, (Variable, Speckled) Chachalaca  (Ortalis motmot) seen from boat on the Rio Napo near the salada, 7/20,22/90
Common (Blue-throated) Piping-Guan  (Aburria [Pipile] pipile) two birds perched on bare limbs and well seen through the scope on La Selva trail, 7/23/90
(?) Torrent Duck  (Merganetta armata) one bird, very poorly seen in bad light at dusk, on river at foot of Chiraboga Rd, 7/28/90
White-cheeked Pintail  (A. bahamensis) good-sized flocks at the Equasal lagoons, 7/30/90
Speckled (Andean) Teal  (Anas andinus [flavirostris]) small flock at Papallacta Lake 7/15,19/90
Yellow-billed Pintail  (A. georgica [acuta]) small flock at Papallacta Lake, 7/19/90
Black-cheeked Woodpecker  (Melanerpes pucherani) several seen at Rio Palenque, 7/29,30, 8/1/90
Yellow-tufted Woodpecker  (M. cruentatus) family groups in open areas at or near La Selva, 7/22,24/90
Scarlet-backed Woodpecker  (Veniliornis callonotus) dry forest, Sta Elena peninsula (Cerro Blanco area), 7/31/90; Rio Palenque, 8/1/90
Bar-bellied Woodpecker  (V. nigriceps) in Polylepis forest just below Papallacta pass, 7/17/90 
Red-rumped Woodpecker  (V. kirkii) right outside dining area at Tinalandia, 7/28/90
Golden-olive Woodpecker  (Piculus rubiginosus) grounds of the Hotel Auca, Tena, 7/18,19/90; Tinalandia, Rio Palenque, 7/28,29/90
Spot-breasted Woodpecker  (Colaptes [Chrysoptilus] punctigula) cleared hill area overlooking Rio Napo near La Selva, 7/22/90
Chestnut Woodpecker  (Celeus elegans) several sightings at La Selva and on the Rio Napo, 7/22-25/90
Cream-colored Woodpecker  (C. flavus) at Mandicocha (Mandiyacu) opposite La Selva lodge; feeding pair, 7/24/90
Lineated Woodpecker  (Dryocopus lineatus) Baeza-Tena Rd, 7/18/90
Powerful Woodpecker  (Campephilus pollens) pair at mid-level trail near Chiraboga, 8/2/90; and well seen
Crimson-crested Woodpecker  (C. melanoleucos) pair at clearing near Rio Napo, 7/22/90; also 7/24/90 in an area near La Selva
Scarlet-crowned Barbet  (Capito aurovirens) La Selva, 7/24/90; pair (or adult and imm) observed at length (through scope) quietly feeding on tree fruits near Swallow-wing site
Orange-fronted Barbet  (C. squamatus) Tinalandia, Rio Palenque; many observations of males, 1 female; 7/28-30, 8/1/90
Black-spotted Barbet  (C. niger) fairly common at Tena (7/19) and La Selva, 7/22,24/90
Lemon-throated Barbet  (Eubucco richardsoni) well seen across river at Tena, 7/18, and at La Selva, 7/21,22/90
Red-headed Barbet  (E. bourcieri) well seen (m & f) at Tinalandia (7/28) and Rio Palenque, 8/1/90
(H) Toucan Barbet  (Semnornis ramphastinus) heard in the Mindo area, 7/26,27/90
(L)Crimson-rumped Toucanet  (Aulacorhynchus prasinus) seen by LS and others at Mindo, 7/27/90
Lettered Aracari  (Pteroglossus inscriptus) 1 or 2 birds seen at dawn on Mandicocha near the La Selva lodge, 7/22/90
Ivory-billed Aracari  (P. flavirostris) a few birds mixed in with the aforementioned ramphastid feeding flock, La Selva, 7/24/90
Chestnut-eared Aracari  (P. catanotis) one of 4 species feeding in a fruiting tree at dawn just at the dock at the far end of Mandicocha opposite the lodge at La Selva; perhaps as many as two dozen individuals were flying in and out, picking off fruits with their mighty beaks and, in general, providing us with one of the avian highlights of the trip; 7/24/90
Stripe-billed or Pale-mandibled Aracari  (Pteroglossus sanguineus or erythropygius) This is apparently the correct designation for this fairly common species of the western lowland tropics (Collared and Stripe-billed Aracaris are close relatives and perhaps conspecific); seen at Tinalandia and the bottom of the Chiraboga Road on 7/28 and 8/2/90.
Many-banded Aracari  (P. pluricinctus) La Selva, 7/24/90; the most numerous of the 4 species mentioned in the previous account
Golden-collared Toucanet  (Selenidera reinwardtii) a number of and the La Selva ramphastid feeding flock; good looks at these striking birds through the scope, 7/24/90
White-throated or Cuvier's Toucan  (R. tucanus or cuvieri) and/or Yellow-ridged Toucan (R. culminatus) probably (by sound) both species (there is an issue about the calls of these species)
Chestnut-mandibled Toucan  (Ramphastos swainsonii) Los Bancos-Sto Domingo Road, 7/27/90; Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
Rufous-tailed Jacamar  (G. ruficauda) fairly common at Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28-30/90
(?) White-chinned Jacamar  (Galbula tombacea) a controversial bird; perched at La Selva, 7/23/90 and examined at length in the scope and even photographed; front view at a steep angle against the light (undertail and bill color not well seen). José called it unequivocally a White-chinned Jacamar which we doubted because it had a lot more extensive white in the chin/throat area than these birds usually have (as seen, for example, by ES & LS in E Peru); more likely a Green-tailed or Yellow-billed Jacamar. 
Purplish (Bronzy) Jacamar  (G. chalcothorax [leucogastra]) single bird well seen at La Selva, 7/24/90; called Bronzy by Jose but no doubt the Purplish. Both species appear on the La Selva list but the Purplish is a split from the Bronzy and the two are probably allopatric or have only a very small overlap.
Collared Puffbird  (Bucco capensis) La Selva, 7/22/90
White-whiskered Puffbird  (Malacoptila panamensis) tame individual perched low and beautifully seen in the clearing at the Research Center building, Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
White-faced Nunbird  (Hapaloptila castanea) on the trail back of the lodge, La Selva, 7/21/90
Black-fronted Nunbird  (Monasa nigrifrons) trail off Rio Napo near La Selva, 7/22/90
Yellow-billed Nunbird  (M. flavirostris) trail off Rio Napo near La Selva, 7/22/90
Swallow-wing or Swallow-winged Puffbird  (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) pair prominently perched high and hawking insects, flycatcher style, by Rio Napo (near Ladder-tailed Nightjar site) near La Selva, 7/24/90.
Golden-headed Quetzal  (Pharomachrus auriceps) above Mindo, 7/27/90
White-tailed Trogon  (Trogon viridis) 2 or 3 sightings at La Selva; 7/22,24/90
Masked Trogon  (T. personatum) Mindo, 7/26/90; sleek turquoise head, darker around the face with a distinct eyering and a bright yellow bill, dark, purplish wings; the turquoise color of the head extending uniformly down the back and on to the tail; the distinct and uniform blue-green cast of the upper parts and the dark, unbarred appearance of the wings combined with the other features, all indicating Masked (not Collared) Trogon.
Rufous Motmot  (Baryphthengus ruficapillus [martii]) a number of observations at Rio Palenque, 7/29,30, 8/1/90
Ringed Kingfisher  (Ceryle torquata) most common kingfisher; La Selva, 7/21- 24/90; Sto Domingo Rd n. of Guayaquil, 8/1/90
Amazon Kingfisher  (Chloroceryle amazona) La Selva, 7/25/90
Green Kingfisher  (C. americana) La Selva (Mandiococha), 7/23/90; Sto Domingo Rd n. of Guayaquil, 8/1/90
Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher  (C. inda) La Selva (Mandiococha), 7/23/90; seen from canoe
Pigmy Kingfisher  (C. aenea) seen from canoe at Mandicocha, La Selva, 7/23/90; all 5 breeding South American kingfishers were seen on this lake on a single paddle
Squirrel Cuckoo  (Piaya cayana) widespread, east & west
Hoatzin  (Opisthocomus hoazin) common at La Selva, 7/21-24/90
Greater Ani  (Crotophaga major) common at La Selva near water, 7/21-24/90
Smooth-billed Ani  (C. ani) common in lowlands, east and west
Groove-billed Ani  (C. sulcirostris) common in western foothills and lowlands, 7/28-30/90
Striped Cuckoo  (Tapera naevia) common and conspicuous in cleared area at far edge of Rio Palenque forest, 7/29,30/90
Blue-and-Yellow Macaw  (Ara ararauna) pair flying across lake at La Selva, 7/21/90
Chestnut-fronted Macaw  (A. severa) small flocks in flight, Rio Napo, Rio Palenque, 7/25,29/90
White-eyed Parakeet  (Aratinga leucophthalmus) several flocks seen near Tena (7/18) and on the Rio Napo near La Selva, 7/22,24/90
Dusky-headed Parakeet  (A. weddellii) smallish numbers well seen on the Rio Napo salada near La Selva, 7/24/90
Dusky-billed Parrotlet  (Forpus sclateri) fairly common at La Selva, 7/21-23/90
Pacific Parrotlet  (F. coelestis) fairly to very common endemic in Western lowlands, particularly dry forest and scrub on Sta Elena peninsula (Cerro Blanco area), 7/30,31, 8/1/90
Cobalt-winged Parakeet  (Brotogeris cyanoptera) very common at La Selva and on adjacent Rio Napo, 7/21-24/90
Blue-headed Parrot  (Pionus menstruus) small numbers at La Selva (7/23,24) and Rio Palenque (perched bird on an open stump at Rio Palenque, 7/29/90)
Red-billed Parrot  (P. sordidus) in flight, Coca Falls, 7/19/90; red bills well seen
Bronze-winged Parrot  (P. chalcopterus) several flocks at Tinalandia, 7/28,8/2/90
Yellow-crowned Parrot or Amazon  (Amazona ochrocephala) fairly common (flocks) at the Rio Napo salada, 7/23,24/90
Scaly-naped Parrot or Amazon  (A. mercenaria) flocks in constant flight over Huacamayo Ridge, 7/19/90
Mealy Parrot or Amazon  (A. farinosa) very common at La Selva, particularly at the Rio Napo salada, 7/23,24/90
White-collared Swift  (Streptoprocne zonaris) very widespread from lowlands and foothills to high mountains
Short-tailed Swift  (Chaetura brachyura) Tena, La Selva, etc, 7/18,24/90
Fork-tailed Palm-Swift  (Reinarda squamata) fairly common at La Selva including over lodge, 7/22-24/90
Bronzy Hermit  (Glaucis aenea) Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
Pale-tailed Barbthroat  (Threnetes leucurus) La Selva, 7/24/909
White-whiskered Hermit  (Phaethornis yaruqui) seen at Tinalandia by Fritz Mueller, 8/2/90
Long-tailed Hermit  (P. superciliosus) La Selva (7/22,23) and Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
Lazuline Sabrewing  (Campylopterus falcatus) single bird perched at Huacamayo Ridge, 7/18/90
White-necked Jacobin  (Florisuga mellivora) single birds on two occasions at Rio Palenque, 7/30, 8/1/90
Brown Violetear  (Colibri delphinae) singing birds seen on Baeza-Tena and Nono- Mindo Roads, 7/18,26/90; persistently singing birds in loose 'leks' observed at length
Green Violetear  (C. thalassinus) individual birds seen singing from high perches on Nono-Mindo and Chiraboga Roads; common in loose 'leks' (by sound) on both roads, 7/26,8/2/90
Sparkling Violetear  (C. coruscans) common in and near Quito, 7/14- 16,21,etc/90
Green-breasted Mango  (Anthracothorax prevostii) on nest in heavy rain in parking lot of Hotal Saracay, Sto Domingo, 7/28,30; another seen in scrub on Sta Elena peninsula, 7/31/90
(?) Blue-chinned Sapphire  (Chlorestes notatus) bird seen perched in early morning light at Tena across the river from the hotel (reddish lower mandible tipped black, straight bill, dark squarish tail, greenish overall coloration, chin color dark) was presumably this species; 7/19/90 (illustrated in Birds of Venezuela, Plate 12)
Blue-tailed Emerald  (Chlorostilbon mellisugus) single bird seen perched at medium elevation off the Lago Agrio Road between Baeza and Papallacta; similar to preceding species but with a relatively short, straight, dark bill with slightly forked dark tail, 7/20/90
Violet-bellied Hummingbird  (Damophila julie) glittering in flowering bush next to gatekeeper's house at Rio Palenque, 7/30/90
Rufous-tailed Hummingbird  (Amazilia tzacatl) common at Tinalandia, Rio Palenque and elswhere in the western lowlands, 7/28-8/2/90
Amazilia Hummingbird  (A. amazilia) Tumbesian endemic, Sta Elena peninsula, 7/31/90
Speckled Hummingbird  (Adelomyia melanogenys) seen and heard in several locations on both the Chiraboga and Nono-Mindo Roads, 7/15,26, 8/2/90
Ecuadorian Hillstar  (Oreotrochilus chimborazo) and (or young(?) ) in several locations at Papallacta Pass, 7/16,17/90; birds commonly perched on open rocks and seemingly feeding on insects; not in Hilty & Brown
Shining Sunbeam  (Aglaeactis cupripennis) upper Nono-Mindo Road near Quito, 7/14; common near Papallacta Lake, 7/16,17/90
Collared Inca  (Coeligena torquata) upper Chiraboga & Nono-Mindo Rds, Huacamayo Ridge, Lago Agrio Rd, 7/15,17,18,20/90
Buff-winged Starfrontlet  (C. lutetiae) single bird well seen on track, n. side of Lago Agrio Road below Papallacta (Cuyuja area); cinnamon buff patch on wings very conspicuous, 7/17/90
Sword-billed Hummingbird  (Ensifera ensifera) spectacular sight on the Lago Agrio Road below Papallacta, 7/17/90
Buff-tailed Coronet  (Boissonneaua flavescens) single bird on trail, n. side of Lago Agrio Road below Papallacta (Cuyuja area), 7/20/90. This bird was originally called a Chestnut-breasted Coronet because the Buff-tailed was on our lists as a west slope bird; however the cinnamon-buff underwing linings were well seen along with the similarly colored undertail (the Chestnut-breasted is not pictured but the field marks as described are quite different). Note that both the Buff-winged Starfrontlet and the Buff-tailed Coronet are sometimes described as west slope birds in Ecuador but both are also listed as occurring in the Papallacta area.
Amethyst-throated Sunangel  (Heliangelus amethysticollis) Upper Chiraboga Road near Quito, 7/15/90; with other hummingbirds; not in forest but in brushy area in a damp ravine; narrow white chest crescent and no white on tail.
Tourmaline Sunagel  (H. exortis) Lago Agrio Road between Baeza and Papallacta, 7/20/90; like the Amethyst-Throated but with no white crescent; throat clearly rose-red
Glowing Puffleg (Eriocnemis vestitus) upper Chiraboga Road; after pass near San Juan Canal; perched in a shrub by the road; Lago Agrio Road below Papallacta, 7/15,17/90
Sapphire-vented (Long-tailed) Puffleg  (E. luciani) upper Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90; long forked tail well seen (near San Juan Canal)
Greenish Puffleg  (Haplophaedia aureliae) off Lago Agrio Road between Papallacta and Baeza, 7/17/90; smallish pufflegs noted
Booted Racket-tail  (Ocreatus underwoodii) Mindo-Sto Domingo Road, 7/27/90
Black-tailed Trainbearer  (Lesbia victoriae) several seen in central valley, Chiraboga and Papallacta Roads, 7/15-17/90
Green-tailed Trainbearer  (L. nuna) & seen in dry habitat at Pululagua Crater near Quito, 7/25/90
Viridian Metaltail  (Metallura williami) Papallacta Pass, 7/17/90; curiously we seem to have missed the Tyrian
Blue-mantled Thornbill  (Chalcostigma stanleyi) This bird precipitated a debate as to whether the prominent glittering throat strip was green or purple; it is, in fact, both with one color shading off into the other!; Papallacta Pass, 7/17/90
Long-tailed Sylph  (Aglaiocercus kingi) several observations at Huacamayo Ridge, 7/18/90
Violet-tailed Sylph  (A. coelestis) Nono-Mindo Road, 7/26/90
Purple-crowned Fairy  (Heliothryx barroti) near bottom of Chiraboga Road and atRio Palenque, 7/28,30/90
Black-eared Fairy  (H. aurita) Tena, 7/19, La Selva, 7/23/90
Short-tailed Woodstar  (Myrmia micrura) Tumbesian endemic, Sta Elena peninsula (Cerro Blanco), 7/31/90; perched at short range
Tropical Screech-Owl  (Otus choliba) Hotal Auca, Tena, heard and seen, 7/18,19/90
Crested Owl  (Lophostrix cristata) pair perched in broad daylight on open lower limb of tree in forest understory directly over trail near La Selva, 7/23/90
Spectacled Owl  (Pulsatrix perspicillata) heard nightly and well seen at La Selva, 7/21-23/90
Ferruginous Pigmy-Owl  (Glaucidium brasilianum) heard at Rio Palenque, 7/29/90; two seen in one day, 1 rufous phase, 1 brown, near Guayaquil (Estantia Isaias, Sto Domingo Road), 8/1/90
Great Potoo  (Nyctibius grandis) perched birds near La Selva, 7/23,24/90
Common Potoo  (N. griseus) single bird perched on an exposed stub over water near La Selva, 7/23/90
Short-tailed Nighthawk  (Lurocalis semitorquatus) a single bird of this species seen flying over lake in front of La Selva at dawn, 7/2//90
Lesser Nighthawk  (Chordeiles acutipennis) single bird active in daylight at the Estantia Isaias near Guayaquil; seen perched and flying at close range, 8/1/90
Pauraque  (Nyctidromus albicollis) heard and seen at the Hotel Auca, Tena, 7/18/90; common at La Selva by sound, 7/22-24/90
Ladder-tailed Nightjar  (Hydropsalis climacocerca) several seen on sandy shores of the Rio Napo near La Selva, 7/24/90
Rock Dove or Pigeon  (Columba livia) common only near habitations
Band-tailed Pigeon  (C. fasciata) found in mountain forests on both slopes, 7/15,18, etc; display flight observed at dusk, Chiraboga Road, c. 2500', 8/2/90
Pale-vented Pigeon  (C. cayennensis) Napo near La Selva, 7/23,24/90
Plumbeous Pigeon  (C. plumbea) the common pigeon at Tinalandia, 7/28/90, 8/2/90 
Ruddy Pigeon  (C. subvinacea) several records called into question by confusion with preceding species; at least 1 seen in flight at La Selva, 7/23/90, was this species
Eared Dove  (Zenaida auriculata) common everywhere in open highlands including Quito
Common Ground-Dove  (Columbina passerina) 2 or 3 sightings in central valley near Quito, 7/14,26/90
Equadorian Ground-Dove  (C. buckleyi) ground doves at Rio Palenque (7/29,30/90) were apparently this recently described species; also seen on Sta Elena peninsula (Cerro Blanco); this Tumbesian endemic is not illustrated or described in Hilty/Brown)
Croaking Ground-Dove  (C. cruziana) very common on Sta Elena peninsula and n. of Guayaquil (Estantia Isaias, Sto Domingo Road, 7/31,8/1/90); actually croaks
Black-winged Ground-Dove  (Metriopelia melanoptera) Pululagua Crater, 7/25/90
White-tipped Dove  (Leptotila verreauxi) fairly common in southwest, Sta Elena peninsula, n. of Guayaquil, 7/31/-8/1/90
(?) Pallid Dove  (L. pallida) A Leptotila dove in a forest patch at Tinalandia was likely this species (7/29/90)
Limpkin  (Aramus guarauna) 1 at Estantia Isaias near Guayaquil, 8/1/90
Common Moorhen (Gallinule)  (Gallinula chloropus) n. of Guayaquil, 8/1/90
(?) Noble (Paramo) or Andean Snipe  (Gallinago nobilis or G. jamesoni) 1 bird flushed twice in a boggy meadow at Papallacta Pass, 7/15/90
Whimbrel  (Numenius phaeopus) small numbers at the Equasal lagoons, both in the lagoons proper and on the beach, 7/31/90
Greater Yellowlegs  (T. melanoleuca) 1 well seen with Lesser Yellowlegs on pond n. of Guayaquil (Sto Domingo Road), 8/1/90
Lesser Yellowlegs  (T. flavipes) fairly common on Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90; also scattered on ponds n. of Guayaquil, 8/1/90
Solitary Sandpiper  (Tringa solitaria) single bird on open pond, Tinalandia, 7/28/90
Spotted Sandpiper  (Actitis macularia) 1 or 2, Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Willet  (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) fairly common all along the Equasal lagoons both in the lagoons proper and on the ocean side, 7/31/90
Ruddy Turnstone  (Arenaria interpres) small numbers, mostly on the beach opposite Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Short-billed Dowitcher  (Limnodromus griseus) a few at the Equasal lagoons (including 1 or 2 in alternate plumage), 7/31/90
Surfbird  (Aphriza virgata) several birds with Ruddy Turnstones on the beach opposite Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Sanderling  (C. alba) small numbers, mostly on the ocean beach, by the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Semipalmated Sandpiper  (C. pusilla) small numbers at the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90, together with the following species
Western Sandpiper  (C. mauri) small numbers at the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Least Sandpiper  (Calidris minutilla) a few on the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Wilson's Phalarope  (Phalaropus tricolor) a few at the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Wattled Jacana  (Jacana jacana) 1 at La Selva, 7/23/90; very common in Western lowlands, 7/30-8/1/90
American Oystercatcher  (Haematopus palliatus) several at the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Common or Black-necked Stilt  (Himantopus mexicanus) fairly common at Equasal lagoons; also n. of Guayaquil (ponds by Sto Domingo Road), 7/31- 8/1/90
Black-bellied or Gray Plover  (Pluvialis squatarola) single bird in non-breeding plumage, Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Snowy Plover  (Charadrius alexandrinus) many birds (very tame) at Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Pied Lapwing  (Hoploxypterus cayanus) pair on Rio Napo, 7/25/90
Andean Lapwing  (Vanellus resplendens) pair seen in freezing rain on marshy pond above Papallacta pass, 7/17/90
Gray Gull  (Larus modestus) small numbers at Salinas and the Equasal lagoons, 8/31/90
Gray-headed or -hooded Gull  (L. cirrocephalus) a few at Salinas, somewhat more common at the Equasal lagoons where it breeds (bird observed sitting on constructed stick or trash nest on sand spit or embankment at lagoons), 7/31/90
Gull-billed Tern  (Sterna [Gelochelidon] nilotica) fairly common at Equasal lagoons and apparently still breeding or with fledgling young, 7/31/90
Royal Tern  (S. maxima) fairly common at the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Yellow-billed Tern  (S. superciliaris) a few pairs patrolling the Rio Napo, 7/21,22,25/90
Osprey  (Pandion haliaetus) several seen at La Selva, 7/20-23/90
American Swallow-tailed Kite  (Elanoides forficatus) several seen over Eastern foothills, 7/17-18/90
Pearl Kite  (Gampsonyx swainsonii) one very tame individual perched low on a wire in the middle of town of Salinas, 7/31/90
Snail or Everglade Kite  (Rostrhamus sociabilis) quite common (in groups) n. of Guayaquil on Sto Domingo Rd, 8/1/90
Double-toothed Kite  (Harpagus bidentatus) one perched at La Selva on the oppposite side of the lake from the lodge, 7/23/90
Plumbeous Kite  (Ictinia plumbea) La Selva, 7/23/90
Barred (Black-chested) Hawk  (Leucopternis princeps) two birds soaring and calling over lower Chiraboga Rd, 8/2/90
Savanna Hawk  (Heterospizias meridionalis) quite a few birds at the Estantia Isaias near Guayaquil, 7/31-8/1/90
Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle  (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) several birds in flight near Papallacta Pass, 7/16,20/90
Harris' or Bay-winged Hawk  (Parabuteo unicinctus) Sta Elena peninsula and at Estantia Isaias near Guayaquil, 7/31-8/1/90
Grey-lined (Grey) Hawk  (Asturina [Buteo] nitidus) immature at Rio Palenque (perched), 7/29/90 
Roadside Hawk  (Buteo magnirostris) many locations in east and west (low and foothills); most common hawk seen
Red-backed Hawk  (B. polysoma) Quito, 7/14/90, Nono-Mindo Rd, 7/26,27/90
Puna Hawk  (B. poecilochrus) Papallacta, 7/16,20/90; identified by size and locality
Black Hawk-Eagle  (Spizaetus tyrannus) noisy group on trail near La Selva; perched immature well seen in scope, 7/24/90
Black-and-Chestnut Eagle  (Oroaetus isidori) 2 or more individuals soaring and perched on two different occasions at Cuyuja below Papallacta on the Lago Agrio Road, 7/17,20/90
Black (Yellow-throated) Caracara  (Daptrius ater) common at La Selva, especially around lodge, 7/21-24/90
Red-throated Caracara  (D. americanus) Rio Napo, 7/23,24/90
Carunculated Caracara  (Phalcoboenus carunculatus) 1 distant soaring bird at the Chiraboga Road pass, 7/15/90; 1 bird soaring right overhead and low, Papallacta Pass, 7/17/90
Crested Caracara  (Polyborus plancus) fairly common, west lowlands, 7/30- 8/1/90
Yellow-headed Caracara  (Milvago chimachima) La Selva, Napo River, 7/22,25/90
Laughing Falcon  (Herpetotheres cachinnans) two sightings at Rio Palenque including a pair seen calling, early morning, 7/29,30/90; also commonly heard at La Selva
Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon  (Micrastur mirandollei) one flew in low at dock opposite La Selva Lodge on the far side of the lake, 7/24/90; without facial markings, medium size
American Kestrel  (Falco sparverius) common in highlands and on West slope, 7/14-17,25-28/90
Least Grebe  (Podiceps dominicus) pair on pond north of Guayaquil on Sto Domingo Road, 8/1/90
Pied-billed Grebe  (Podilymbus podiceps) pair on pond north of Guayaquil on Sto Domingo Road, 8/1/90
Blue-footed Booby  (Sula nebouxii) common at Salinas, 7/31/90
Anhinga  (Anhinga anhinga) several locations, La Selva & Rio Napo, 7/22-24/90
Olivaceous or Neotropic Cormorant  (Phalacrocorax olivaceous) many locations between Rio Palenque, Guayaquil and Salinas, 7/29-8/1/90
Snowy Egret  (Egretta thula) a few in the Rio Napo/La Selva area; common in the southwest
Great Egret  (Casmerodius alba) same locations; somewhat more common
Cattle Egret  (Bubulcus ibis) 2 seen on the Rio Napo, 7/25/90; very common in western lowlands, 7/30-8/1/90
Striated Heron  (Butorides striatus) scattered individuals seen at La Selva and in southwest
Agami or Chestnut-bellied Heron  (Agamia agami) La Selva, 7/22/90
Rufescent Tiger-Heron  (Tigrisoma lineatum) La Selva, 7/22/90 (immature)
Zigzag Heron  (Zebrilus undulatus) immature at La Selva, 7/22/90
Brown Pelican  (Pelecanus occidentalis) common at Salinas and on Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Black Vulture  (Coragyps atratus) common to very common almost everywhere
Turkey Vulture  (Cathartes aura) common everywhere except Eastern lowlands
Greater Yellow-headed Vulture  (C. melambrotus) fairly common at La Selva, 7/20-24/90
Andean Condor  (Vultur gryphus) flyby on Eastern approach to Papallacta pass; fairly distant but well seen, 7/19/90
Magnificent Frigatebird  (Fregata magnificens) common at Salinas and Guayaquil
Sulphur-rumped or Tawny-breasted Flycatcher  (Myiobius barbatus or villosus) Rio Palenque, 7/29/90 (no eye ring, extensive tawny wash down to belly)
Cinnamon Flycatcher  (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea) common and easily seen a various montane locations: Chiraboga Road, 7/15, Lago Agrio Road, 7/17,18, Nono-Mindo Road, 7/26/90
Cliff Flycatcher  (Hirundinea ferruginea) 1 flying over the Lago Agrio Road between Baeza & Coca Falls and afterwards perched on a cliffside rock not far above the road, 7/19/90
Smoke-colored (Greater) Pewee  (Contopus fumigatus) easily found in exposed situations on both slopes, 7/15,17,19,26,27/90
Black Phoebe  (Sayornis nigricans) Invariable resident of mountain streams and rivers, east & west, 7/15,17-19,27,28,8/2/90
Vermilion Flycatcher  (Pyrocephalus rubinus) common near Quito, near Papallacta, Rio Palenque, western lowlands, 7/16,20,30,31,8/1/90; also in river park in Guayaquil
Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant  (O. cinnamomeiventris) the most beautiful of this group; very well seen in low bushes by the San Juan canal in the paramo areas of the upper Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90
Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant  (O. rufipectoralis) several observations in forested areas near Papallacta Pass (Cuyuja area), upper Chiraboga Road; 7/17,20,8/2/90 (other Chat-Tyrants occur in open areas)
Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant  (Ochthoeca fumicolor) easy to see in open areas on upper Chiraboga Road, Papallacta Pass, 7/15-17/90
Drab Water-Tyrant  (O. littoralis) pairs at regular intervals on the banks of the Napo, 7/22,24/90
Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant  (Myiotheretes striaticollis) 1 seen hunting in open area on upper Nono-Mindo Road, 7/26/90
Smoky Bush-Tyrant  (M. fumigatus) 1 flying over forest on upper Nono-Mindo Road, 7/14/90; group of c. 1/2 dozen actively feeding in trees in a partly forested area on the upper Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90
Plain-capped Ground-Tyrant  (Muscisaxicola alpina) 1 seen above Papallacta Pass in the snow! 7/17/90
Short-tailed Field-Tyrant  (Muscigralla brevicauda) 2 or 3 at the Estantia Isaias north of Guayaquil, 8/1/90
Masked Water-tyrant  (Fluvicola nengeta) several birds active and conspicuous at Tinalandia, 7/28; Rio Palenque, 7/30/90 
Cinnamon Attila  (Attila cinnamomeus) seen at La Selva, 7/22/90
Dusky-capped (Olivaceous) Flycatcher  (Myiarchus tuberculifer) small-sized Myiarchus at La Selva (7/24/90) would be this species; not as gray as phaeocephalus.
(?) Short-crested Flycatcher  (M. ferox) single bird at clearing near Rio Napo probably this species; dark brown, medium sized Myiarchus with dark bill, short crest, 7/22/90
Sooty-crowned Flycatcher  (M. phaeocephalus) distinctive Myiarchus (Tumbesian endemic) at the clearing around the Research Center at Rio Palenque, 7/29/90; very dark crown
Snowy-throated Kingbird  (Tyrannus niveigularis) 1 at clearing around the Research Center at Rio Palenque, 7/30/90
Tropical Kingbird  (T. melancholicus) Melancholicus is what birders are when they think they have seen something new and exciting and quickly discover otherwise. Everywhere except in the higher mountains.
Boat-billed Flycatcher  (Megarhynchus pitangua) La Selva, 7/22, Tinalandia, 7/28, Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
Lemon-browed Flycatcher  (Conopias cinchoneti) pair at Coca Falls, 7/19/90
Golden-crowned Flycatcher  (M. chrysocephalus) Nono-Mindo Road 7/14/90 (small boy had killed one with slingshot while another was calling persistently nearby); also at Coca Falls, 7/19/90
Streaked Flycatcher  (Myiodynastes maculatus) La Selva, 7/22-24/90; Rio Palenque, 7/29/90; also seen feeding young above Mindo, 7/27/90 (latter locality is high for this species)
Social (Vermilion-crowned) Flycatcher  (Myiozetetes similis) widespread in both east and west; 7/18,19,26,28,30,8/1/90
Lesser Kiskadee  (P. lictor) fairly common on backwaters at La Selva, 7/22,23/90
Great Kiskadee  (Pitangus sulphuratus) common around lodge at La Selva, 7/21- 24/90
Thrush-like Schiffornis (Mourner)  (Schiffornis turdinus) persistently calling bird located (with considerable effort) in underbrush at Huacamayo Ridge, 7/18/90. A great deal of argument about this bird which was 'oliveier' than the illustration in Hilty & Brown and supposedly out of range; however all other characters (including the wide-eyed look, uniform coloration, difficult to find low perch, voice and behavior) fit this species very well and there is a local race, aeneus in the east slope of the Andes in Ecuador, a subspecies described by Ridgely/Tudor as "mostly dark brownish olive below, with little or no gray tone"
Cinnamon Becard  (Pachyramphus cinnamomeus) flock near main house at Tinalandia, 7/28/90
One-colored Becard  (Platypsaris homochrous) seen several times at Rio Palenque in the clearing by the Research Center, 7/29,30/90
Black-tailed Tityra  (Tityra cayana) well seen ( & ) at La Selva, 7/22/90
Masked Tityra  (T. semifasciata) Baeza-Tena Road, Tinalandia, etc., 7/19,28/90; most common Tityra
Red-crested Cotinga  (Ampelion rubrocristatus) single bird seen perched by the upper Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90
Green-and-Black Fruiteater  (Pipreola riefferii) small group ( & ) feeding in tree crowns at Huacamayo Ridge, 7/18/90
Screaming Piha  (Lipaugus vociferans) calling bird well seen (in scope) in canopy on trail back of La Selva lodge, 7/21,22/90
Rufous Piha  (L. unirufous) active and well seen with forest flocks at Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
(?) Purple-throated Cotinga  (Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema) a 'Rose-breasted Grosbeak' seen on the trail near the Rio Napo salada at the same time as the Rusty-belted Tapaculo (and almost ignored in the excitement), was almost certainly this species.
Plum-throated Cotinga  (Cotinga maynana) one perched in the open on a bare branch by the Rio Napo, 7/24/90
Bare-necked Fruitcrow  (Gymnoderus foetidus) & well seen on trails near La Selva, 7/22,24/90
Purple-throated Fruitcrow  (Querula pupurata) small family group at medium height just back of lodge at La Selva; 2 or 3 birds flushed but one adult remained behind to shelter an apparent fledgling from the rain; 7/24/90
Andean Cock-of-the-Rock  (Rupicola peruviana) of the western subspecies seen flying (2 or 3 times) and perched over a stream near Mindo, 7/27/90
White-bearded Manakin  (Manacus manacus) Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
Orange-crested Manakin  (M. heterocercus) one perched out in the open over the La Selva boardwalk, 7/22/90
Collared Antshrike  (Sakesphorus bernardi) Tumbesian endemic on Sta Elena peninsula, 7/31/90; and easily seen
Lined Antshrike  (Thamnophilus palliatus) m & f at Tena across river from the Hotel Auca, 7/19/90
Slaty (Western Slaty) Antshrike  (T. punctatus) Rio Palenque 8/1/90
Cinereous Antshrike  (Thamnomanes caesius) La Selva, 7/23,24/90
Pigmy Antwren  (Myrmotherula brachyura) active group across river at Tena (7/19) and La Selva (7/24/90)
Streaked Antwren  (M. surinamensis) m & f well seen at Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28-30
(?) Checker-throated Antwren  (M. fulviventris) Tinalandia, 7/28/90; seen by LS
White-flanked Antwren  (M. axillaris) La Selva, 7/24, Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
Long-winged Antwren  (M. longipennis) well seen at La Selva, 7/22/90
Dot-winged Antwren  (Microrhopias quixensis) m & f seen at Rio Palenque, 7/29, 30/90; active in flocks
(?) Dusky Antbird  (Cercomacra tyrannina) a distinctly gray antbird with whitish belly and faint white markings on wings and tail, probably this species; Rio Palenque 7/29,8/1/90
Warbling Antbird  (Hypocnemis cantator) noisy groups across river from Hotel Auca, Tena (7/19) and La Selva (7/23/90)
Chestnut-backed Antbird  (Myrmeciza exul) common and easily seen (by whistling it in) at Rio Palenque, 7/29,8/1/90
Spot-backed Antbird  (Hylophylax naevia) La Selva, 7/22/90
Bar-winged Cinclodes  (C. fuscus) fairly common at and near Papallacta Pass, 7/16,17,20/90
Stout-billed Cinclodes  (Cinclodes excelsior) Papallacta Pass, 7/16/90; more than 1 individual
Pale-legged (Pacific) Hornero  (Furnarius cinnamommeus) common in Pacific lowlands, 7/26-8/2/90; oven nests easily seen at Tinalandia and elsewhere; may be separate species
Andean Tit-Spinetail  (Leptasthenura andicola) near Papallacta Pass 7/16/90
Azara's Spinetail  (Synallaxis azarae) Pululagua Crater near Quito, 7/25; also Nono-Mindo Road, 7/26/90
Slaty Spinetail  (S. brachyura) Rio Palenque, 7/29,30/90
Dark-breasted Spinetail  (S. albigularis) well seen at dawn across river at Tena, 7/19/90, in company with several mysterious uniformly gray birds (young of the species(?) )
(?) Rufous Spinetail  (S. unirufus) a dark rufous flyby, low across the upper Chiraboga Road, probably this species, 7/15/90
Necklaced Spinetail  (S. strictothorax) Tumbesian endemic in dry scrub, Sta Elena peninsula, 7/31/90; the bulky, globular nests commonly seen
Many-striped Canastero  (Asthenes flammulata) fairly common at Papallacta Pass, 7/16,17/90; all 'canasteros' observed by ES appeared to be this species except a bird with brown wings which was most likely the Andean Tit-Spinetail
Orange-fronted Plushcrown  (Metopothrix aurantiacus) whistled up and very well seen inside the forest on a Rio Napo trail near La Selva, 7/24/90
Pearled Treerunner  (Margarornis squamiger) below Papallacta (Cuyuga area); extended observations, 7/17/90
Point-tailed Palmcreeper  (Berlepschia rikeri) a stake-out at the Hotel Auca in Tena and on display for close looks, 7/18/90
(?) Striped Woodhaunter (Foliage-gleaner)  (Hyloctistes subulatus) single bird well seen, medium low, in dense tangle, Tinalandia, 7/28/90 (N.B.: Lineated Foliage-gleaner, although basically a mountain bird, has occurred at Tinalandia and I'm not sure I would know how to tell the difference)
Scaly-breasted (-throated [Spectacled]) 


(Anabacerthia variegaticeps) active and easily seen at eye-level in large mixed flocks above Mindo, 7/2/90
LSlaty-winged Foliage-gleaner  (Philydor fuscipennis) seen by LS and FM in active understory flock at Rio Palenque, 8/1/90
Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner  (Automolus ochrolaemus) seen at mid-level with same flock as preceding, Rio Palenque, 8/1/90
Black-tailed Leaftosser (Leafscraper)  (Sclerurus caudacutus) single bird at La Selva, 7/22/90, was presumably this species; possible alternatives are not known to occur at La Selva
Slender-billed Xenops  (Xenops tenuirostris) streaked Xenops at La Selva, 7/22/90, was presumably this species and not Streaked Xenops (which is not on the La Selva list)
Plain-brown Woodcreeper  (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) most frequently observed woodcreeper: La Selva, 7/23,24/90; Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28- 30/90 
Long-billed Woodcreeper  (Nasica longirostris) seen by ES & PJ at La Selva; large size, whitish underside, smallish head and base of large, light-colored bill well seen 
(?) Barred Woodcreeper  (Dendrocolaptes certhia) two observations of medium large birds with large bills and buffy throats at Rio Palenque, 7/29,30/90; most likely this species
Straight-billed Woodcreeper  (Xiphorhynchus picus) several at La Selva, 7/22,24/90 09 
HBuff-throated Woodcreeper  (X. guttatus) common by sound at Tena and La Selva
Streak-headed Woodcreeper  (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) West slope and lowlands to Sta Elena, 7/26-8/1/90
Spot-crowned Woodcreeper  (L. affinis) below Papallacta (Cuyuja, 7/17) and Chiraboga Road, 8/2/90
Red-billed Scythebill  (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
Black-headed Antthrush  (Formicarius nigricapillus) whistled in and, with a great deal of effort, fairly well seen at Rio Palenque where it seems to be common (by voice); 7/29/90
LStriated (Noble) Antthrush  (Chamaeza nobilis) La Selva, 7/23/90; seen by LS
Tawny Antpitta  (Grallaria quitensis) good looks out in the open at Papallacta Pass where it is common (by call), 7/15,16/90
Thrush-like Antpitta  (Myrmothera campanisona) La Selva, 7/23/90
Rusty-belted Tapaculo  (Liosceles thoracicus) whistled in (with considerable effort) and well seen, La Selva, 7/23/90 09
Red-eyed Vireo  (Vireo olivaceus) many observations including Nono-Mindo Road and Tinalandia, 7/27,28/90. Many, perhaps most of these birds show considerable amounts of yellow but they were undoubtedly all the resident or austral migrant form (chivi) of this species and not the Yellow-green Vireo.
Brown-capped Vireo  (V. leucophrys) many observations including Nono-Mindo Road, 7/26,27/90
Lemon-chested Greenlet  (Hylophilus thoracius) Rio Palenque, 7/30/90; this bird is not on the Rio Palenque list but the pale bill, light eye and pale yellow wash across the breast were well seen in comparison to the following
Lesser (Gray-headed) Greenlet  (H. decurtatus) common at Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28,30/90
Turquoise Jay  (Cyanolyca turcosa) Nono-Mindo Road, Lago Agrio Road (near Cuyuja), Chiraboga Road, 7/14,17,8/2/90. Note that Collared Jay often appears on trip reports for these localities but Ridgely gives these locations as prime sites for the Turquoise Jay and lists the Collared Jay as barely entering Ecuador in the north (it is not clear how these forms can be safely separated in the field but, on Ridgely's analysis, I am calling this common bird turcosa).
Violaceous Jay  (Cyanocorax violaceus) several observations at La Selva and environs, 7/21,22/90
Green Jay  (C. yncas) below Papallacta (Cuyuja area) and at Coca Falls; 7/17,19/90; this is a distinctive South American race in which the crown and nape are quite white
White-capped Dipper  (Cinclus leucocephalus) Nono-Mindo Road, 7/14/90; bottom of the Chiraboga Road, 7/28/90; observed at length (does not appear to go under water)
Black Solitaire  (Entomodestes coracinus) singing bird at dusk in a treetop at the Finca Garzon, Mindo; seen at length in scope, 7/26/90
Great Thrush  (Turdus fuscator) extremely common everywhere in the highlands including downtown Quito 
Glossy-black Thrush  (T. serranus) upper Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90
Black-billed Thrush  (T. ignobilis) common and easily seen everywhere in eastern lowlands (Tena, La Selva), 7/18,19,21-24/90
Long-tailed Mockingbird  (Mimus longicaudatus) common in the dry scrub of the Sta Elena peninsula and at the Estantia Isaias near Guayaquil, 7/31,8/1/90
Black-capped Donacobius (Mockingthrush)  (Donacobius atricapillus) several good observations at La Selva, 7/22-25/90
Band-backed Wren  (Campylorhynchus zonatus) well seen at Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28-30/90
Fasciated Wren  (C. fasciatus) well seen in dry scrub on the Sta Elena peninsula and at the Estantia Isaias north of Guayaquil; 7/31, 8/1/90
Rufous Wren  (Cinnycerthia unirufa) single bird seen on the upper Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90
Bay Wren  (Thryothorus nigricapillus) lower Nono-Mindo Road, Tinalandia, Rio Palenque, 7/27-30/90
Superciliated Wren  (T. superciliarus) Tumbesian endemic in dry scrub on Sta Elena peninsula and at the Estantia Isaias north of Guayaquil, 7/31, 8/1/90
(Southern) House Wren  (Troglodytes aedon [musculus]) very common and widespread in clearings and open areas up to the highest elevations
Mountain Wren  (T. solstitialis) below Papallacta (Cuyujo area), Mindo, 7/17,27/90
White-breasted Wood-wren  (Henichorhina leucosticta) very common (more heard than seen) at La Selva, 7/22,23/90
Gray-breasted Wood-wren  (H. leucophrys) often heard in mountain areas; finally seen on the Chiraboga Road, 8/2/90
HSouthern Nightingale Wren  (Microcerculus marginatus) heard often at La Selva (7/23) and Rio Palenque (7/29, 8/1/90)
Tropical Gnatcatcher  (Polioptila plumbea) very common and easily seen in dry scrub on the Sta Elena peninsula and at the Estantia Isaias north of Guayaquil, 7/30,31,/90
White-winged Swallow  (Tachycineta albiventer) common at La Selva and along the Rio Napo, 7/21-25/90
Brown-chested Martin  (Phaeoprogne tapera) Coca airport, 7/21,25/90
Gray-breasted Martin  (Progne chalybea) fairly common at La Selva, very common in the western lowlands, 7/22,29,8/1/90
Brown-bellied Swallow  (Notiochelidon murina) common in mountains; upper Chiraboga Road, Papallacta, etc, 7/15-17,20,25,8/2/90
Blue-and-White Swallow  (N. cyanoleuca) very common on both slopes as far down as Tinalandia, 7/14-20,25,27,28,8/2/90
White-banded Swallow  (Atticora fasciata) very common in eastern lowlands (Tena, La Selva, Rio Napo) 7/18,19,22,24,etc/90
White-thighed Swallow  (Neochelidon tibialis) Ministerio Road, Tinalandia, Rio Palenque, 7/18,19,28-30/90
Southern Rough-winged Swallow  (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) Ministerio Road, Tinalandia, Rio Palenque, etc, 7/18,19,28-30/90
Chestnut-collared Swallow  (Hirundo ruficollaris) very common and easy to see (hawking insects low over middle embankment) at the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
House Sparrow  (Passer domesticus) Sto Domingo (grounds of Hotel Saracay); also Guayaquil, 7/28,30/90
Paramo Pipit  (Anthus bogotensis) 2 birds in grass at the west end of Papallacta Lake, 7/20/90
Hooded Siskin  (Spinus [Carduelis] 

magellanicus [magellanica])

fairly common in highlands: Nono-Mindo & Chiraboga Roads, 7/14-16/90
Saffron Siskin  (S. [C.] siemiradzkii) small numbers of siskins in dry scrub, Sta Elena peninsula, were undoubtedly this rather rare endemic (Ridgely regards them as declining and 'at risk'). No other siskin is likely in this range and habitat. Birds seen were all in and/or juvenile plumage, 7/31/90
Rufous-collared Sparrow  (Zonotrichia capensis) everywhere at higher elevations including downtown Quito; 7/14-21,26,26/90
Orange-billed Sparrow  (Arremon aurantiirostris) well seen at Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28,29,8/2/90
Yellow-browed Sparrow  (Ammodramus aurifrons) Tena, Coca airport, 7/19,25/90
Pale-naped Brush-finch  (Atlapetes pallidinucha) Papallacta area, 7/17/90
Rufous-naped Brush-finch  (A. rufinucha) Papallacta area, 7/16/90
Tricolored Brush-finch  (A. tricolor) Mindo, Chiraboga Road, 7/26, 8/2/90 (one of last birds of trip)
Red-capped Cardinal  (Paroaria gularis) common and easy to see (even right around the lodge) at La Selva, 7/22-24/90
Tropical Parula  (Parula pitiayumi) many observations including Coca Falls, Mindo, Tinalandia, lower Chiraboga Road, etc. 7/19,26,28, 8/2/90
Slate-throated Redstart (Whitestart)  (Myioborus miniatus) common in mountains including Nono-Mindo Road, Cuyuja area below Papallacta, Huacamayo Ridge, Chiraboga Road, etc., 7/14,16-18,20,25,26,8/2/90
Spectacled Redstart (Whitestart)  (M. melanocephalus) Very common in mountains including Nono-Mindo Road, Cuyuja area below Papallacta, Huacamayo Ridge, Chiraboga Road, etc. 7/14,16-18,20,25,26,8/2/90
Golden-bellied Warbler  (Basileuterus chrysogaster) Tinalandia (forest area, in flock), 7/28/90
Citrine Warbler  (B. luteoviridis) below Papallacta (Cuyuja area), 7/20/90; active in flock
Black-crested Warbler  (B. nigrocristatus) several observations including Nono- Mindo Road, 7/14/90
Russet-crowned Warbler  (B. coronatus) fairly common in mountains including Nono-Mindo and Chiraboga Roads, Huacamayo Ridge and below Papallacta, 7/14,15,18,20,26/90
Three-striped Warbler  (B. tristriatus) midway trail near Chiraboga on the Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90
Buff-rumped Warbler  (B. fulvicauda) easily seen at Rio Palenque on trail just below Research Center, 7/29,30,8/1/90
Bananaquit  (Coereba flaveola) several locations including Baeza-Tena Road and Rio Palenque, 7/18-20,29,8/1/90, etc
Cinereous Conebill  (C. cinereum) upper Nono-Mindo Road (in fields); also near Papallacta, 7/14,17/90
Blue-backed Conebill  (Conirostrum sitticolor) active group in a large mixed flock at side trail below Papallacta (Cuyuja area), 7/17/90
Capped Conebill  (C. albifrons) near Papallacta (Cuyuja area) and mid-level on Chiraboga Road, 7/19,8/2/90
Giant Conebill  (Oreomanes fraseri) easily found in Polylepis on west side of Papallacta Pass in a small, active flock, 7/15/90
Magpie Tanager  (Cissopis leveriana) Baeza-Tena and Ministerio Roads, La Selva, 7/18,22,24/90
Grass-green Tanager  (Chlorornis riefferii) spectacular views of small flock from close up, Huacamayo Ridge, 7/18/90; also one of the last birds of the trip, with small mixed flock at dusk on the Chiraboga Road as we awaited rescue from our breakdown, 8/2/90
Yellow-whiskered (Short-billed) Bush-tanager  (C. parvirostris) mapped as South Ecuador only by Ridgely but occurs on east slope of the Andes in Colombia at least to 2500m; distinctive flaring and sharply delineated mustard throat markings seemed clear enough; Cuyuja area below Papallacta, 7/17/90 (admittedly high)
Yellow-throated Bush-tanager  (Chlorospingus flavigularis) quite common at Huacamayo Ridge (7/18), Tinalandia (7,28), Chiraboga Road, 8/2/90
Ashy-throated Bush-tanager  (C. canigularis) Tena-Baeza Road, 7/19, Tinalandia, 7/28/90
Gray-hooded Bush-tanager  (Cnemoscopus rubrirostris) gray hood, pink bill, yellow below; on the upper Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90
Supercialiaried Hemispingus  (Hemispingus superciliaris) common in flocks below Papallacta (Cuyuja area on trail north of Agrio Road), 7/17/90; also upper Chiraboga Road, 7/15/90
Rufous-chested Tanager  (Thlypopsis ornata) Nono-Mindo Road, 7/26/90; Chiraboga Road, 8/2/90
Dusky-faced Tanager  (Mitrospingus cassinii) fairly common at both Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28-30,8/2/90
White-shouldered Tanager  (Tachyphonus luctuosus) a few seen at Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28,29/90
White-lined Tanager  (T. rufus) 1 fairly well seen at Tinalandia (in flight showing white linings); 7/28/90
White-winged Tanager  (Piranga leucoptera) Tena-Baeza Road, 7/19/90 and again at Tinalandia, 7/28/90 
Vermilion Tanager  (Calochaetes coccineus) Coca Falls, 7/19/90
Masked Crimson-tanager  (Ramphocelus nigrogularis) common at La Selva, 7/21- 24/90
Silver-beaked Tanager  (R. carbo) common in eastern lowlands (Tena, La Selva) 7/18,19,21-25/90
Flame- (Lemon- or Yellow-) rumped Tanager  (R. flammigerus) ultra-common in western lowlands starting downhill from Mindo and including Tinalandia and Rio Palenque; 7/27-30,8/2/90
Blue-gray Tanager  (Thraupis episcopus) very common and familiar except in high mountains
Palm Tanager  (T. palmarum) very common in many of the same localities as preceding
Blue-capped Tanager  (T. cyanocephala) Nono-Mindo, Chiraboga Roads, 7/14,15,26/90
Hooded Mountain-Tanager  (Buthraupis montana) Cuyuja area near Papallacta, 7/17, 18/90; also Nono-Mindo road where we were offered dead birds of this species and Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager which a local peasant had netted
Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager  (A. lacrymosus) near Cuyuja in the Papallacta area (trail north of Lago Agrio Road, 7/17/90
Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager  (Anisognathus igniventris) Papallacta area, Nono-Mindo & Chiraboga Roads, 7/15,25,26,8/2/90; usually in small flocks
Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager  (A. flavinucha) the most common and easily seen of the mountain-tanagers; Nono-Mindo and Chiraboga Roads, 7/14,26,8/2/90
Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager  (Dubusia taeniata) Cuyuja area near Papallacta in same flock as preceding species; frosty eye-stripe well seen; 7/17/90
Fawn-breasted Tanager  (Pipraeidea melanonota) pair at the entrance road to Tinalandia, 8/2/90
Thick-billed Euphonia  (E. laniirostris) La Selva and Tinalandia, 7/24,28/90
Golden-rumped (Blue-hooded) Euphonia  (Euphonia cyanocephala [musica]) central valley (in and near Quito), 7/12/90; below Papallacta (Cuyuja area), 7/17/90; this is a subspecies of a widespread superspecies; if it is split (as Golden-rumped) then it is a life-bird.
White-lored (Golden-bellied) Euphonia  (E. chrysopasta) single bird, feeding high, quite well seen at clearing by the La Selva dock on the Rio Napo, 7/22/90
Orange-bellied Euphonia  (E. xanthogaster) many observations including Coca Falls, Cuyuja area, Nono-Mindo Road, etc. 7/19-21,27, etc/90; far and away the most common Euphonia seen
Glistening-green Tanager  (C. phoenicotis) well seen at Tinalandia and Rio Palenque, 7/28,29/90
Orange-eared Tanager  (Chlorochrysa calliparaea) flock crossing the Baeza-Tena Road and again on the Ministerio Road, 7/18,19/90; not in deep forest
Turquoise Tanager  (Tangara mexicana) Tena-Baeza Road, 7/19/90; in flock
Gray-and-Gold Tanager  (T. palmeri) 1 at Tinalandia, 7/28/90
Paradise Tanager  (T. chilensis) with Orange-eared and other tanagers in open, bushy country and in open-area treetops, Tena-Baeza Road, 7/18,19/90
Golden Tanager  (T. arthus) very common in many lower montane localities including Tena-Baeza, Nono-Mindo & Chiraboga Roads and Tinalandia, 7/19,26-28/90
Saffron-crowned Tanager  (T. xanthocephala) below Papallacta (Cuyujo area, 7/17) and Tena-Baeza Road (Huacamayo Ridge, 7/19/90)
Flame-faced Tanager  (T. parzudakii) Baeza-Tena Road, 7/18/90 

Yellow-bellied Tanager  (T. xanthogastra) La Selva, 7/22/90
Spotted Tanager  (T. guttata) Lago Agrio Road between Papallacta and Baeza ('Toucanet' site) and Tena-Baeza Road, 7/17,19/90
Bay-headed Tanager  (T. gyrola) Mindo, Tinalandia, at river below Tinalandia, 7/27,28,8/2/90
Golden-naped Tanager  (T. rufivertex) Nono-Mindo Road, 7/26/90
Blue-necked (Blue-naped) Tanager  (T. cyanicollis) many observations including Baeza-Tena Road, Nono-Mindo Road, Tinalandia & Rio Palenque, 7/18,27,28, 8/1,2/90 
Beryl-spangled Tanager  (T. nigroviridis) Lago Agrio Road between Papallacta and Baeza ('Toucanet site'), 7/17/90 
Blue-and-Black Tanager  (T. vassorii) below Papallacta (Cuyuja area, 7/17) and on Nono-Mindo Road, (7/26/90)
Black-faced Dacnis 

[Yellow-tufted Dacnis]

(Dacnis lineata) 

[D. egregia)]

several birds at river below Tinalandia, 8/2/90; this is the western form of a wide- spread superspecies that may or may not be specifically distinct.
Blue Dacnis  (D. cayana) western subspecies at Tinalandia, 7/28/90
Green Honeycreeper  (Chlorophanes spiza) & observed a number of times at La Selva, Rio Palenque and Tinalandia, 7/21m8/1,2/90
Short-billed Honeycreeper  (Cyanerpes nitidus) La Selva, 7/24/90
Purple Honeycreeper  (C. caeruleus) Rio Palenque, 7/29/90
Swallow Tanager  (Tersina viridis) active on the Rio Napo near La Selva, 7/22; Rio Palenque 8/1/90
Crimson Finch-Tanager  (Rhodospingus cruentus) single at Estantia Isaias near Guayaquil; small flock of m & f at Rio Palenque, both on 8/1/90; a Tumbesian endemic
Plumbeous Sierra-finch  (Phrygilus unicolor) a 'trash' bird! seen feeding on trash at Papallacta Pass, 7/16,17/90
Ash-breasted Sierra-finch  (P. plebejus) singing bird on bush on way up to Papallacta Pass (Quito side), 7/16/90
Saffron Finch  (Sicalis faveola) small yellowish finch at Coca airport may have been of this species, 7/25/90 (m of other seedeaters or grassquits are not usually this yellow; Saffron Finch is widely introduced in many places where it is not native)
Grassland Yellow-finch  (Sicalis luteola) flocks in grasslands on way up to Papallacta (Quito side), 7/16,17/90
Blue-back Grassquit  (Volatinia jacarina) Coca airport, Rio Palenque, 7/25,29/90
Variable Seedeater  (Sporophila americana) Tinalandia, Rio Palenque, 7/28,29/90
(H) Lesson's Seedeater  (S. bouvronides) Black-and-white seedeaters with distinctive broad white malar patch (clearly separated by black) were present in tall grass in sand bank by the Rio Napo (near Ladder-tailed Nightjar site).
Yellow-bellied Seedeater  (S. nigricollis) Coca, Tinalandia, Rio Palenque, 7/25,28,29/90
Parrot-billed Seedeater  (S. peruviana) dry scrub on the Sta Elena peninsula, 7/31/90
Chestnut-belled Seedeater  (S. castaneiventris) Ministerio Road, Tena, Coca, 7/18,19,25/90
Lesser Seed-finch  (Oryzoborus angolensis) Tena (grounds of Hotel Auca; La Selva; 7/19.24/90
Band-tailed Seedeater  (C. analis) upper Nono-Mindo Road in open grassy areas (with Cinereous Conebills), 7/14/90
Plain-colored Seedeater  (C. inornata) upper Chiraboga Road in high open areas, 7/15/90; also Papallacta Pass area
Paramo Seedeater  (Catamenia homochroa) above Papallacta Pass in the snow, 7/17/90
(?) Rusty (Slaty) Flower-piercer  (Diglossa sittoides) poorly seen near Papallacta Pass, 7/17/90
White-sided Flower-piercer  (D. albilatera) pretty much the same dates and locations as the preceding: Nono-Mindo & Chiraboga Roads, Cuyuja area near Papallacta, 7/14-16,26,28/90
(?) Glossy Flower-piercer  (D. lafresnayii) Quite a few arguments about this bird! At least two glossy birds with largish light shoulder patches and, in at least one case, a long, pleasant, extended warble, were likely this form; Nono-Mindo Road, 7/14 and again 7/26/90
Black (Carbonated) Flower-piercer  (D. humeralis) much more common than the preceding; sometimes all black, sometimes with smallish gray shoulder patches; a number of high locations including Nono-Mindo and Chiraboga Roads and Cuyuja area near Papallacta; 7/14-16,26/90
Deep-blue Flower-piercer  (D. glauca) this striking flower-piercer was at eye level in a bush in an open area by the cabins at Coca Falls, 7/19/90 
(F)Bluish Flower-piercer  (D. caerulescens) found by Fritz Mueller, mid-level Chiraboga Road, 8/2/90
Golden-bellied (Southern Yellow) Grosbeak  (Pheucticus chrysogaster) very common in higher mountains, east and west, 7/14-17,20,25/90
Black-backed Grosbeak  (P. aureoventris) village of Mindo, 7/26/90
Slate-colored (Slaty) Grosbeak  (Pitylus grossus) Tinalandia, 7/28/90; very well seen (whistled in) in forest
Buff-throated Saltator  (Saltator maximus) La Selva, Tinalandia, Rio Palenque, 7/21m28-30,8/1/90
Black-winged Saltator  (S. atripennis) lower Chiraboga Road (near bottom), 7/28/90
Grayish Saltator  (S. coerulescens) Tena, across river from Hotel Auca, 7/19/90
Crested Oropendola  (Psarocolius decumanus) La Selva, 7/24/90
Russet-backed Oropendola  (P. angustifrons) very common at La Selva (and constantly heard), 7/21-24/90
Band-tailed Oropendola  (Ocyalus latirostris) single bird seen perched on tree from hill clearing near Rio Napo, 7/22/90; observed carefully in scope; all black-appearing with light eye and bill and unique yellow patch under tail (not extending to vent or crissum); lower part of tail black; no yellow shoulder patch; see Ridgely/Tudor, V. 1, Pl 23, #6
Yellow-rumped Cacique  (Cacicus cela) very common at La Selva, 7/21-24/90; also seen in western lowlands
Scarlet-rumped Cacique  (C. uropygialis) 2 or 3 birds feeding in canopy, Rio Palenque, 7/29/90; all-black appearing until flight
Mountain Cacique  (C. leucoramphus) below Papallacta (Cuyuja area) and Huacamayo Ridge, 7/17,18,20/90
(?) Ecuadorian Black Cacique  (C. sclateri) La Selva, 7/23/90; black with brownish tinge, light bill and eye; foraging inside forest; not likely to have been anything else
Moriche Oriole  (Icterus chrysocephalus) La Selva, 7/24/90
Yellow-tailed Oriole  (I. mesomelus) common at Rio Palenque, 7/30, 8/1/90
White-edged Oriole  (I. graceannae) Tumbesian endemic in dry forest on Sta Elena peninsula, 7/31/90
Oriole Blackbird  (Gymnomystax mexicanus) Napo River near La Selva, 7/25,25/90
Red-breasted Blackbird  (Leistes militaris) Coca airport, 7/21/90
Peruvian (Red-breasted) Meadowlark  (Sturnella bellicosa) at waterhole in dry area of Sta Elena peninsula; also on an embankment at the Equasal lagoons, 7/31/90
Scrub Blackbird  (Dives warszewiczi) common in western lowlands even in Guayaquil itself (park by river); 7/30-8/2/90
Great-tailed Grackle  (Quiscalus mexicanus) several seen north of Guayaquil, 7/30,8/1/90
Shiny Cowbird  (Molothrus bonariensis) a fairly large flock at Tinalandia, 7/28/90; also elsewhere
Giant Cowbird  (Scaphidura oryzivora) tame specimen in garden of Hotel in Coca, 7/25/90; also seen at La Selva and elsewhere


        Clements, J. F., 1978, Birds of the World: A Check List. New York, NY: Two
Continents Publishing Group.

        Dunning, J. S., 1982. South American Land Birds: A Photographic Guide to Identification. Newtown Square, Pa.: Harrowood Books.

        -------------., 1987. South American Birds: A Photographic Guide to Identification. Newtown Square, Pa.: Harrowood Books.

        Hilty, S. L. and W. L. Brown, 1986. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

        Isler, M. L., and P. R. Isler, 1987. The Tanagers: Natural History, Distribution, and Identification. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

        Meyer de Schauensee, R., and W. H. Phelps, Jr. 1978. A Guide to the Birds of Venezuela. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

        Parker, T. A.,III, S. A. Parker, and M. A. Plenge, 1982. An Annotated Checklist of Peruvian Birds. Vermilion, South Dakota: Buteo Books.

        Ridgeley, R. S. 1976. A Guide to the Birds of Panama. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

        Ridgeley, R. S. and G. Tudor, 1989. The Birds of South America, v. I: The Oscine Passerines. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas Press

        ----------------------------, 1994. The Birds of South America, v. II: The Suboscine Passerines. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas Press.

        Sibley, C. G., and B. L. Monroe, Jr., 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the world. New Haven: Yale University Press.

      ------------------------------------, 1993. A Supplement to Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. New Haven: Yale University Press.

also several unpublished checklists and site guides

Eric Salzman
29 Middagh Street
Brooklyn, NY 11201
Phone & Fax: 718 522-6138

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